War in Darfur: Difference between revisions

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{{main|International response to the Darfur conflict#Declarations of genocide}}
 
{{main|International response to the Darfur conflict#Declarations of genocide}}
   
On [[September 18]], [[2004]], the [[United Nations Security Council Resolution 1564|UN Security Council passed Resolution 1564]], which called for a [[Commission of Inquiry on Darfur]] to assess the Sudanese conflict. The UN report released on [[January 31]], [[2005]] stated that while there were mass murders and rapes, they could not label it as genocide because "genocidal intent appears to be missing".<ref>[http://www.un.org/News/dh/sudan/com_inq_darfur.pdf Report of the International Commission of Inquiry on Darfur to the United Nations Secretary-General], 18 September 2004</ref><ref>[http://www.cbc.ca/story/world/national/2005/02/01/newdarfur-report050201.html Sudan's mass killings not genocide: UN report], [[CBC News]], [[1 February]] [[2005]]</ref>
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On [[September 14]], [[2008]], the [[United Nations Security Council Resolution 1564|UN Security Council passed Resolution 1564]],help by myspace which called for a [[Commission of Inquiry on Darfur]] to assess the Sudanese conflict. The UN report released on [[January 31]], [[2005]] stated that while there were mass murders and rapes, they could not label it as genocide because "genocidal intent appears to be missing".<ref>[http://www.un.org/News/dh/sudan/com_inq_darfur.pdf Report of the International Commission of Inquiry on Darfur to the United Nations Secretary-General], 18 September 2004</ref><ref>[http://www.cbc.ca/story/world/national/2005/02/01/newdarfur-report050201.html Sudan's mass killings not genocide: UN report], [[CBC News]], [[1 February]] [[2005]]</ref>
   
 
To address the dire human rights and humanitarian emergency in Darfur, the United Nations has taken several steps, but all of these have been frustrated by the Government of the Sudan with the support of a number of other governments, including Egypt and Algeria.
 
To address the dire human rights and humanitarian emergency in Darfur, the United Nations has taken several steps, but all of these have been frustrated by the Government of the Sudan with the support of a number of other governments, including Egypt and Algeria.

Revision as of 15:52, 13 April 2008

War in Darfur
Darfur refugee camp in Chad.jpg
Darfur refugee camp in Chad
Date 2003–present
Location Darfur
Status Conflict ongoing; humanitarian catastrophe (est. 200,000-400,000 dead and 2,500,000 displaced). A significant percentage of those commiting the genocide have declared victory in their region.
Belligerents
JEM factions
NRF alliance
UNAMID Janjaweed
 Sudan
SLM (Minnawi)
Commanders and leaders
Ibrahim Khalil
Ahmed Diraige
Martin Luther Agwai Omar al-Bashir
Minni Minnawi
Strength
N/A 9,000 N/A

The War in Darfur (called by the United States Government[1], the Darfur Genocide) is a military conflict in the Darfur region of western Sudan. Unlike the Second Sudanese Civil War, the current lines of conflict are seen to be ethnic and tribal, rather than religious.[2] One side of the armed conflict is composed mainly of the Sudanese military and the Janjaweed, a militia group recruited mostly from the Arab Baggara tribes of the northern Rizeigat, camel-herding nomads. The other side comprises a variety of rebel groups, notably the Sudan Liberation Movement and the Justice and Equality Movement, recruited primarily from the land-tilling non-Arab Fur, Zaghawa, and Massaleit ethnic groups. The Sudanese government, while publicly denying that it supports the Janjaweed, has provided money and assistance to the militia and has participated in joint attacks targeting the tribes from which the rebels draw support.[3] The conflict began in February of 2003.

The combination of decades of drought, desertification, and overpopulation are among the causes of the Darfur conflict, because the Baggara nomads searching for water have to take their livestock further south, to land mainly occupied by non-Arab farming communities.[4]

There are many casualty estimates, most concurring on a range within the hundreds of thousands. The United Nations (UN) estimates that the conflict has left as many as 200,000 dead from violence and disease.[5] Most non-governmental organizations use 200,000 to more than 400,000; the latter is a figure from the Coalition for International Justice.[6] Sudan's government claims that over 9,000 people have been killed, although this figure is seen as a gross underestimate.[7][8] As many as 2.5 million are thought to have been displaced as of October 2006. [9] (see Counting deaths section, below).

The Sudanese government has suppressed information by jailing and killing witnesses since 2004 and tampered with evidence such as mass graves to eliminate their forensic values[10][11][12] In addition, by obstructing and arresting journalists, the Sudanese government has been able to obscure much of what has gone on.[13][14][15][16] The United States government has described it as genocide,[17] although the UN has not done so (see List of declarations of genocide in Darfur). In March 2007 the UN mission accused Sudan's government of orchestrating and taking part in "gross violations" in Darfur and called for urgent international action to protect civilians there.

After fighting worsened in July and August, on August 31, 2006, the United Nations Security Council approved Resolution 1706 which called for a new 17,300-troop UN peacekeeping force called UNAMID to supplant or supplement a poorly funded and ill-equipped 7,000-troop African Union Mission in Sudan peacekeeping force. Sudan strongly objected to the resolution and said that it would see the UN forces in the region as foreign invaders. The next day, the Sudanese military launched a major offensive in the region. (See New proposed UN peacekeeping force)

List of abbreviations used in this article

AU: African Union
DLF: Darfur Liberation Front
IDP: Internally Displaced Person
JEM: Justice and Equality Movement
NRF: National Redemption Front
SLA: Sudan Liberation Army
SLM: Sudan Liberation Movement
SPLA: Sudan People's Liberation Army
UN: United Nations
UNAMID: United Nations African Union Mission in Darfur
UNSC: United Nations Security Council

Background

The conflict taking place in Darfur has many interwoven causes. While rooted in structural inequality between the center of the country around the Nile and the 'peripheral' areas such as Darfur, tensions were exacerbated in the last two decades of the twentieth century by a combination of environmental calamity, non-sustainable fast population growth, desertification, political opportunism and regional politics[18]. On June 16, 2007, UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon released a statement in which he proposed that the slaughter in Darfur was caused "at least in part from climate change", and that it "derives, to some degree, from man-made global warming".[19] "The scale of historical climate change, as recorded in Northern Darfur, is almost unprecedented: the reduction in rainfall has turned millions of hectares of already marginal semi-desert grazing land into desert. The impact of climate change is considered to be directly related to the conflict in the region, as desertification has added significantly to the stress on the livelihoods of pastoralist societies, forcing them to move south to find pasture," the UNEP report states.[20]

A point of particular confusion has been the characterization of the conflict as one between 'Arab' and 'African' populations, a dichotomy that one historian describes as "both true and false".[21][22]

In the late fourteenth or early fifteenth century, the Keira dynasty of the Fur people of the Marrah Mountains established a sultanate with Islam as the state religion. The sultanate was conquered by the Turco-Egyptian force expanding south along the Nile, which was in turn defeated by the Muhammad Ahmad, the self-proclaimed Mahdi. The Mahdist state collapsed under the onslaught of the British force led by Herbert Kitchener, who established an Anglo-Egyptian co-dominium to rule Sudan. The British allowed Darfur de jure autonomy until 1916 when they invaded and incorporated the region into Sudan.[23] Within Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, the bulk of resources were devoted toward Khartoum and Blue Nile Province, leaving the rest of the country relatively undeveloped.

The inhabitants of the Nile Valley, which had received the bulk of British investment, continued the pattern of economic and political marginalization after independence was achieved in 1956. In the 1968 elections, factionalism within the ruling Umma Party led candidates, notably Sadiq al-Mahdi, to try to split off portions of the Darfuri electorate either by blaming the region's underdevelopment on the Arabs, in the case of appeals to the stationary peoples, or by appealing to the Baggara semi-nomads to support their fellow Nile Arabs. This Arab-African dichotomy, which was not an indigenously developed way of perceiving local relations, was exacerbated after Libyan President Muammar al-Gaddafi became focused on establishing an Arab belt across the Sahel and promulgated an ideology of Arab supremacy.[24] As a result of a sequence of interactions between Sudan, Libya and Chad from the late 1950s through the 1980s, including the creation of the Libyan-supported Islamic Legion, Sudanese President Gaafar Nimeiry established Darfur as a rear base for the rebel force led by Hissène Habré, which was attempting to overthrow the Chadian government and was also anti-Gaddafi.[25]

In 1983 and 1984, the rains failed and the region was plunged into a famine.[26] The famine killed an estimated 95,000 people out of a population of 3.1 million. Nimeiry was overthrown on 5 April 1985, and Sadiq al-Mahdi came out of exile, making a deal with Gaddafi, which al-Mahdi did not honor, to turn over Darfur to Libya if he was supplied with the funds to win the upcoming elections.[27]

In early 2003, two local rebel groups — the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) and the Sudan Liberation Movement (SLM)[28] — accused the government of oppressing non-Arabs. The SLM, which is much larger than the JEM, is generally associated with the Fur and Masalit, as well as the Wagi clan of the Zaghawa, while the JEM is associated with the Kobe clan of Zaghawa. Later that year, leaders of both groups, the Sudanese Government and representatives of the International diplomatic community were brought together in Geneva by the Center for Humanitarian Dialogue to look at ways of addressing the humanitarian crisis. In 2004, the JEM joined the Eastern Front, a group set up in 2004 as an alliance between two eastern tribal rebel groups, the Rashaida tribe's Free Lions and the Beja Congress. The JEM has also been accused of being controlled by Hassan al-Turabi.

On January 20, 2006, SLM declared a merger with the Justice and Equality Movement to form the Alliance of Revolutionary Forces of West Sudan. However, in May of that year, the SLM and JEM were again negotiating as separate entities.

Timeline

A rebellion started in 2003 against the Arab-dominated Sudanese government, with two local rebel groups - the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) and the Sudanese Liberation Army (SLA) - accusing the government of oppressing non-Arabs in favor of Arabs. The government was also accused of neglecting the Darfur region of Sudan. In response, the government mounted a campaign of aerial bombardment supporting ground attacks by an Arab militia, the Janjaweed. The government-supported Janjaweed were accused of committing major human rights violations, including mass killing, looting, and systematic rape of the non-Arab population of Darfur. They have frequently burned down whole villages, driving the surviving inhabitants to flee to refugee camps, mainly in Darfur and Chad; many of the camps in Darfur are surrounded by Janjaweed forces. By the summer of 2004, 50,000 to 80,000 people had been killed and at least a million had been driven from their homes, causing a major humanitarian crisis in the region.

On September 18, 2004, the UN Security Council passed Resolution 1564, which called for a Commission of Inquiry on Darfur to assess the Sudanese conflict. On January 31, 2005, the UN released a 176-Page report saying that while there were mass murders and rapes, they could not label it as genocide because "genocidal intent appears to be missing".[29] [30] Many activists, however, refer to the crisis in Darfur as a genocide, including the Save Darfur Coalition and the Genocide Intervention Network. These organizations point to statements by former U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell, referring to the conflict as a genocide. Other activists organizations, such as Amnesty International, while calling for international intervention, avoid the use of the term genocide.

In May 2006 the main rebel group, the Sudanese Liberation Movement, agreed to a draft peace agreement with the Sudanese government. On May 5th, the agreement, drafted in Abuja, Nigeria, was signed by both sides.

International

The Save Darfur Coalition advocacy group coordinated a large rally in Washington, D.C. in April 2006

International attention to the Darfur conflict largely began with reports by the advocacy organizations Amnesty International in July 2003 and the International Crisis Group in December 2003. However, widespread media coverage did not start until the outgoing United Nations Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator for Sudan, Mukesh Kapila, called Darfur the "world's greatest humanitarian crisis" in March 2004.[31] A movement advocating for humanitarian intervention has emerged in several countries since then.

Gérard Prunier, a scholar specializing in African conflicts, argues that the world's most powerful countries have largely limited their response to expressions of concern and demands that the United Nations take action. The UN, lacking both the funding and military support of the wealthy countries, has left the African Union to deploy a token force (AMIS) without a mandate to protect civilians. In the lack of foreign political will to address the political and economic structures that underlie the conflict, the international community has defined the Darfur conflict in humanitarian assistance terms and debated the "genocide" label.[32]

Attacks in January 2008 and February 2008 by Sudanese forces on Darfur villagers are described in a U.N. report, from March 20 2008, as "violations of international humanitarian and human rights law."[2]

Genocide claims

On September 14, 2008, the UN Security Council passed Resolution 1564,help by myspace which called for a Commission of Inquiry on Darfur to assess the Sudanese conflict. The UN report released on January 31, 2005 stated that while there were mass murders and rapes, they could not label it as genocide because "genocidal intent appears to be missing".[33][34]

To address the dire human rights and humanitarian emergency in Darfur, the United Nations has taken several steps, but all of these have been frustrated by the Government of the Sudan with the support of a number of other governments, including Egypt and Algeria.

A mounted Janjaweed miltiaman.

In January 2005, the UN Secretary-General's Commission of Inquiry on Darfur issued a well documented report that indicated that there was by then already some 1.6 million internally displaced persons as a result of the ongoing violence, more than 200,000 refugees from Darfur into neighbouring Chad, and that Government forces and allied militia had committed widespread and consistent war crimes and crimes against humanity including murder, torture, mass rape, summary executions and arbitrary detention. The Commission found that technically there was not a genocide in the legal sense of the term but that massive violations of human rights and humanitarian law were continuing. The Commission also found that the Janjaweed militia operated alongside or with ground or air logistical support from the Government's armed forces. In March 2005, the UN Security Council referred the situation in Darfur to the International Criminal Court, and the Court has since issued arrest warrants for two high ranking individuals in the Government's aparatus.

In early 2007, a High Level Mission on the situation of human rights in Darfur was set up to look into reports of ongoing violations and to try to work with the Government of the Sudan to put a stop to the atrocities. The Mission was led by Nobel Prize Winner Jody Williams and included a number of diplomats and human rights practitioners. The Mission travelled to Ethiopia and Chad but it was never admitted into Sudanese territory itself because the Government refused to issue visas to the Mission. As a result, the High Level Mission could only collect information and in its report of March 2007, it underlined the Government's responsibility to protect civilians in Darfur, noting with regret the Government's abject failure to fulfill this responsibility.

Around the same time, the United Nations Human Rights Council appointed seven UN human rights special rapporteurs to form a group of experts on Darfur. This group was composed of the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in the Sudan, the Special Rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions, the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for children and armed conflict, the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, the Special Representative of the Secretary-General on the situation of human rights defenders, the Representative of the Secretary-General on the human rights of internally displaced persons and the Special Rapporteur on the question of torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. The Coordinator of the group of experts was Lyal Sunga. In June 2007, the group of experts issued a report that compiled pre-existing recommendations that had been already issued by UN human rights bodies in order to get the Government to implement them. On 11 December 2007, the group of experts issued its final 106-page report to the Human Rights Council which details the status of the Government's implementation of the recommendations the group had brought together and which concluded that the Government's implementation of human rights recommendations has been largely inadequate. [35][36][37]

In 2005, Rep. Henry Hyde (R-IL) and Sen. Sam Brownback (R-KS) introduced the Darfur Peace and Accountability Act, which calls on the United States to take a more active role in stopping the alleged genocide, encourages NATO participation, and endorses a Chapter VII mandate for a UN mission in Darfur. The bill was passed by the House and Senate and as of August 2006 is in conference committee. In August 2006, the Genocide Intervention Network released a Darfur scorecard, rating each member of Congress on legislation relating to the conflict.[38]

Criticism of international response

On October 16, 2006, Minority Rights Group (MRG) published a critical report, challenging that the UN and the great powers could have prevented the deepening crisis in Darfur and that few lessons appear to have been drawn from their ineptitude during the Rwandan Genocide. MRG's executive director, Mark Lattimer, stated that: "this level of crisis, the killings, rape and displacement could have been foreseen and avoided ... Darfur would just not be in this situation had the UN systems got its act together after Rwanda: their action was too little too late."[39] On October 20, 120 genocide survivors of the Holocaust, the Cambodian and Rwandan Genocides, backed by six aid agencies, submitted an open letter to the European Union, calling on them to do more to end the atrocities in Darfur, with a UN peacekeeping force as "the only viable option." Aegis Trust director, James Smith, stated that while "the African Union has worked very well in Darfur and done what it could, the rest of the world hasn't supported those efforts the way it should have done with sufficient funds and sufficient equipment."[40]

Human rights advocates and opponents of the Sudanese government portray China's role in providing weapons and aircraft as a cynical attempt to obtain oil and gas just as colonial powers once supplied African chieftains with the military means to maintain control as they extracted natural resources.[41][42][41] According to China's critics, China has offered Sudan support threatening to use its veto on the U.N. Security Council to protect Khartoum from sanctions and has been able to water down every resolution on Darfur in order to protect its interests in Sudan.[41] In response to these allegations, Chinese Ambassador to Sudan Li Chengwen said that China played an important role in promoting the agreement of the Sudanese government, the African Union and the UN for the deployment of the Hybrid Force in Darfur. China's view is that intensive economic development of the region is a more effective means than harsh economic sanctions, in the effort to stabilize the crisis and alleviate the suffering of the people.[3] Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao reiterated these views on February 20, 2008, and pointed out that China was the first non-African nation to send peacekeepers to Darfur.[4]

There has been further evidence of the Sudanese government's murder of civilians to actually facilitate the extraction of oil. The U.S.-funded Civilian Protection Monitoring Team, which investigates attacks in southern Sudan concluded that "as the Government of Sudan sought to clear the way for oil exploration and to create a cordon sanitaire around the oil fields, vast tracts of the Western Upper Nile Region in southern Sudan became the focus of extensive military operations."[41] Sarah Wykes, a senior campaigner at Global Witness, an NGO that campaigns for better natural resource governance, says: "Sudan has purchased about $100m in arms from China and has used these weapons against civilians in Darfur."[42] There are additional concerns that Chinese oil companies are devastating the environment further inhibiting the local population's ability to survive. To be fair, the scale of Chinese oil companies operating in Africa pales in comparison to that of the Western companies, who are also guilty of devastating Africa's environment. This includes the clearing of forests for timber exports that increases vulnerability to erosion, river silting, landslides, flooding and loss of habitat for plant and animal species.[41]

Calls for sustained pressure and possible boycotts of the Olympics have come from French presidential candidate François Bayrou,[43] actor and UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador Mia Farrow, Genocide Intervention Network Representative Ronan Farrow,[44] author and Sudan scholar Eric Reeves[45] and The Washington Post editorial board.[46] Sudan divestment efforts have also concentrated on PetroChina, the national petroleum company with extensive investments in Sudan.[47]

On the opposite side of the issue, publicity given to the Darfur conflict has been criticized in some segments of the Arab media as exaggerated. Statements to this effect take the view that "the (Israeli) lobby prevents any in-depth discussion and diverts the attention from the crimes committed every day in Palestine and Iraq."[48] and that Western attention to the Darfur crisis is "a cover for what is really being planned and carried out by the Western forces of hegemony and control in our Arab world."[49] While "in New York, ... there are thousands of posters screaming 'genocide' and '400,000 people dead," in reality only "200,000 have been killed." Furthermore, "what has been done" in Darfur is "not genocide," simply "war crimes."[50] Another complaint made is that "there is no ethnic cleansing being perpetrated" in Darfur, only "great instability" and "clashes between the Sudanese government, rebel movements and the Janjaweed."[51]

Counting deaths

A mother with her sick baby at Abu Shouk IDP camp in North Darfur.

Accurate numbers of dead have been difficult to estimate, partly because the Sudanese government places formidable obstacles in front of journalists attempting to cover the conflict.[52] In September 2004, the World Health Organization estimated there had been 50,000 deaths in Darfur since the beginning of the conflict, an 18-month period, mostly due to starvation. An updated estimate the following month put the number of deaths for the 6-month period from March to October 2004 due to starvation and disease at 70,000; These figures were criticized, because they only considered short periods and did not include violent deaths.[53] A more recent British Parliamentary Report has estimated that over 300,000 people have died,[54] and others have estimated even more.

In March 2005, the UN's Emergency Relief Coordinator Jan Egeland estimated that 10,000 were dying each month excluding deaths due to ethnic violence.[55] An estimated 2 million people had at that time been displaced from their homes, mostly seeking refuge in camps in Darfur's major towns. Two hundred thousand had fled to neighboring Chad.

In an April 2005 report, the most comprehensive statistical analysis to date, the Coalition for International Justice estimated that 400,000 people in Darfur had died since the conflict began, a figure most humanitarian and human rights groups now use.[56]

On 28 April, 2006, Dr. Eric Reeves argued that "extant data, in aggregate, strongly suggest that total excess mortality in Darfur, over the course of more than three years of deadly conflict, now significantly exceeds 450,000," but this has not been independently verified.[57]

A 21 September, 2006 article by the official UN News Service stated that "UN officials estimate over 400,000 people have lost their lives and some 2 million more have been driven from their homes."[58] This now appears to be the official UN figure.

Spreading of violence

Violence in Darfur spread over the border to Chad and the Central African Republic. In Chad, notably, the Janjaweed were accused of incursions and attacks.

In popular culture

The conflict has been referenced to in a variety of aspects of popular culture. Several television shows include story lines involving the conflict in episodes of ER, 7th Heaven, and an episode of The West Wing. Documentaries such as "Google Darfur" The Devil Came on Horseback, Darfur Now and Facing Sudan have been used to illustrate the crisis. Songs have included lyrics about the conflict, including "Sudan" by State Radio, "Living Darfur" by Mattafix, "Al Genina (Leave The Light On)" by Our Lady Peace and "Crayons and Paper" by Tom Flannery which was inspired by drawings made by children in Darfur. The comic book Squadron Supreme: Hyperion vs. Nighthawk, published by Marvel Comics, takes place in the region and highlights the conflict. Actors Don Cheadle, Mia Farrow and George Clooney have used their celebrity status to help bring world attention to the conflict.[59] On June 12th 2007, Amnesty International released Instant Karma: The Amnesty International Campaign to Save Darfur. It is a compilation album of various artists covering songs of John Lennon to benefit Amnesty International's campaign to alleviate the crisis in Darfur.

See also

The template {{Wikinews}} requires a link to an article. To link to a category, use {{Wikinews category}}.

References

  1. ^ Transcript of BBC interview with President George W. Bush
  2. ^ See Wikipedia entries on the Fur and Zaghawa as well as articles in USA Today, Slate and the New York Review of Books. Additionally, the Report of the International Commission of Inquiry on Darfur to the United Nations Secretary-General (PDF), United ebgis aa pimpations, 25 January 2005, states: "The various tribes that have been the object of attacks and killings (chiefly the Fur, Massalit and Zaghawa tribes) do not appear to make up ethnic groups distinct from the ethnic group to which persons or militias that attack them belong. They speak the same language (Arabic) and embrace the same religion(Islam)" (p. 129).
  3. ^ "Rights Group Says Sudan's Government Aided Militias". Washington Post. 2004-07-20. Retrieved 2007-01-14.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  4. ^ Looking to water to find peace in Darfur
  5. ^ "Hundreds Killed in Attacks in Eastern Chad". Associated Press. 2007-04-11.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  6. ^ Lacey, Marc (2005-05-11). "Tallying Darfur Terror: Guesswork with a Cause". International Herald Tribune. Retrieved 2008-04-07. 
  7. ^ "US Angry Over Sudan Leader's Denial of Role in Darfur Atrocities". Voice Of America. 2007-03-20.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  8. ^ "With Sudan a member, the UN is pointless". The Times. 2006-10-24.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  9. ^ "African Union Force Ineffective, Complain Refugees in Darfur". The Washington Post. 2006-10-16.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  10. ^ "The horrors of Darfur's ground zero". The Australian. 2007-05-28.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  11. ^ "Darfur Destroyed - Summary". Human Rights Watch. 2004-05.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  12. ^ "Darfur Destroyed -Destroying Evidence?". Human Rights Watch. 2004-05.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  13. ^ "Country Of Origin Report: Sudan" (PDF). Research, Development and Statistics (RDS), Home Office, UK. 2006-10-27.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  14. ^ "Tribune correspondent charged as spy in Sudan". LA Times. 2006-08-26.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  15. ^ "World Press Freedom Review". International Press Institute. 2005. 
  16. ^ "Police put on a show of force, but are Darfur's militia killers free to roam?". The Times. 2004-08-12.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  17. ^ "Darfur: A 'Plan B' to Stop Genocide?". US Department of State. 2007-04-11.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  18. ^ Diamond, Jared (2005). Collapse. Penguin. ISBN 0143036556. 
  19. ^ Ban Ki-moon (2007-06-16). "A Climate Culprit In Darfur". Washington Post. Retrieved 2007-06-23.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  20. ^ Climate change - only one cause among many for Darfur conflict
  21. ^ Gérard Prunier, Darfur: The Ambiguous Genocide, Cornell University Press, 2005, ISBN 0-8014-4450-0, p. 4
  22. ^ "Africa's Darfur[[htt:www.myspace.com/stop darful]]". The Sunday Paper. 2007-07-29. Retrieved 2007-09-26.  Check date values in: |date= (help); URL–wikilink conflict (help)
  23. ^ Prunier, pp. 8-24
  24. ^ Prunier, pp. 42-44
  25. ^ Prunier, pp. 44-47
  26. ^ Prunier, pp. 47-52
  27. ^ Prunier, pp. 52-53, 56
  28. ^ "The Sudan Liberation Movement and Sudan Liberation Army (SLM/SLA) Political Declaration". Sudan Liberation Movement. 2003-03-14. Retrieved 2007-02-07.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  29. ^ Report of the International Commission of Inquiry on Darfur to the United Nations Secretary-General,International Commission of Inquiry, 18 September 2004
  30. ^ Sudan's mass killings not genocide: UN report, CBC News, 1 February 2005
  31. ^ Prunier, pp. 124-148
  32. ^ Prunier, pp. 124-148
  33. ^ Report of the International Commission of Inquiry on Darfur to the United Nations Secretary-General, 18 September 2004
  34. ^ Sudan's mass killings not genocide: UN report, CBC News, 1 February 2005
  35. ^ http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/hrcouncil/docs/6session/A.HRC.6.19AEV_en.pdf
  36. ^ [1]
  37. ^ United Nations Office at Geneva | News & Media | UN GROUP OF EXPERTS ON DARFUR PRESENTS FINAL REPORT TO HUMAN RIGHTS COUNCIL
  38. ^ "Darfur scorecard"
  39. ^ "UN could have averted Darfur crisis - MRG", Independent Online, October 16, 2006
  40. ^ "Darfur call by genocide survivors", BBC, October 20, 2006
  41. ^ a b c d e "CHINA'S INVOLVEMENT IN SUDAN: ARMS AND OIL". Human Rights Watch. 2007-12-23.  Check date values in: |date= (help) Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page). Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page). Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page). Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  42. ^ a b "China Invests Heavily In Sudan's Oil Industry". Washington Post. 2007-12-23.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  43. ^ Call for Olympic boycott stirs up pre-poll France, Reuters. Retrieved on 2007-03-22.
  44. ^ The 'Genocide Olympics', The Wall Street Journal, 2007-03-28. Retrieved on 2007-03-28.
  45. ^ On Darfur, China and the 2008 Olympic Games, Sudan Tribune, 2007-02-11. Retrieved on 2007-03-28.
  46. ^ China and Darfur: The Genocide Olympics?, The Washington Post, 2006-12-14. Retrieved on 2007-03-28.
  47. ^ Response to Berkshire Hathaway's statement on its holdings in PetroChina Company Limited, Sudan Divestment Task Force, 2007-02-23. Retrieved on 2007-03-28.
  48. ^ "Since The Victims Are Arabs and Muslims" by Jihad Al-Khazen, Al-Hayat (English edition), April 13, 2007.
  49. ^ editorial in the newspaper Al-Gomhouriya (Egypt), April 20, 2007
  50. ^ editorial in the newspaper Al-Gomhouriya (Egypt), April 20, 2007
  51. ^ Sudanese journalist Babker 'Issa, editor of the daily newspaper Al-Raya, Al-Raya (Qatar), April 20, 2007.
  52. ^ Sudan Annual Report 2004 Reporters Without Borders, 2004
  53. ^ How many have died in Darfur? By Russell Smith (BBC) 16 February, 2005
  54. ^ Darfur death toll may be 300,000, say UK lawmakers (Reuters), 30 March, 2005
  55. ^ UN's Darfur death estimate soars (BBC) 14 March, 2005
  56. ^ New analysis claims Darfur deaths near 400,000 Coalition for International Justice, 21 April 2005 (PDF)
  57. ^ Quantifying Genocide in Darfur Dr. Eric Reeves, 28 April 2006
  58. ^ "Annan welcomes extension f African Union mission in Darfur," UN News Service, 21 September 2006
  59. ^ Don Cheadle: See interview with Hollywood.com promoting his film Darfur Now. Mia Farrow: See "You Too Can Divest from Sudan," Los Angeles Times, 5 February 2007, and more generally her website devoted to activism around conflicts in Darfur and eastern Chad. George Clooney: See "The Shocking Story George Clooney Has to Tell," Oprah, 26 April 2006.

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