Somali Civil War (2009–present)
|Somali Civil War (2009–present)|
|Part of the Somali Civil War and the War on Terror|
Military situation in Somalia as of November 2018
(For a more detailed map of the current military situation, see Under the control of local forces and unorganized tribeshere)
|Commanders and leaders|
Abdul Qadir Mumin
Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed
(President of Southwestern Somalia)
|Casualties and losses|
8,016 killed (by 2012)
756 killed, 367 wounded (by October 2012)|
3 killed, 3 wounded
17+ killed, 40 wounded
8 killed (before joining AMISOM)
2 killed,3 wounded
4,365 killed in 2015
1,400,000+ civilians displaced
|1. Sheikh Omar Iman Abubakr was leader of Hizbul Islam until 26 May 2009, when he stepped down and handed over his position to Sheikh Hassan Dahir Aweys.|
The 2009–present phase of the Somali Civil War is concentrated in southern Somalia. It began in early February 2009 with the conflict between the forces of the Federal Government of Somalia, assisted by African Union peacekeeping troops, and various militant terrorist groups and factions. The violence has displaced thousands of people in the southern part of the country. The conflict has also seen fighting between the Sufi Ahlu Sunna Waljama'a and Al-Shabaab.
On 16 October 2011, the Kenyan Army crossed the border into Somalia in Operation Linda Nchi against Al-Shabaab. It aimed to seize Kismayo and set up a buffer zone against Al-Shabaab. In 2012, Kismayo was captured.
- 1 Background
- 2 Timeline
- 2.1 Islamist-ARS/TFG coalition conflict
- 2.2 Al-Shabaab-Hizbul Islam conflict
- 2.3 Galmudug and Islamists
- 2.4 Battle of Gashandiga
- 2.5 Defeat of Al-Shabaab in Mogadishu
- 2.6 Fighting in Puntland
- 2.7 Battle of Elwaq
- 2.8 Kismayo offensive
- 2.9 Operation Indian Ocean
- 2.10 Operation Jubba Corridor
- 2.11 Battle of El Adde and resurgence of Al Shabaab
- 2.12 American involvement expanded
- 3 Foreign involvement
- 3.1 African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM)
- 3.2 United States and UN
- 3.3 Ethiopia
- 3.4 Kenya
- 4 See also
- 5 References
Established in 2004 and internationally recognized, the Transitional Federal Government's (TFG) support in Somalia was waning until the United States-backed 2006 intervention by the Ethiopian military, which helped drive out the rival Islamic Courts Union (ICU) in Mogadishu and solidify the TFG's rule. Following this defeat, the ICU splintered into several different factions. Some of the more radical elements, including Al-Shabaab, regrouped to continue their insurgency against the TFG and oppose the Ethiopian military's presence in Somalia. Throughout 2007 and 2008, Al-Shabaab scored military victories, seizing control of key towns and ports in both central and southern Somalia. At the end of 2008, the group had captured Baidoa but not Mogadishu. By January 2009, Al-Shabaab and other militias had managed to force the Ethiopian troops to withdraw from the country, leaving behind an underequipped African Union (AU) peacekeeping force. A power sharing deal ensued between an Islamist splinter group led by Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed's Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia Djibouti faction (ARS-D) and TFG Prime Minister Nur Hassan in Djibouti. Al-Shabaab, which had separated from the moderate Islamists of the insurgency, rejected the peace deal and continued to take territories. It was joined by Hizbul Islam, which is an amalgamation of four Islamist group including the Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia – Asmara faction. Another Islamist group, Ahlu Sunnah Waljama'ah, which was allied with the TFG and supported by Ethiopia, continues to attack al-Shabaab and take over towns as well although they have been effective only in the central region of Galguduud, where they ousted al-Shabaab from most of the region.
After the parliament took in 275 officials from the moderate Islamist opposition, ARS leader Sheikh Ahmed was elected TFG President on 31 January 2009. Since then, the al-Shabaab radical Islamists have accused the new TFG President of accepting the secular transitional government and have continued the civil war since he arrived in Mogadishu at the presidential palace in early February 2009.
Islamist-ARS/TFG coalition conflict
On 4 February 2009, four Islamist groups, including Hassan Dahir Aweys' Eritrean branch of the ARS merged and created the group Hisbi Islam, to fight the new government of Sharif Ahmed. Al-Shabaab also vowed to fight the government. On 8 February 2009, they declared war on the new government of Sharif Ahmed and the AU peace-keepers.
New TFG President Sheik Sharif Sheik Ahmed arrived in Mogadishu as a president for the first time on 7 February 2009. The al-Shabaab and other radical Islamists began firing at the new TFG president hours later. They accused the new President of accepting the secular transitional government.
On 8 February, heavy fighting broke out in southern Mogadishu. al-Shabaab leader Sheikh Mukhtar Robow (Abu Mansur) met with Sharif Ahmed for peace talks during his visit to Mogadishu, while Omar Iman rejected the president. During these negotiations, Sharif Ahmed said that he would be prepared to enforce Sharia Law in Somalia, which is now the radical groups' main demand. However, Sheikh Mukhtar Robow, a former Al-Shabab spokesman, denied having talked to Sharif Ahmed and vowed to continue fighting until his demands for Sharia Law were met. Sheikh Mukhtar Robow warned Nigeria against sending peace keepers to Somalia, as al-Shabaab views the AU peace keepers as occupying forces and will continue fighting them until they withdraw from the country.
On 10 February, al-Shabaab launched an offensive to take the Bakool province. Government officials who had been ousted from Baidoa had been amassing troops in the city of Hudur (Xudur) and planning a major offensive to re-take Baidoa. Islamist forces attacked the province and reached the capital where they started a battle against government forces. In Galmudug, Clan militia took the town of Masagaway from al-Shabaab. There was also fighting in Warsheekh.
On 12 February, the spokesman for al-Shabaab, Sheikh Mukhtar Robow (Abu Mansur), rebuffed reports from several media outlets that a mutual agreement between him and newly elected president Sharif Ahmed was made. He also added that he had no intention to contact the president on any matters, and that they would continue fighting against foreign troops and what he described as an "apostate" government. The same day, they vowed war against the new government.
On 22 February, a double suicide bomb attack on an AU base in Mogadishu left 11 Burundian soldiers dead and another 15 wounded. Two days later heavy fighting erupted in the city as TFG and AU forces attempted to retake the city from radical Islamist forces. The fighting lasted for two days and killed 87 people, including: 48 civilians, 15 insurgents and 6 TFG policemen.
At the same time as the fighting raged in Mogadishu, al-Shabaab forces took the town of Hudor, to the north-west, in fighting that killed another 20 people: 10 TFG soldiers, 6 insurgents and 4 civilians.
On 28 February, it appeared that Hisbi Islam would sign a ceasefire with the Transitional Federal Government. However, by 1 March, it was clear that no ceasefire would be given, despite President Sharif Ahmed having agreed to proposals for a truce and having offered to accept the implementation of Sharia Law but refused to move troops from civilian areas despite the Islamists doing so.
On 6 May, al-Shabaab announced that it would continue the war even if AMISOM withdrew.
25 May, the government announced an immediate blockade on airstrips and seaports under insurgent control to stop the flow of weapons reaching them.
On 7 May, a fierce battle for control of Mogadishu started between al-Shabaab and Hizbul Islam against the TFG. Hundreds were killed and injured and tens of thousands were displaced. By 11 May, rebel forces gained the upper hand and made large gains taking over most of the capital. Fighting continued until 14 May and, though they came close, the rebels didn't manage to overthrow the government. There were new rounds of fighting all through August.
On 19 June, the transitional parliament speaker Sheikh Adan Mohamed Nuur Madobe asked the international community to send foreign troops to Somalia within the following 24 hours. He stated that the government's power is on the verge of being defeated by Islamist forces in the Somali capital. The Cabinet declared a state of emergency and Somalia asked for help from neighbors Kenya, Djibouti, Ethiopia and Yemen. Ethiopia refused saying intervention needs an international mandate. On 21 June, a spokesman for the al-Shabaab Islamists said they would fight any foreign troops. Al-Qaeda also made threats against Kenyan intervention.
22 June, Somali President Sheikh Sharif Ahmed declared state of emergency in the country as a new round of fighting in Mogadishu left 12 dead and 20 injured. Hundreds were said to be fleeing the city 4 July, Sheik Abdinasir Jalil, a former commander of the training for ICU administration in Beledweyn town joined Hizbul Islam with his men and vowed to fight TFG forces in the city and attack Ethiopian forces in El-gal village, which lies 18 km from Beledweyn. He said that the government officials want to bring Ethiopian troops inside town and that is the reason they switched sides. Former ICU officials who joined Hizbul Islam, held a press conference and announced that the ICU administration in Hiraan had collapsed as they joined the insurgents. Sheikh Ibrahim Yusuf, a top security commander in Beledweyn, also defected along with his forces. General Muktar Hussein Afrah was sent to Beledweyn along with TFG troops and put in charge there by the TFG as the ICU administration had collapsed. Many ICU officials including MPs resigned that day next to Sheikh Abdinasir Jalil Ahmed (head of training) and Sheikh Ibrahim Yusuf (head of security); Sheik Osman Abdulle Barqadle, the army commander of Ugas Khalif airport, and Sheik Abdullahi Garamgaram, the deputy chief of the emergency forces also resigned.
In response, TFG forces led by general Muktar Hussein Afrah started military manoeuvers in the East side of the city.
17 July, two French security advisors to the government were captured by insurgents. The Somali government gave permission for French commandos to launch operations inside Somalia to free the 2 French nationals that held by al-Shabaab. On 22 July, French warships and helicopters were seen near the ports of Mogadishu and Marka as France declared they would undertake military operations to free the two French military advisers who had been captured by insurgents. One hostage, Marc Aubriere, escaped a month later in August 2009. The second, Denis Allex, was seen in a video released in June 2010 asking for assistance to effect his release.
Al-Shabaab-Hizbul Islam conflict
The armed conflict between Hizbul Islam and al-Shabaab began due to a dispute between the faction of the Ras Kamboni Brigades led by Sheikh Ahmed "Madoobe" and al-Shabaab, over a power sharing agreement in Kisimayo. Hizbul Islam and al-Shabaab had made a power sharing agreement for the city, where the power would rotate between the two factions, with each faction controlling the city for periods of six months. However, due to clan politics al-Shabaab refused to let the power rotation take place. This led to internal problems within Hizbul Islam as its ARS-A and JABISO factions, which were aligned with al-Shabaab in Hiran and Mogadishu, refused to support the Ras Kamboni Brigades, while Anole remained neutral. It also led to a split within the Ras Kamboni Brigades, with a faction led by Hizbul Islam's deputy chairman Sheikh Hassan "Turki" refusing to back Ahmad "Madoobe" and instead siding with al-Shabaab.
On 1 October, heavy fighting broke out. By the afternoon, al-Shabaab controlled most of the city with dozens of casualties reported. At least 17 people were killed in a series of battles overnight on 5 October. A Hizbul Islam spokesman claimed that they had captured foreign fighters in the battle. The battle was decisively won by al-Shabaab which expelled Madbobe's Ras Kamboni Brigade forces from the city.
Throughout November 2009, fighting between the two factions continued in Southern Somalia and as a result insurgent attacks in Mogadishu targeting TFG and AMISOM forces decreased. However Sheikh Ahmad Madobe's forces were soon overpowered by al-Shabaab and its local allies and forced to withdraw from the Lower Jubba region and most of Southern Somalia. In February 2010, Sheikh Hassan Turki's branch of the Ras Kamboni Brigades declared a merge with al-Shabaab. He encouraged other groups in Hizbul Islam to also join al-Shabaab.
In early 2010 the two groups clashed in Hiran region, in central Somalia. This battle was also won by al-Shabaab which took control of the region. In late 2010 they also expelled Hizbul Islam from Bay region after seizing control of Bur Hakab, after a two days battle in which 30 militants were killed. In Lower Shabelle region al-Shabaab seized control of Hizbul Islam strongholds: Furuqley, Farsooley and Dugulle villages and then started preparing an offensive in Afgooye, the last town Hizbul Islam controlled in the region. Soon after Hizbul Islam was forced to surrender the Luuq District in Gedo region to al-Shabaab, after which it was announced that Hizbul Islam would merge with al-Shabaab. From mid-December al-Shabaab fighters started taking over Hizbul Islam positions. Hizbul Islam fighters also started entering al-Shabaab controlled areas of Mogadishu. The merge was confirmed on 20 December, when Hizbul Islam Chairman Sheikh Hassan Dahir Aweys and Sheikh Mohammad Osman Arus, the organisation's official spokesman, surrendered to al-Shabaab and disbanded the organisation.
Galmudug and Islamists
Government officials from the Galmudug administration in the north-central Hobyo district also reportedly attempted to use pirate gangs as a bulwark against Islamist insurgents from southern Somalia's conflict zones. Other pirates are alleged to have reached agreements of their own with the Islamist groups, although a senior commander from the Hizbul Islam militia vowed to eradicate piracy by imposing sharia law when his group briefly took control of Harardhere in May 2010 and drove out the local pirates.
Battle of Gashandiga
An early 2011 offensive was dubbed by AU Representative Wafula Wamunyinyi as the "Battle of Gashandiga."
On 20 February 2011, it was reported that AMISOM troops destroyed a large complex of al-Shabaab trenches, and killed six al-Shabaab commanders in Mogadishu. Two AMISOM troops died in those battles.
On 21 February, at least 20 people, including TFG policemen were killed in a suicide car bomb attack in Mogadishu.
Between 21 and 22 February, twelve people were killed in heavy shelling in Mogadishu.
On 25 February, 15 people were killed as al-Shabaab fighters attempted to re-take lost territory in Mogadishu. Additionally, rebels displayed one wounded and five dead Burundian AMISOM soldiers.
On 26 February, an offensive by TFG troops with support of Ethiopian soldiers was opened in the southern Somali town of Bula Hawo. Until 28 February, 33 people were killed in TFG and Ethiopian shelling.
By 5 March, AMISOM and TFG forces claimed to control seven of the city's districts, while six were contested and three were controlled by anti-government forces. Al-Shabaab responded to the government offensive by putting up roadblocks to prevent the movement of goods from the seaport. This adversely affected both sides of the conflict, as the TFG controlled the port and its profits, while the Bakaara Market, where many of the goods were bound to be sold, was controlled by the insurgents. It was reported that by 5 March, up to 53 AMISOM may have died in the clashes. Of those, 43 Burundian and 10 Ugandan.
By 16 March, AMISOM was bolstered by an additional 1,000 peacekeepers to assist in the TFG's renewed offensive against al-Shabaab, bringing the total manpower of AMISOM to nearly 9,000.
Defeat of Al-Shabaab in Mogadishu
On 7 September 2012, the Transitional Federal Government's troops and their AMISOM allies managed to capture all of Mogadishu from the Al-Shabaab militants. Witnesses reported Al-Shabaab vehicles abandoning their bases in the capital for the south-central city of Baidoa. The group's spokesman Sheikh Ali Mohamud Rage described the exodus as a tactical retreat, and vowed to continue the insurgency against the national government. Observers have suggested that the pullout may at least in part have been caused by internal ideological rifts in the rebel organization.
After their withdrawal, al-Shabaab has however continued hit and run tactics in the North of the city as they vowed to continue guerilla attacks in Mogadishu. On 4 October 2011, a suicide bomb on a lorry detonated and killed more than 70 people near a compound housing several government ministries. Two weeks later a car bomb killed at least two people.
On 11 October 2011, AU troops claimed to have driven the remnants of al-Shabaab out of the city. As of November 2012, Mogadishu was still firmly in AMISOM and TFG hands, although the city continued to suffer from suicide bomb attacks.
Fighting in Puntland
On 2 to 3 September, fighting was reported in Puntland that resulted in the deaths of up to 60 people, including 8 Puntland soldiers and 40 Al-Shabaab militants, with Insurgents being repelled. Al-Shabaab claimed on 7 September that they have captured 2 Kenyan troops who were on a surveillance mission near the Kenyan-Somalian Border. Puntland forces captured 18 members of Al-Shabaab in counter-terrorism operations on 8 September.
Battle of Elwaq
Al-Shabaab attacked the southern town of Elwaq on 10 September 2011, resulting in the deaths of 12 insurgents and soldiers. The next day, Somali troops fought back, retaking the town after militants fled on captured technicals. The bodies of 30 militants were later found, some of them children. Conversely, Al-Shabaab claimed they killed around 70 government aligned troops and captured 10 technicals.
The Burundian military lost 51 soldiers in October, causing anger among Burundians, who believe that their country is sacrificing too much. Many Burundians have urged other AU members to contribute troops to the Somalia mission. Nigeria, Djibouti, and Guinea have indicated sending troops, but all have yet to contribute.
On 4 September 2012 the Kenyan Navy shelled Kismayo. This was part of an AU offensive to capture the city from al-Shabab fighters. The harbour was shelled two times and the airport three times. According to a UN report the export of charcoal through Kismayo is a major source of income for al-Shabab.
On 28 September 2012, the Somali National Army assisted by AMISOM troops and Ras Kamboni militia launched an assault on Kismayo, Al-Shabaab's last major stronghold. The allied forces reportedly managed to re-capture much of the city from the insurgents.
Operation Indian Ocean
In August 2014, the Somali government-led Operation Indian Ocean was launched to clean up the remaining insurgent-held pockets in the countryside. On 1 September 2014, a U.S. drone strike carried out as part of the broader mission killed Al-Shabaab leader Moktar Ali Zubeyr. U.S. authorities hailed the raid as a major symbolic and operational loss for Al-Shabaab, and the Somali government offered a 45-day amnesty to all moderate members of the militant group. Political analysts also suggested that the insurgent commander's death will likely lead to Al-Shabaab's fragmentation and eventual dissolution.
Operation Jubba Corridor
Battle of El Adde and resurgence of Al Shabaab
On 15 January 2016, Al Shabaab attacked a Kenyan-run AMISOM base in El Adde Somalia, overrunning the compound and killing approximately 60 soldiers. Al Shabaab then regained the important town of Marka, 45 km from the capital, and the port of Gard in Puntland region (March 2016). The resurgence of Al Shabaab could entail serious implications for the humanitarian sector.
On 5 March 2016, U.S. airstrikes carried out by aircraft and unmanned drones killed more than 150 Al-Shabaab terrorists at a terrorist training camp called "Camp Raso", located about 120 miles north of Mogadishu as they were completing "training for a large-scale attack" according to a Pentagon spokesman. The camp had been under surveillance for some time before the strike. In the early hours of 9 March 2016, U.S. special forces and Somali national army special forces killed between 1 and 15 Al-Shabaab terrorists in a heliborne-attack on the Al-Shabaab-controlled town of Awdhegele, as well as capturing an undisclosed number of high-value Al-Shabaab figures the mililtants were training for a major operation against coalition forces.
On 11/12 April 2016, two U.S. airstrikes on Al-Shabaab targets in the town of Kismayo killed about a dozen suspected militants who posed a "imminent threat" to American troops in the country. As of May 2016, roughly 50 U.S. special operations troops operate at undisclosed locations across southern Somalia, with their headquarters at the airport in Mogadishu; advising and assisting, Kenyan, Somali and Ugandan forces in their fight against Al-Shabaab. Also in that month, U.S. personnel helped those forces plan an operation against illegal checkpoints.
On 12 May 2016, a small group of U.S. military advisers accompanied some Ugandan soldiers during a raid on an illegal taxation checkpoint just west of Mogadishu, when the Ugandans came under fire from 15-20 al Shabaab militants, the U.S. commander on the ground called in a "defensive" airstrike, killing five militants and wounding two more. Two days previously, the U.S. provided helicopters and advise and assist in support of a Somali military mission against a group of al Shabaab militants, which one defense official said was also defensive because they had intelligence that the al Shabaab fighters were planning an attack on the AMISOM installation nearby. No word on how many al Shabaab were killed or wounded in that operation. On 13 May, a U.S. strike targeted nine al-Shabab militants, three of them were allegedly killed.
On the night of 31 May 2016, two senior Al-Shabaab operatives; Mohamud Dulyadeyn, the plotter behind the Garissa University attack in April 2015 and Maalim Daud, head of Al-Shabaab's intelligence hit squads and another 16 members from Al-Shabaab were killed by the Somali National Army and anti-terror partners. Defense Department spokeswoman Lt. Col. Michelle L. Baldanza told CNN "U.S. forces supported this Somali-led operation in an advise-and-assist role,".
On 1 June 2016, Al Shabaab militants attacked with a car bomb on the gate of Ambassador Hotel in Mogadishu, Somalia. At least 15 people have been killed in the attack, among 10 civilian pedestrians and two members of parliament near the gate. Also that day, the Pentagon announced that it had conducted an airstrike that killed a senior Al-Shabaab leader in Somalia on 27 May. On 3 August 2016, a contingent of elite American troops acting as military advisers assisted Somali commandos in an assault on an al-Shabaab checkpoint in Saakow, as the Somali-led force approached the checkpoint the militants opened fire, a gun battle ensued that resulted in 3 militants killed.
On 29 September 2016, a Somalian regional government demanded an explanation from the United States after an airstrike killed 22 civilians and other soldiers instead of the targeted al-Shabab militants in Galmudug. The Military Times also reported that on 26 September a bomb-manufacturing network linked al-Shabaab attacked a small team of U.S. and Somali troops, who were conducting an operation near Kismayo, with small-arms fire. A Pentagon spokesman said the U.S. military "conducted a self-defense strike to neutralize the threat and in doing so killed nine enemy fighters." Also on 28 September, near the town of Galkayo, a Somali army unit conducting counterterrorism operations nearby, when the Somali soldiers came under fire from al-Shabab militants. The Somali soldiers engaged them, then broke contact and rejoined with their nearby American advisers and soon afterwards the militants "began to maneuver in an offensive manner" so the U.S. conducted a self-defense airstrike, killing 4 militants.
On July 12, 2019, A car bomb and a gun attack killed at least 26, including two prominent journalists and nine foreigners, in Kismayo, Somalia. On July 22nd a bomb killed 17 and injured 28 in Mogadishu. Days later on July 24, a suicide bomber detonated inside the office of the Mayor of Mogadishu killing six government officials, mayor Abdirahman Abdi Osman was hospitalised in Doha, Qatar before succumbing to his injuries on August 1.
American involvement expanded
In late March 2017, President Donald Trump signed off a new strategy granting AFRICOM more freedom in counterterrorist operations.
Stars and Stripes reported that in addition to the stepping-up of airstrikes, US special forces on the frontlines with Somali forces have also been increased, conventional US troops give lessons in building defense institutions, with added support from other nations.
CNN reported that General Thomas Waldhauser, commander of AFRICOM, told reporters in April that the US seeks to help Somali security forces gain the ability to provide for their own security by 2021.
The New York Times reported that on 4 May 2017, a US Navy SEAL team partnered with Somali National Army forces, carried out a mission on an al-Shabaab-occupied complex around 60 kilometres (40 mi) west of Mogadishu. Fox News reported that they targeting what Pentagon spokesperson Captain Jeff Davis said was a "group of people" associated with attacks on Mogadishu. The New York Times reported that Defence Department officials said that Somali forces were to have led the operation, with the SEALs hanging back in an advise, assist and accompany role, however Brig.Gen. David J. Furness, the commander of the military’s task force for the Horn of Africa, said that American and Somali forces were traveling together in a single group. Whilst approaching the complex, the militants opened fire and the mission was aborted, Senior chief petty officer Kyle Milliken was killed, 2 other SEALs and an interpreter were wounded. Captain Jeff Davis said that the mission "resulted in the death of three Shabaab operatives including Moalin Osman Abdi Badil," the group quickly returned to the aircraft that had taken it to the area and was exfilled. Davis described Badil as an al-Shabaab leader responsible for gathering information on troop movements in order to support attacks on Somali and African Union forces and that he had been linked to the death of several soldiers and at least one civilian.
CNN reported that on 11 June 2017, that a US air strike killed 8 al-Shabaab militants in Sakow, the president of Somalia said that "This was a successful strike which destroyed a key Al-Shabaab command and supply hub," and that "This will ultimately disrupt the enemy's ability to conduct new attacks within Somalia." CNN reported that on 23 July 2017, The US carried out a targeted airstrike an al-Shabaab regional commander in Banadir. Fox News reported that on 30 July 2017, a US strike near Tortoroow in southern Somalia which was coordinated with regional partners as a direct response to al-Shabaab's actions which included attacks on Somali forces, killed Ali Jabal, who was considered a senior al-Shabaab terrorist and was responsible for leading forces operating in the Mogadishu and Banadiir area, including planning and carrying out attacks in Mogadishu.
ABC reported that on 10 August 2017, airstrikes conducted by drones in Banaadir in a joint operation against al-Shabaab fighters, killing a high-level al-Shabaab leader. The airstrikes marked the fourth offensive airstrike against al-Shabaab since the new authorisation in March. CNN reported that on 17 August 2017, the US conducted a "self defense" drone strike in Jilib after a joint US-Somali force, consisting of Somali troops and US advisors, came under direct attack by al-Shabaab militants and a firefight ensued, 7 militants were killed.
Military.com reported that on 3 November 2017, that a US drone conducted two airstrikes against Islamic State in Somalia, at least six missiles were used which struck in Buqa, 37 miles north of Qandala, AFRICOM said in a statement that "several terrorists" were killed and that the strikes were carried out in coordination with Somalia's government; marking the first time the US has conducted airstrikes against ISS terrorists in Somalia. CNN reported that US drone aircraft conducted 5 strikes between 9 and 12 November against al-Shabaab and ISS linked militants, killing 36 al-Shabaab and 4 ISS terrorists. One of the strikes killed an al-Shabaab terrorist who had attacked a joint US-Somali military convoy in Gaduud. CNN reported that a US airstrike on a camp 125 miles northwest of Mogadishu killed more than 100 al-Shabaab militants; the US now estimates there are between 3,000 and 6,000 al-Shabaab fighters and less than 250 ISIS operatives in Somalia Military Times reported that on 14 November, a US drone strike roughly 60 miles northwest of Mogadishu killed several al-Shabaab militants.
CNN reported that on 24 December, a US airstrike in southern Somalia killed 13 al-Shabaab terrorists.
African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM)
The African Union has deployed more than 16,000 soldiers to Somalia, mandated to support transitional governmental structures, implement a national security plan, train the Somali security forces, and assist in creating a secure environment for the delivery of humanitarian aid. As part of its duties, AMISOM also supports the Transitional Federal Government's forces in their battle against Al-Shabaab militants.
AMISOM was created by the African Union's Peace and Security Council on 19 January 2007 with an initial six month mandate. On 21 February 2007 the United Nations Security Council approved the mission's mandate. Subsequent six-monthly renewals of AMISOM's mandate by the African Union Peace and Security Council have also been authorised by the United Nations Security Council.
AMISOM's UN mandate was extended for a further six months in August 2008 by UNSCR 1831. The AMISOM’s mandate has been extended each period that it has been up for review. It is now set to be reviewed again on 16 January 2013.
On 12 November 2013, the UN Security Council adopted SC Resolution 2124 (2013) extending AMISOM's mandate from 28 February 2014 to 31 October 2014. Acting upon the force's request, the resolution also increases AMISOM's maximum authorized strength from 17,731 to 22,126 troops.
The force, which has been reportedly engaged in fighting in Mogadishu and throughout the country, has reportedly suffered significant casualties during their mission, although no precise figures have been issued by the contributing countries.
United States and UN
The United National Development Program for Somalia spends about $50 million each year, though these funds are not related to military aid. Instead these programs, such as Employment Generation for Early Recovery (EGER). As of October 2010, the U.S. State Department noted the United States directly obligated over $229 million to support AMISOM, and paid for other UN assistance for the mission indirectly through its obligations to the international body.
In January 2013, the U.S. announced that it was set to exchange diplomatic notes with the new central government of Somalia, re-establishing official ties with the country for the first time in 20 years. According to the Department of State, the decision was made in recognition of the significant progress that the Somali authorities had achieved on both the political and war fronts. The move is expected to grant the Somali government access to new sources of development funds from American agencies as well as international bodies like the International Monetary Fund and World Bank, thereby facilitating the ongoing reconstruction process. In addition to diplomatic ties; roughly 50 U.S. special operations troops operate at undisclosed locations across southern Somalia advising and assisting, Kenyan, Somali and Ugandan forces in their fight against Al-Shabaab.
At the behest of the Somali and American federal governments, among other international actors, the United Nations Security Council unanimously approved United Nations Security Council Resolution 2093 during its 6 March 2013 meeting to suspend the 21-year arms embargo on Somalia. The endorsement officially lifts the purchase ban on light weapons for a provisional period of one year, but retains certain restrictions on the procurement of heavy arms such as surface-to-air missiles, howitzers and cannons. On 9 April 2013, the U.S. government likewise approved the provision of defense articles and services by the American authorities to the Somali Federal Government. At the request of the Somali authorities and AMISOM, the U.S. military in late 2013 also established a small team of advisers in Mogadishu to provide consultative and planning support to the allied forces.
The United Kingdom is also involved in combating Islamist terrorists in Somalia, since 2009, members of the Special Air Service and the Special Reconnaissance Regiment have been deployed to Camp Lemonnier to conduct counter-terrorist operations against Islamist terrorists in Somalia; they have carrying out surveillance missions of Britons believed to be travelling to Somalia for terrorist training and they are also working with US counterparts observing and "targeting" local terror suspects. They have also been carrying out a similar role in Yemen. In May 2016, it was reported that 70 UK military personnel have arrived in Somalia to counter Al-Shabaab as part of a UN peacekeeping mission; 10 soldiers will offer medical, engineering and logistical support to AMISOM. Personnel will also be sent to South Sudan to carry out a similar role.
On 16 October 2016, the New York Times reported that American officials said the White House had quietly broadened the president’s authority for the use of force in Somalia by allowing airstrikes to protect American and African troops as they combat fighters from al-Shabaab. About 200 to 300 American Special Operations troops work with soldiers from Somalia and other African nations like Kenya and Uganda to carry out more than a half-dozen raids per month, according to senior American military officials. The operations are a combination of ground raids and drone strikes. SEAL Team 6 has been heavily involved in many of these operations. American military officials said once ground operations are complete, American troops working with Somali forces often interrogate prisoners at temporary screening facilities, including one in Puntland, before the detainees are transferred to more permanent Somali-run prisons. The Pentagon has only acknowledged a small fraction of these operations, announcing 13 ground raids and airstrikes so far in 2016 (3 of which took place in September) — up from 5 in 2015; according to data compiled by New America (a Washington Think tank) the strikes have killed about 25 civilians and 200 people suspected of being militants. At a former Russian fighter jet base in Baledogle, U.S. Marines and private contractors are working to build up a Somali military unit designed to combat Al-Shabaab throughout the country.
On 30 March 2017, CNN reported that US President Donald Trump signed off a decision by the White House which approved a new strategy granting AFRICOM the authority to step up counterterrorism strikes in Somalia; under the new strategy, the US military will now be able to conduct precision airstrikes in support of the Somalia National Army and AMISOM forces. The new authorization designates some regions of Somalia an "area of active hostilities," freeing counterterrorism strikes there from restrictions governing other strikes outside the areas; an official said that the designated areas will not include Mogadishu and Puntland. Captain Jeff Davis, a Pentagon Spokesman said that "The additional support provided by this authority will help deny al-Shabaab safe havens from which it could attack US citizens or US interests in the region." Another official said that the legal basis for the new authority is the 2001 AUMF. In mid-April 2017, it was reported that 40 soldiers from the 101st Airborne Division were deployed to Somalia on 2 April 2017 to improve the capabilities of the Somalia Army in combating Islamist militants. AFRICOM stated that the troops will focus on bolstering the Somali army's logistics capabilities; an AFRICOM spokesman said that "This mission is not associated with teaching counterextremism tactics" and that the Somali government requested the training.
On 16 February, Somali MP Mohamud Sayid Adan, former Mogadishu mayor Mohamed Omar Habeeb and local police officer Hassan Dhicisow, were arrested by Ethiopian forces in the town of Dolow in Gedo region.
On 28 May, 2 Ethiopian soldiers, 1 Ethiopian civilian, 2 Somali soldiers, 4 Somali civilians (working for the government) and 4 Somali insurgents were killed when insurgents attacked a convoy carrying Omar Hashi Aden, who was returning from his visit to Ethiopia.
On 31 May, Ethiopian forces launched search and seizure operations in Hiraan, in Kalaberyr village, near Beledweyn.
On 12 June, Ethiopian forces with several battle wagons entered in Balanbal town in Galgudud and set up military bases.
On 14 June, the Ethiopian military said it had come to fight foreign mujahedin which the military described as "foreign enemies of Ethiopia and Somalia" and launched operations to search for them in Balanbal town which they control. Sheik Hassan Ya'qub Ali, head of the information affairs for Islamic administration in Kisimayo warned the Ethiopians that "there is no candy and dates to eat from here in Somalia. But the men who chased you forcibly from the country are here in Somalia."
The suicide bombing on 18 June targeted a meeting between TFG and Ethiopian commanders.
On 19 June, Ethiopian forces entered Bakool and reached Elberde town. They withdrew after holding talks with local clan elders.
22 June, Ethiopian forces started launching search and seizure operations in Kala-beyrka intersection in Hiran region.
The Ethiopian government then announced it would not intervene without an international mandate.
30 June, Ethiopian forces entered El-gal and Ilka'adde villages which are less than 20 km north of regional capital Beledweyn. Reports from Kala-beyrka intersection say that more extra troops from Ethiopia crossed from the border.
4 July, Ethiopians withdrew from their bases in Banabal town in Galgudug.
18 July, Ethiopian forces vacated their bases in Yed Village in insurgent-controlled Bakool region.
During the weekend of 29–30 August, Ethiopian forces advanced to Beledweyne, supporting a government offensive on the insurgent part of, Beledweyne. They withdrew on 31 August. The assault on Beledweyne by government forces came as the TFG governor of Hiraan (belonging to Sharif Ahmed's ARS-Djibouti faction), Sheikh Abdirahman Ibrahim Ma'ow, which controls the other part of Beledweyne, withdrew his administration's support for the TFG.
19 March, Mohammed wali Odowa, spokesman of Hizbul Islam's Hiraan administration in Beledweyne, threatened that Hizbul Islam forces would attack any Ethiopian forces which entered Hizbul Islam controlled territories in Hiraan.
On 18 July, Ethiopian forces withdrew from all their bases in Hiraan and Bakool regions. Ethiopian forces had held these territories for two months, during which they clashed several times with al-Shabaab forces which control most of Hiraan. Before they withdrew they released over 20 lorries which used to travel between the South and Central regions of Somalia.
On 1 August, 27,000 Ethiopian troops entered Somalia through the border town of Dolo, where 6,000 Ethiopian forces are based. They advanced deep into Gedo region in the direction of the towns of Beledehawa and Elwak, accompanied by militia of pro-Ethiopian, Somali fraction leaders. In Hiraan, Ethiopian forces which entered along with TFG-forces exchanged fire with al-Shabaab militants and advanced until the Kalaber junction, near Beledweyne. The Ethiopian troops then withdrew to Ferfer.
On 29 August, there was a second Ethiopian incursion. A large number of Ethiopian forces in military vehicles, accompanied by highly trained TFG forces, entered several villages in al-Shabaab controlled Hiraan region. This came at a time when al-Shabaab militants regularly ventured near the border. Hussein Abdallah, an ASWJ loyalist claimed that the movements were a preliminary action to signal that Ethiopian authorities are able of weakening the Islamist insurgents, to al-Shabaab's leadership.
On 1 September, Ethiopian forces moved deeper into Gedo region, via Dolow, entering the TFG-held village of Yeed. TFG officials in the region reported they were planning to capture the entire Bay and Bakool regions from al-Shabaab.
On 30 December, TFG forces clashed with Ethiopian troops in the Jawil district, near Beledweyne, after Ethiopian forces took a TFG soldier into custody. One TFG soldier and one civilian were injured in the clashes.
3 January, Ahlu Sunna Waljamaa official Sheikh Abdi Badel Sheikh Abdullahi, complained about Ethiopian forces in the town of Dolo, in Gedo region. The town is controlled by 300 ASWJ and TFG forces, but it is also home to several Ethiopian military bases. Ethiopian forces had called on ASWJ fighters in the district to lay down their arms. According to a TFG official, three Ethiopian commanders had then come to the town of Dolo and ordered TFG forces to disarm. Ethiopian troops then disarmed a number of TFG and ASWJ forces. Sheikh Abdullahi alleged that Ethiopian forces were doing this because they were outraged by ASWJ's military capability.
On 19 November, eyewitness reported large number of Ethiopian troops crossing into Somalia. Ethiopian authorities denied this.
On 31 December 2011, the Transitional Federal Government soldiers and around 3,000 allied Ethiopian army troops attacked Beledweyne in the early morning, capturing it after hours of fighting. They later took control of Baidoa, among other areas.
On 22 October 2012, the Spokesman of African Union Mission to Somalia (AMISOM) Col. Ali Aden Humed speaking to journalists in Mogadishu on Saturday said that Ethiopian forces present in parts of the regions of Somalia will soon pull out from the country. The spokesman said AMISOM troops will take over the areas where Ethiopian forces are holding at the moment. "The plan by AMISOM is to take over the positions held by Ethiopian forces in parts of the regions of the country, Ethiopian troops will soon retreat back to their position along Somalia border" said Col. Ali Aden Humed.
In 2013, Ethiopian Foreign Minister Tedros Adhanom announced that Ethiopian troops were pulling out of Baidoa as the situation on the ground was relatively stable and the Somali military and AMISOM forces were now able to assume security duties. The withdrawal was well planned and coordinated. Adhanom added that a pullout could have occurred twelve months earlier, but the allied forces were at the time unprepared to take over, so the move was postponed. Additionally, he asserted that Eritrea was attempting to destabilize Somalia and environs, and that the international community should take the situation seriously since Eritrea was also still allegedly supporting Al-Shabaab. Following the Westgate shooting in Nairobi by Al Shabaab operatives, the Ethiopian government halted its plans to withdraw completely out of Somalia. In November 2013, the Ethiopian government announced that it would integrate its troops that are deployed in Somalia into the AMISOM multinational force. Somalia's Foreign Minister Fowzia Haji Yussuf welcomed the decision, stating that the move would galvanize AMISOM's campaign against the insurgent group. She also emphasized the importance of collaboration between Somalia and Ethiopia. The Ethiopian authorities' announcement came a month after a failed October bombing attempt by Al-Shabaab in the Ethiopian capital of Addis Ababa, and a week after Ethiopia received a renewed terrorism threat from the insurgent group. According to Ethiopian Ministry of Foreign Affairs spokesperson Ambassador Dina Mufti, the Ethiopian military's decision to join AMISOM is intended to render the peacekeeping operation more secure. Analysts also suggested that the move was primarily motivated by financial considerations, with the Ethiopian forces' operational costs now slated to be under AMISOM's allowance budget. It is believed that the Ethiopian military's long experience in Somali territory, its equipment such as helicopters, and the potential for closer coordination will help the allied forces advance their territorial gains. On the other hand, there is a certain amount of unease following Ethiopia's entry into AMISOM given local animosity originating from Ethiopia's heavy handed intervention in 2006. There are also fears that Al Shabaab could use Somali animosity towards Ethiopia as a rallying cry and to recruit more members. It is also believed that some Ethiopian troops in Somalia operate independently from AMISOM.
In December 2014, the Ethiopian government offered to replace the last AMISOM contingent from Sierra Leone with fresh Ethiopian military reinforcements.
In 2015, the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM), announced a new military operation against Al Shabaab, for removing it in the last strong holds in Somalia. The operation involved Ethiopian National Defence and Kenya Defence Forces too.
On 15 December 2018 there were demonstrations in the city of Baidoa in Somalia by supporters of Mukhtar Robow, a presidency candidate, who was arrested two days before by government forces and transferred to Mogadishu. Rowbow is a senior member of al-Shabab. African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) announced in a statement that its forces did not assist in Rowbow’s arrest and his transfer to Mogadishu.
Recruitment from Kenya
According to press reports, Somali and Kenyan government officials have recruited and trained Somali refugees in Kenya and Kenyan nationals who are ethnic Somalis to fight insurgents in Somalia. However, the Somali chief of military staff and spokesmen from the Kenyan government have denied this.
2010 Kenya-Al-Shabaab border clash
On 20 July 2010 border clashes between Kenya and Al-Shabaab insurgents occurred when gunmen from the militia attacked a Kenyan border patrol along the border area in Liboi, Lagdera. There was a subsequent fierce exchange of fire between the two sides leading to the deaths of 2 militia and the wounding of one Kenyan officer. Hundreds of security personnel were later deployed to the border following the clash and because of continued fighting between two militia groups in the neighbouring town of Dobley, Somalia. Al-Shabaab had previously claimed responsibility for a deadly suicide bombing in Uganda in July.
Operation Linda Nchi
In October 2011, the Kenya Defence Forces began Operation Linda Nchi against Al-Shabaab in southern Somalia. The mission was officially led by the Somali armed forces , with the Kenyan armed forces providing supporting role. In early June 2012, Kenyan forces were formally integrated into AMISOM.
- Thomas Joscelyn (19 July 2018). "US amends terror designation of Shabaab to include Kenyan 'wing'". Long War Journal. Archived from the original on 23 July 2018. Retrieved 23 July 2018.
- "Exclusive: Eritrea reduces support for al Shabaab - U.N. report". Reuters. 16 July 2012.
- "How does 'poor' Eritrea afford to fund Al-Shabaab?". Africa Review. 8 November 2011. Archived from the original on 12 October 2017. Retrieved 5 July 2017.
- "ISIL's First East African Affiliate Conducts Attacks in Somalia, Kenya". DefenseNews. 29 December 2015.
- "Somalia: Pro-ISIL militants, Al Shabaab clash in deadly Puntland infighting". Garowe Online. 24 December 2015. Archived from the original on 26 January 2016. Retrieved 28 January 2016.
- "In Somalia, U.S. Escalates a Shadow War - The New York Times". Nytimes.com. 16 October 2016. Archived from the original on 23 October 2016. Retrieved 22 October 2017.
- David Brown (31 July 2017). "US airstrike kills Somalia fighter under new Trump authority". Washingtonexaminer.com. Archived from the original on 18 August 2017. Retrieved 22 October 2017.
- "Somalia: Islamist Group Supports President Sharif". Archived from the original on 19 October 2012. Retrieved 14 February 2009.
- "First British troops arrive in Somalia as part of UN mission". The Guardian. 2 May 2016. Archived from the original on 2 May 2016. Retrieved 2 May 2016.
- "Italy pledges to Somali gov't financial support to uproot Al shabaab". Shabelle. 3 November 2010. Retrieved 20 April 2011.[dead link]
- "UPDATE 3-Somali government declares Islamist rebellion defeated". reuters.com. Archived from the original on 17 November 2014. Retrieved 29 March 2015.
- "BBC News - Somalia: 'Al-Shabab' militants forced out of Jowhar". Bbc.co.uk. 9 December 2012. Archived from the original on 20 October 2018. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
- "AU troops announce new offensive against Shabaab". Capital News. Archived from the original on 21 July 2015. Retrieved 26 July 2015.
- BBC News - Somalia's al-Shabab leader Aweys 'not surrendering' Archived 27 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine. bbc.co.uk (2013-06-28). Retrieved on 2013-10-29.
- "AMISOM's new Force Commander formally assumes office - AMISOM". AMISOM. 19 July 2016. Archived from the original on 17 August 2016. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
- "Estimated to number 5,000 to 7,000 fighters", Dailt Star, 8 September 2014 (archive)
- "Somalia: Ideologial Differences Split Somalia's Al-Shabaab". allAfrica.com. 20 December 2009. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- Maruf, Haran. "IS Militants Seize Town in Somalia's Puntland". voanews.com. Voice of America. Archived from the original on 30 October 2016. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
- Kwayera, Juma (9 March 2013). "Hope alive in Somalia as UN partially lifts arms embargo". Standard Digital. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- "Frequently Asked Questions". AMISOM. Archived from the original on 1 February 2015. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
- "Etpu – United Nations Security Council Report: Somalia" (PDF). p. 12. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 April 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "Shabaab absorbs southern Islamist group, splits Hizbul Islam - The Long War Journal". longwarjournal.org. Archived from the original on 12 July 2015. Retrieved 29 March 2015.
- Tomlinson, Lucas (16 November 2017). "Hundreds more US troops now in Somalia, but Pentagon denies 'build up'". Fox News. Archived from the original on 19 February 2018. Retrieved 18 February 2018.
- UCDP Battle-Related Deaths Dataset v.5-2013, 1989-2012; Al-Shabaab battle-related deaths, best estimate: 1,403 (in 2009); 2,076 (in 2010); 1,917 (in 2011); 2,620 (in 2012)
- "Gulf of Aden Security Review – May 5, 2010". Critical Threats. Archived from the original on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "Senior Yemeni al Shabab al Qaeda commander killed in Mogadishu". Armies of Liberation. 5 December 2010. Archived from the original on 19 April 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "Fazul, le chef présumé d'al-Qaïda tué à Mogadiscio - Somalie/Comores - RFI". Rfi.fr. Archived from the original on 17 June 2011. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
- By adding The Casualties of the page "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 17 January 2013. Retrieved 25 January 2013.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Africa: Death Toll of Amisom Troops in Somalia Since 2009 Could Exceed 1,100 - Study". AllAfrica. 19 September 2015. Archived from the original on 11 February 2017. Retrieved 11 February 2017.
- "Up to 3,000 African peacekeepers killed in Somalia since 2007: U.N". Reuters. 9 May 2013. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 3 July 2017.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 14 June 2018. Retrieved 14 June 2018.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 3 September 2017. Retrieved 3 June 2017.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "ACLED Version 6 (1997–2015)". Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project. Archived from the original on 18 January 2016. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
- allafrica More Than 1,700 Killed in Clashes in 2009 Archived 12 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine, 1 January 2010
- IRIN Africa Accusations traded over rising casualties at Mogadishu market Archived 6 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine, 2 December 2010
- "Database - Uppsala Conflict Data Program". UCDP. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
- c.f. UCDP datasets for SNA, ARS/UIC and Al-Shabaab tolls.
- UCDP non-state conflict Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine tolls
- "PressTV – 100 killed in Somali bloodshed". Presstv.ir. 5 December 2010. Archived from the original on 8 December 2010. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "Somalia: 7 Killed in Violence, Aweys Crowned Hizbul Islam Chief". Allafrica.com. 26 May 2009. Archived from the original on 8 October 2012. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- Heinlein, Peter (22 October 2011). "E. African Nations Back Kenyan Offensive in Somalia". Voice of America. Archived from the original on 23 October 2011. Retrieved 23 October 2011.
- "SOMALIA: President says Godane is dead, now is the chance for the members of al-Shabaab to embrace peace". Raxanreeb. 5 September 2014. Archived from the original on 6 September 2014. Retrieved 6 September 2014.
- "Ethiopian Invasion of Somalia". Globalpolicy.org. 14 August 2007. Archived from the original on 10 September 2009. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (1 May 2009). "USCIRF Annual Report 2009 – The Commission's Watch List: Somalia". Unhcr.org. Archived from the original on 10 May 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "Moderate Islamists seize town from Somali insurgents". Monstersandcritics.com. 29 January 2009. Archived from the original on 31 July 2010. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "Moderate Islamic group claims victory over rival hardline group". Mareeg.com. 1 January 1996. Archived from the original on 3 September 2012. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "Ahlu Suna Wal Jamea supported by Ethiopian government". Ethioforum.org. Archived from the original on 13 February 2009. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "Moderate Islamist picked as Somali president". CNN. 31 January 2009. Archived from the original on 2 February 2009. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- Sheikh, Abdi (7 February 2009). "Rebels target new president". In.reuters.com. Archived from the original on 14 April 2009. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "Somalia: Islamist Groups Merge to Fight Sheikh Sharif". allAfrica. 4 February 2009. Archived from the original on 9 February 2009. Retrieved 9 June 2016.
- "Somalia: Islamic Party Insurgents Declare War On New Govt". allAfrica. 7 February 2009. Archived from the original on 7 October 2012. Retrieved 9 June 2016.
- Radical Islamists attack new president Ahmed's palace[dead link]
- "No Operation". Presstv.ir. Archived from the original on 10 April 2009. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "Somali president gears up for peace". Presstv.ir. Archived from the original on 11 June 2009. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "Somalia: President Ready to Practice Sharia Law". allAfrica. 9 February 2009. Archived from the original on 19 October 2012. Retrieved 9 June 2016.
- "Somalia: Al Shabaab Leader Speaks, More Fighting in Mogadishu". allAfrica.com. 13 May 2009. Archived from the original on 8 October 2012. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "Somalia: Al-Shabaab Spokesman Denies Media Reports". allAfrica.com. Archived from the original on 19 October 2012. Retrieved 9 June 2016.
- "Somalia: Tensions in Southwest Between Govt Forces, Al Shabaab". allAfrica.com. Archived from the original on 19 October 2012. Retrieved 9 June 2016.
- "Somalia: Government Soldiers And Islamists Fight in South-Western Town". allAfrica.com. Archived from the original on 7 October 2012. Retrieved 9 June 2016.
- "Somalia: Five Killed in Fighting Between Clan and Islamist Militias". allAfrica.com. Archived from the original on 7 October 2012. Retrieved 9 June 2016.
- "Al-Shabaab reiterates opposition to new Somali leader". Hiiraan.com. 12 February 2009. Archived from the original on 6 October 2016. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
- "Al Shabaab vow war against new govt, port attacked". Somalia Online. 13 February 2009. Archived from the original on 12 October 2017.
- "Somalia in truce with rebel group". Al Jazeera. 28 February 2009. Archived from the original on 11 March 2009. Retrieved 20 March 2009.
- "Somali rebels reject ceasefire". Al Jazeera. 1 March 2009. Archived from the original on 21 March 2009. Retrieved 20 March 2009.
- "Somalia: Elder Ahmed Diriye condemns Somali government". Archived from the original on 11 March 2009. Retrieved 21 March 2009.
- "Somalia: Al Shabaab to 'Continue War' Even If African Union Withdraws". allAfrica.com. 6 May 2009. Archived from the original on 19 October 2012. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "No Operation". Presstv.com. Archived from the original on 2 September 2012. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- Sun 17 23 May:30:24 2009 (17 May 2009). "Somalia: Al-Shabab Captures Strategic Town". allAfrica.com. Archived from the original on 8 October 2012. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "Somalia: 50 Killed in Central Somalia Clashes, Aweys 'Wounded'". allAfrica.com. 7 June 2009. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "No Operation". Presstv.com. Archived from the original on 16 June 2009. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- allafrica Parliament Asks Foreign Troops to Come Within 24 Hours Archived 23 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine, 19 June 2009
- "Somali Cabinet OKs state of emergency". Google. Associated Press. Retrieved 21 June 2009.[dead link]
- "Ethiopia rejects Somali request". BBC News. 21 June 2009. Archived from the original on 22 June 2009. Retrieved 21 June 2009.
- Mohamed, Ibrahim (21 June 2009). "Islamists vow to fight any foreign troops in Somalia". Reuters. Thompson Reuters. Archived from the original on 25 June 2009. Retrieved 21 June 2009.
- "East Africa: Al-Qaeda Threat to Peace in East Africa". allAfrica.com. 21 June 2009. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "Somalia: President Declares State of Emergency, 12 Killed in Mogadishu Clashes". allAfrica.com. 22 June 2009. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- allafrica Officials Say 'They Will Attack the TFG And Ethiopian Troops in Hiran Region' Archived 8 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine, 5 July 2009
- allafrica Military Tensions High in Hiran Region Near Ethiopia Border Archived 8 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine, 5 July 2009
- allafrica Officials Say 'Pro Government Icu Administration in Hiran Region Collapses' Archived 4 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine, 5 July 2009
- allafrica TFG Soldiers Start Military Movements in Beledweyn Town Archived 14 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine, 4 July 2009
- allafrica Harakat Al-Shabab Mujahideen Leader Calls for Government Soldiers to Hand Over Their Weapon With in Five Days Archived 4 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine, 6 July 2009
- allafrica Al-Shabaab Snatch Second French Security Adviser Kidnapped in Mogadishu Archived 4 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine, 17 July 2009
- Press TV Somalia okays French military intervention, 20 June 2009
- allafrica Warships And Helicopters Seen in Mogadishu And Merka Archived 4 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine, 23 July 2009
- French hostage escapes captors in Somalia Archived 14 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- "BBC NEWS - Africa - Somalia hostage tells of escape". bbc.co.uk. Archived from the original on 21 July 2015. Retrieved 29 March 2015.
- "Somali group issues video of French hostage". Reuters. Archived from the original on 21 July 2015. Retrieved 29 March 2015.
- "U.S. Kills Top Qaeda Militant in Southern Somalia". New York Times. 14 September 2009. Archived from the original on 18 May 2017. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
- "Etpu" (PDF). pp. 16 & 18. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 April 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "Somali factions battle in Kismayo". English.aljazeera.net. 1 October 2009. Archived from the original on 8 March 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "Civilians flee fighting in Kismayo". IRIN. 1 October 2009. Archived from the original on 5 October 2016. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
- "17 killed in renewed clashes near Kismayo". Garowe Online. 5 October 2009. Archived from the original on 7 October 2009. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "Somalia: Hizbul Islam claims to capture 'foreign fighters'". Garowe Online. 6 October 2009. Archived from the original on 10 October 2009. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "Somalia: Al-Shabaab's Encirclement Strategy". allAfrica.com. 8 December 2009. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 19 August 2010.
- "Somalia: Notorious Islamist Guerrilla Leader Joins Al Shabaab". allAfrica.com. 1 February 2010. Archived from the original on 6 February 2010. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "Somalia: Clam Returns to Bur-Hakaba After One Day of Deadly Fighting". allAfrica.com. 12 December 2010. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- allafrica Aweys Surrenders to Al Shabaab, Six Killed in Bombing Archived 23 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine
- "Somalia: Al Shabaab Leaders Condemn Each Other Publicly". allAfrica.com. 18 December 2010. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "Somalia: Al Shabaab Takes Over Region From Hizbul Islam". allAfrica.com. 14 December 2010. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "Somalia: Rival Militant Groups Set to Join Forces". allAfrica.com. 20 December 2010. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- Gettleman, Jeffrey (1 September 2010). "In Somali Civil War, Both Sides Embrace Pirates". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 29 April 2011. Retrieved 27 March 2011.
- Haji, Mustafa (2 May 2010). "Somali Islamists vow to end piracy, pirates flee with ships". Google News. Agence France-Presse. Archived from the original on 23 February 2014. Retrieved 27 March 2011.
- "SomaliaReport: AMISOM Vows To Keep Fighting For Mogadishu". somaliareport.com. Archived from the original on 26 October 2014. Retrieved 29 March 2015.
- "AMISOM Smashes Extremist's Urban Trench System". Garowe Online. 22 February 2011. Archived from the original on 1 March 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "Suicide car bomb killed 20 people in Mogadishu". Garowe Online. 21 February 2011. Archived from the original on 1 March 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "12 killed in continued clashes in Mogadishu". Garowe Online. 22 February 2011. Archived from the original on 1 March 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "15 civilians killed in Mogadishu_clashes". Garowe Online. 25 February 2011. Archived from the original on 1 March 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "Somalia's al-Shabab 'holds 18 Burundian bodies'". BBC News. 4 March 2011. Archived from the original on 30 January 2016. Retrieved 21 June 2018.
- "Ugandan Amisom peacekeepers jailed for shooting Somalis". BBC News. 16 March 2011. Archived from the original on 27 January 2016. Retrieved 21 June 2018.
- "Somalia: Govt Forces, Al Shabaab Fight in Mogadishu". allAfrica.com. 16 August 2011. Archived from the original on 20 October 2012. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
- "Deadly blast hits Somali capital". AlJazeera. 18 October 2011. Archived from the original on 19 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- "Somalia clashes force Mogadishu hospital to close". BCC. 11 October 2011. Archived from the original on 12 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- "Somalia: Mogadishu suicide bombers attack restaurant". BBC. 3 November 2012. Archived from the original on 5 November 2012. Retrieved 27 November 2012.
- "Fighting in Somalia's Puntland kills at least 27". Reuters Africa. 3 September 2011. Archived from the original on 3 September 2017. Retrieved 3 July 2017.
- "Heavy fighting in Central Somalia Claims 30 Lives". Channel 6 News. 3 September 2011. Archived from the original on 18 January 2012.
- "Somali Militants Say they have Captured 2 Kenyan Soldiers Near the Countries' Shared Border". Washington Post. 7 September 2011. Archived from the original on 8 September 2011.
- "Puntland Presents 18 Prisoners from Galkyo Counter terrorism Operations". Garowe Online. 8 September 2011. Archived from the original on 6 June 2012.
- "Somali Troops Retake Town After Rebel Raid". Reuters Africa. 12 September 2011. Archived from the original on 12 October 2017. Retrieved 3 July 2017.
- AP Article - dead link
- "Kenya's navy shells Kismayo in Somalia". BBC. 4 September 2012. Archived from the original on 4 September 2012. Retrieved 4 September 2012.
- "Kenyan forces attack last remaining stronghold of al-Qaeda-linked militants in Somalia". Associated Press. 28 September 2012. Archived from the original on 29 September 2012. Retrieved 28 September 2012.
- Chonghaile, Clar Ni (28 September 2012). "Kenyan troops launch beach assault on Somali city of Kismayo". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 29 September 2013. Retrieved 28 September 2012.
- "Pentagon Confirms Death of Somalia Terror Leader". Associated Press. 5 September 2014. Archived from the original on 6 September 2014. Retrieved 6 September 2014.
- "US confirms death of Somalia terror group leader". Associated Press. 5 September 2014. Archived from the original on 6 September 2014. Retrieved 6 September 2014.
- Tchioffo Kodjo. "AMISOM: Update on Operation Jubba Corridor-African Union - Peace and Security Department". African Union, Peace and Security Department. Archived from the original on 29 August 2015. Retrieved 1 September 2015.
- "The resurgence of Al Shabaab in Somalia and implications for the humanitarian sector". Archived from the original on 3 April 2016. Retrieved 2 April 2016.
- "US strike kills at least 150 Shebab fighters in Somalia". yahoo news. 7 March 2016. Archived from the original on 5 November 2018. Retrieved 15 August 2017.
- "US troops in helicopter-borne raid in Somalia: Pentagon". yahoo news. 9 March 2016. Archived from the original on 20 November 2018. Retrieved 15 August 2017.
- "Somalia al-Shabab: US forces took part in raid on militants". BBC News. 9 March 2016. Archived from the original on 10 October 2018. Retrieved 21 June 2018.
- "U.S., Somali commandos nab valuable Al-Shabaab figures, spokesman says". CNN. 10 March 2016. Archived from the original on 16 August 2017. Retrieved 15 August 2017.
- "U.S. air strikes kill suspected al Shabaab militants in Somalia". reuters. 12 April 2016. Archived from the original on 16 August 2017. Retrieved 15 August 2017.
- "U.S. airstrikes hit Al-Shabaab camp in Somalia after 'imminent threat'". CNN. 12 April 2016. Archived from the original on 16 August 2017. Retrieved 15 August 2017.
- "U.S. special forces wage secretive 'small wars' against terrorists". CNN. 12 May 2016. Archived from the original on 24 October 2017. Retrieved 12 May 2016.
- "U.S. Conducts Airstrike Against Al Shabab Militants in Somalia". NBC news. 12 May 2016. Archived from the original on 17 June 2016. Retrieved 18 June 2016.
- "4 US airstrikes targeted al-Shabab militants in Somalia last month". stars and stripes. 17 June 2016. Archived from the original on 16 August 2017. Retrieved 15 August 2017.
- "Mastermind of Kenya university attack killed in Somalia". CNN. 2 June 2016. Archived from the original on 3 June 2016. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "Garissa university attack plotter Mohamed Kuno 'dead'". BBC news. 1 June 2016. Archived from the original on 29 January 2019. Retrieved 21 June 2018.
- "Mogadishu hotel attack: At least 15 dead after al-Shabaab launch bomb and shooting assault in Somalia". Independent news. 1 June 2016. Archived from the original on 12 October 2017. Retrieved 18 September 2017.
- "Al Shabaab commander killed in US airstrike in Somalia". fox news. 1 June 2016. Archived from the original on 16 August 2017. Retrieved 15 August 2017.
- "Somali Forces, Backed by U.S., Kill Shabab Militants in Raid". New York Times. 16 August 2016. Archived from the original on 16 August 2017. Retrieved 15 August 2017.
- "Somalia says US air strike killed civilians not al-Shabab". BBC News. 29 September 2016. Archived from the original on 9 May 2018. Retrieved 2 October 2016.
- "Attacks on U.S. troops in Somalia leads to airstrikes on al-Shabab". militarytimes. 29 September 2016. Archived from the original on 27 June 2017. Retrieved 15 August 2017.
- Reuters (22 July 2019). "At Least 17 Killed in Bomb Attack in Somalia Capital". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 1 August 2019.
- "Suicide bomber attacks Mogadishu mayor's office". 24 July 2019. Retrieved 1 August 2019.
- "US forces increase Somalia airstrikes amid uncertainty over future". Stars and Stripes. 18 September 2017. Archived from the original on 8 October 2017. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
- "US conducts Somalia airstrike targeting al-Shabaab". CNN. 25 July 2017. Archived from the original on 19 August 2017. Retrieved 19 August 2017.
- "Navy SEAL Who Died in Somalia Was Alongside, Not Behind, Local Forces". New York Times. 9 May 2017. Archived from the original on 3 September 2017. Retrieved 3 June 2017.
- "US Navy SEAL killed in Somalia". Fox News. 5 May 2017. Archived from the original on 30 May 2017. Retrieved 3 June 2017.
- "US conducts 'precision airstrikes' in Somalia under expanded authority". CNN. 11 June 2017. Archived from the original on 16 August 2017. Retrieved 15 August 2017.
- "US confirms death of al-Shabaab terrorist Ali Jabal". Fox News. 4 August 2017. Archived from the original on 16 August 2017. Retrieved 15 August 2017.
- "US airstrikes in Somalia; high-level al-Shabab leader killed". ABC news. 10 August 2017. Archived from the original on 16 August 2017. Retrieved 15 August 2017.
- "US drone strikes target al-Shabab fighters in Somalia". 11 August 2017. Archived from the original on 15 August 2017. Retrieved 15 August 2017.
- "US troops call in airstrike after they come under fire in Somalia". CNN. 17 August 2017. Archived from the original on 22 August 2017. Retrieved 21 August 2017.
- "US Carries Out 1st Airstrikes Against ISIS in Somalia". Military.com. 4 November 2017. Archived from the original on 7 December 2017. Retrieved 7 December 2017.
- "US military launches series of strikes in Yemen and Somalia". CNN. 13 November 2017. Archived from the original on 8 December 2017. Retrieved 7 December 2017.
- "US airstrike in Somalia kills more than 100 al-Shabaab militants". CNN. 21 November 2017. Archived from the original on 8 December 2017. Retrieved 7 December 2017.
- "US drone strike in Somalia kills al-Shabab militants". Military Times. 15 November 2017. Archived from the original on 8 December 2017. Retrieved 7 December 2017.
- "US officials: Airstrike killed 13 terrorists in Somalia". CNN. 27 December 2017. Archived from the original on 9 January 2018. Retrieved 9 January 2018.
- United Nations Security Council Resolution 1772. S/RES/1772(2007) page 3. (2007) Retrieved 13 March 2008.
- "69th meeting of the peace and Security Council". Agence de Presse Africaine. 22 January 2007. Archived from the original on 28 August 2007. Retrieved 9 February 2007.
- United Nations Security Council Resolution 1744. S/RES/1744(2007) (2007) Retrieved 13 March 2008.
- United Nations Security Council Resolution 1772. S/RES/1772(2007) (2007) Retrieved 13 March 2008.
- United Nations Security Council Resolution 1801. S/RES/1801(2008) (2008) Retrieved 13 March 2008.
- United Nations Security Council Resolution 1831. S/RES/1831(2008) (2008) Retrieved 21 August 2008.
- United Nations Security Council Verbatim Report 5942. S/PV/5942 23 July 2008. Retrieved 21 August 2008.
- "Somalia Historical Chronology". Security Council Report. Archived from the original on 11 October 2008.
- "United Nations Official Document". Archived from the original on 9 April 2016. Retrieved 9 June 2016.
- Report of AMISOM amphibious assault in UK Daily Telegraph. Sept 2012. Retrieved Nov. 2012. | https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/somalia/9573160/African-Union-assault-on-Islamist-strongold-in-Somalia.html Archived 14 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine
- UNDP in Somalia: Donors and Expenditures Archived 30 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine
- Employment Generation for Early Recovery Archived 4 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- "Background Note: Somalia". US State Department. 3 January 2011. Retrieved 10 May 2011.
- "US set to formally recognise Somali government after 20-year hiatus". Reuters. 17 January 2013. Archived from the original on 18 January 2013. Retrieved 18 January 2013.
- "U.S. Set to Recognize Somali Government". VOA. 17 January 2013. Archived from the original on 20 January 2013. Retrieved 18 January 2013.
- "UN eases oldest arms embargo for Somalia". AAP. 6 March 2013. Retrieved 6 March 2013.
- "U.S. eases arms restrictions for Somalia". UPI. 9 April 2013. Archived from the original on 13 April 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
- Martinez, Luis (10 January 2014). "U.S. Military Advisers Deployed to Somalia: First Time Since Blackhawk Down". ABC News. Archived from the original on 12 January 2014. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
- "Cargo bomb plot: SAS hunting al-Qaeda in Yemen". the telegraph. 2 November 2010. Archived from the original on 22 January 2018. Retrieved 4 April 2018.
- "UK and US spend millions to counter Yemeni threat". the independent. 30 October 2010. Archived from the original on 13 September 2017. Retrieved 18 September 2017.
- "In Somalia, U.S. Escalates a Shadow War". New York Times. 16 October 2016. Archived from the original on 23 February 2017. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
- "Trump approves plan to ramp up Somalia anti-terror campaign". CNN. 30 March 2017. Archived from the original on 19 April 2017. Retrieved 18 April 2017.
- "101st Airborne troops deploy to Somalia for training mission". Stars and Stripes. 14 April 2017. Archived from the original on 19 April 2017. Retrieved 18 April 2017.
- "Somali MP arrested by Ethiopian troops". Soomaalidamaanta.net. 16 February 2009. Archived from the original on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "Somalia Security Minister attacked in Ethiopia". Garowe Online. 28 May 2009. Archived from the original on 13 March 2012. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- allafrica Ethiopian Troops Make Search Operations in Hiraan Region Archived 5 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine, 31 May 2009
- allafrica Ethiopian Troops Reach in Balanbal Town in Central Somalia Archived 4 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine, 13 June 2009
- allafrica Ethiopian Troops Say They Arrived in Balanbal Town to Fight Against Foreign Enemies in Somalia. Archived 16 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine, 14 June 2009
- allafrica Islamists Warn the Ethiopian Troops Who Poured in Parts of Central Somalia Archived 18 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine, 14 June 2009
- "Somalia: 20 Killed in Central Somalia Suicide Bombing, Including Security Minister". allAfrica.com. 18 June 2009. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 20 June 2009.
- allafrica Ethiopian Troops Return Back in Bakol Region Archived 21 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine, 19 June 2009
- allafrica Ethiopian Troops Start Searching Activities in Central Region Archived 25 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine, 22 June 2009
- allafrica Ethiopian Troops Reach Near Beledweyn Town Archived 5 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine, 2 July 2009
- allafrica Ethiopian Troops Vacate From Balanbal Town Archived 14 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine, 5 July 2009
- "Somalia: Ethiopian Troops Vacate in Yed Village in Southern Somalia". allAfrica.com. 18 July 2009. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "As Ethiopia withdraws Hiran governor quits Somalia_government". Garowe Online. 31 August 2009. Archived from the original on 5 January 2010. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "Somalia: Hizbul-Islam in Hiran region vows to attack Ethiopian troops". Somaliweyn.org. Archived from the original on 25 March 2010. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- BAIDOA (Sunatimes)–Ethiopian troops have re-entered Somalia and seize two Somali towns from the extremist rebel group of Alshabaab in two days, according to witnesses on Wedne...[dead link]
- "Somalia: Ethiopia Troops Expel Al Shabaab From Border Town". allAfrica.com. 22 April 2010. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "Somalia: Ethiopian Troops Leave From a Village in Hiran Region". allAfrica.com. 18 July 2010. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "The Scramble for Somalia | Golis News". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 11 December 2010. Retrieved 22 October 2017.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- "Islamist fighters seize Somali government seat". CNN. 26 January 2009. Archived from the original on 5 October 2010. Retrieved 12 January 2011.
- "Ethiopia troops in Somalia to battle radicals". Hiiraan.com. Archived from the original on 2 September 2010. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- Ethiopian troops cross into Somalia again, 1 September 2010
- "Somalia: Govt Forces, Ethiopian Military Clash in Central Region". allAfrica.com. 30 December 2010. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "Somalia: Moderate Ahlu Sunna Complain of Ethiopian Forces". allAfrica.com. 3 January 2011. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "Somalia: Moderate Ahlu Sunna complain of Ethiopian forces". Shabelle. 3 November 2010. Retrieved 20 April 2011.[dead link]
- Will Ross (19 November 2011). "Ethiopian troops 'cross border into Somalia'". BBC News. Archived from the original on 20 November 2011. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- "Ethiopia Agrees to Back Somalia Army Operations, IGAD Says". Businessweek. 27 November 2011. Archived from the original on 29 November 2011.
- "Ethiopian troops capture Beledweyne from Somalia militants". BBC News. 31 December 2011. Archived from the original on 31 December 2011. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
- "October 22, 2012 | Daily Monitoring Report. - AMISOM Daily Media Monitoring". Somaliamediamonitoring.org. Archived from the original on 27 January 2016. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
- "Ethiopia - No Plan for Full Troops Withdrawal From Somalia". allAfrica.com. Archived from the original on 16 November 2014. Retrieved 29 March 2015.
- "Ethiopia says no plans to withdraw troops from Somalia". africadaily.net. Archived from the original on 26 October 2014. Retrieved 29 March 2015.
- "Somali government welcomes Ethiopia AMISOM integration". Archived from the original on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 9 June 2016.
- Jacey Fortin. "Is Ethiopia on al-Shabab's hit list?". aljazeera.com. Archived from the original on 9 February 2015. Retrieved 29 March 2015.
- "Somalia: Ethiopia Decides to Join Amisom Force in Somalia". allAfrica.com. Archived from the original on 26 October 2014. Retrieved 29 March 2015.
- "Somali war expertise and superior combat kits to boost anti-terror campaign". hiiraan.com. Archived from the original on 26 October 2014. Retrieved 29 March 2015.
- Malkhadir Muhumed. "Somalis balk at plans for Ethiopian troops". aljazeera.com. Archived from the original on 8 March 2015. Retrieved 29 March 2015.
- "Somalia unrest: Baidoa raid 'leaves eight dead'". BBC. Archived from the original on 15 March 2015. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
- "Ethiopia says ready to boost Somalia troops after SLeone exit". Yahoo News. 22 December 2014. Archived from the original on 25 December 2014. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
- "US Says Airstrike in Somalia Killed 8 Militants". Archived from the original on 18 December 2018. Retrieved 17 December 2018.
- "AU force in Somalia says not involved in ex-al-Shabaab arrest". Archived from the original on 18 December 2018. Retrieved 17 December 2018.
- "AP IMPACT: Kenyans recruited to fight in Somalia". Associated Press via Newsday. 16 November 2009. Archived from the original on 6 October 2016. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
- Ali, Noor.2 Kenyan forces, al-Shabaab rebels clash on border Archived 3 September 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Reuters, 20 July 2010.
- Border security intensified as rival militias clash, The Standard, 29 July 2010.
- Joint Communique – Operation Linda Nchi
- "Somalia government supports Kenyan forces' mission". Standardmedia.co.ke. Archived from the original on 14 March 2012.
- "Kenya: Defense Ministers appointed as acting Internal Security Minister". Garowe Online. 19 June 2012. Archived from the original on 30 November 2012. Retrieved 20 June 2012.