Book of Ezekiel 30:13–18 in an English manuscript from early 13th century, MS. Bodl. Or. 62, fol. 59a. A Latin translation appears in the margins with further interlineations above the Hebrew.
|Book||Book of Ezekiel|
|Hebrew Bible part||Nevi'im|
|Order in the Hebrew part||7|
|Christian Bible part||Old Testament|
|Order in the Christian part||26|
Ezekiel 38 is the thirty-eighth chapter of the Book of Ezekiel in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. This book contains the prophecies spoken by the prophet Ezekiel, and is a part of the Books of the Prophets. This chapter and the next form a section dealing with "Gog, of the land of Magog."
The original text is written in Hebrew language. This chapter is divided into 23 verses. The text can be found in the Masoretic Text (10th century AD). It is also found in the Dead Sea Scrolls: (2nd century BC).
There is also a translation into Koine Greek known as the Septuagint, made in the last few centuries BC. Extant ancient manuscripts of the Septuagint version include Codex Vaticanus (B; B; 4th century), Codex Sinaiticus (S; BHK: S; 4th century), Codex Alexandrinus (A; A; 5th century) and Codex Marchalianus (Q; Q; 6th century).
War of Ezekiel 38–39
The War of Ezekiel 38–39 or The War of Gog and Magog is an episode described in the Book of Ezekiel chapters 38–39 which details how Gog of Magog (meaning "Gog from the Land of Gog") and his hordes from the north will threaten and attack the restored land of Israel. The chapters describe that God will make his presence known through an earthquake, and send torrential rains, hailstone, fire, and sulfur - subsequently destroying Gog and Magog. Following the defeat of Gog, God will establish a new Temple where he will dwell forever with his people (chapters 40-48). The underlying theological message is that even so fearsome an enemy as this is ultimately under the control of the God of Israel, since it is God himself who says to Gog, "I will bring you against my land."
- "Son of man, set your face against Gog, of the land of Magog, the prince of Rosh, Meshech, and Tubal, and prophesy against him" (NKJV)
- "Son of man" (Hebrew: בן־אדם  - ): this phrase is used 93 times to address Ezekiel.
- "Rosh" (Hebrew: ראש  In conjunction to the preceding word "prince", most English Bibles translates them as "chief prince." : can also be translated as "head" (of human and animal); "top" (of the mountain); "beginning" (of time); "river-head"; "chief" (as in "chief-prince", "chief-priest", head of the family).
Notes and references
- Clements 1996, p. 170.
- Timothy A. J. Jull; Douglas J. Donahue; Magen Broshi; Emanuel Tov (1995). "Radiocarbon Dating of Scrolls and Linen Fragments from the Judean Desert". Radiocarbon. 38 (1): 14. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
- Würthwein 1995, pp. 73-74.
- Bullock, p.301
- Petersen, p.158
- Ezekiel 38:2
- Bromiley 1995, p. 574.
- Brown, 1994 & "רוּחַ".
- Gesenius, 1979 & "רוּחַ".
- The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocrypha, Augmented Third Edition, New Revised Standard Version, Indexed. Michael D. Coogan, Marc Brettler, Carol A. Newsom, Editors. Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA; 2007. p. 1235-1236 Hebrew Bible. ISBN 978-0195288810
- Blenkinsopp, Joseph. "A history of prophecy in Israel" (Westminster John Knox Press, 1996)
- Bromiley, Geoffrey W. (1995). International Standard Bible Encyclopedia: vol. iv, Q-Z. Eerdmans.
- Brown, Francis; Briggs, Charles A.; Driver, S. R. (1994). The Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon (reprint ed.). Hendrickson Publishers. ISBN 978-1565632066.
- Bullock, C. Hassell. "An Introduction to the Old Testament Prophetic Books" (Moody Press, 1986)
- Clements, Ronald E (1996). Ezekiel. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 9780664252724.
- Gesenius, H. W. F. (1979). Gesenius' Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon to the Old Testament Scriptures: Numerically Coded to Strong's Exhaustive Concordance, with an English Index. Translated by Tregelles, Samuel Prideaux (7th ed.). Baker Book House.
- Grabbe, Lester L., and Robert Hakke (eds), "'Every city shall be forsaken': urbanism and prophecy in ancient Israel and the Near East" (Sheffield Academic Press, 2001)
- Joyce, Paul M. (2009). Ezekiel: A Commentary. Continuum. ISBN 9780567483614.
- Petersen, David L. "The prophetic literature: an introduction" (Westminster John Knox Press, 2002)
- Redditt, Paul L. "Introduction to the Prophets" (Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2008)
- Würthwein, Ernst (1995). The Text of the Old Testament. Translated by Rhodes, Erroll F. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans. ISBN 0-8028-0788-7. Retrieved January 26, 2019.