Ezekiel 38

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Ezekiel 38
Book of Ezekiel.jpg
Book of Ezekiel 30:13–18 in an English manuscript from early 13th century, MS. Bodl. Or. 62, fol. 59a. A Latin translation appears in the margins with further interlineations above the Hebrew.
BookBook of Ezekiel
Hebrew Bible partNevi'im
Order in the Hebrew part7
CategoryLatter Prophets
Christian Bible partOld Testament
Order in the Christian part26

Ezekiel 38 is the thirty-eighth chapter of the Book of Ezekiel in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. This book contains the prophecies attributed to the prophet/priest Ezekiel, and is one of the Books of the Prophets. This and the following chapter form a section dealing with "Gog, of the land of Magog".[1]


Some early manuscripts containing the text of this chapter in Hebrew are of the Masoretic Text tradition, which includes the Codex Cairensis (895), the Petersburg Codex of the Prophets (916), Aleppo Codex (10th century), and Codex Leningradensis (1008).[2] Fragments containing parts of this chapter were found among the Dead Sea Scrolls, that is, the Ezekiel Scroll from Masada (Mas 1d; MasEzek; 1–50 CE) with extant verses 1–4, 7–8.[3][4][5]

There is also a translation into Koine Greek known as the Septuagint, made in the last few centuries BC. Extant ancient manuscripts of the Septuagint version include Codex Vaticanus (B; B; 4th century), Codex Alexandrinus (A; A; 5th century) and Codex Marchalianus (Q; Q; 6th century).[6][a]

War of Ezekiel 38–39[edit]

The account of the War of Ezekiel 38–39 or the War of Gog and Magog in chapters 38 and 39 details how Gog of Magog, meaning "Gog from the Land of Magog" or "Gog from the Land of Gog" (the syllable ma being treated as equivalent to "land" [8]), and his hordes from the north will threaten and attack the restored land of Israel. The chapters describe how God will make his presence known through an earthquake, and send torrential rains, hailstone, fire, and sulfur - subsequently destroying Gog and Magog. Following the defeat of Gog, God will establish a new Temple where he will dwell forever with his people (chapters 40-48).[9] Theologian David Petersen refers to an underlying theological message, that even so fearsome an enemy as this is ultimately under the control of the God of Israel, since it is God himself who says to Gog, "I will bring you against my land".[10]

Verse 2[edit]

"Son of man, set your face against Gog, of the land of Magog, the prince of Rosh, Meshech, and Tubal, and prophesy against him" (NKJV)[11]
  • "Son of man" (Hebrew: בן־אדם ḇen-’ā-ḏām): this phrase is used 93 times to address Ezekiel.[12]
  • "Rosh" (Hebrew: ראש rōsh: can also be translated as "head" (of human and animal); "top" (of the mountain); "beginning" (of time); "river-head"; "chief" (as in "chief-prince", "chief-priest", head of the family).[13][14] In conjunction to the preceding word "prince", most English Bibles translates them as "chief prince."[15]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Ezekiel is missing from the extant Codex Sinaiticus.[7]


  1. ^ Clements 1996, p. 170.
  2. ^ Würthwein 1995, pp. 35-37.
  3. ^ Fitzmyer, Joseph A. (2008). A Guide to the Dead Sea Scrolls and Related Literature. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 149. ISBN 9780802862419. Retrieved February 15, 2019.
  4. ^ Dead sea scrolls - Ezekiel
  5. ^ Mas 1d at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  6. ^ Würthwein 1995, pp. 73-74.
  7. ^ Shepherd, Michael (2018). A Commentary on the Book of the Twelve: The Minor Prophets. Kregel Exegetical Library. Kregel Academic. p. 13. ISBN 978-0825444593.
  8. ^ Pulpit Commentary on Ezekiel 38, accessed 1 January 2020
  9. ^ Bullock, p.301
  10. ^ Petersen, p.158
  11. ^ Ezekiel 38:2
  12. ^ Bromiley 1995, p. 574.
  13. ^ Brown, Briggs & Driver 1994 "רוּחַ"
  14. ^ Gesenius 1979 "רוּחַ"
  15. ^ The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocrypha, Augmented Third Edition, New Revised Standard Version, Indexed. Michael D. Coogan, Marc Brettler, Carol A. Newsom, Editors. Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA; 2007. p. 1235-1236 Hebrew Bible. ISBN 978-0195288810


External links[edit]