List of wars of independence

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This is a list of wars of independence (also called liberation wars). These wars may or may not have been successful in achieving a goal of independence.

List[edit]

Dates Name Independent state Original state Result
1038–1047 Miecław's Rebellion Miecław's State Duchy of Poland Defeat of Miecław; his state is reincorporated into Poland
1185–1188 Uprising of Asen and Peter Bulgaria  Byzantine Empire Independence of Bulgaria from the Byzantine Empire; creation of the Second Bulgarian Empire
1296–1357 Wars of Scottish Independence Scotland England Scotland retains its status as an independent nation
1468–1500 Kazakh War of Independence Kazakh Khanate Uzbek Khanate Kazakh Khanate maintains independence from the Uzbek Khanate
1521–1523 Swedish War of Liberation  Sweden  Kalmar Union Independence of Sweden from the Kalmar Union
1568–1648 Eighty Years' War  Netherlands Spain Independence of the Netherlands from Spain
1640–1668 Portuguese Restoration War  Portugal Spain Restoration of Portuguese independence from Spain
1680–1707 Maratha War of Independence  Maratha Empire Mughal Empire Mughals fail to annex Maratha Empire
1703–1711 Rákóczi's War of Independence Hungary  Holy Roman Empire Limited autonomy for Hungary within the Habsburg monarchy
1775–1783 American Revolutionary War
(American Revolution)
 United States  Great Britain Independence of the United States from Great Britain
1791–1804 Haitian Revolution  Haiti  France Independence of Haiti from France
1804–1813 First Serbian Uprising
(Serbian Revolution)
Serbia  Ottoman Empire Defeat of insurgents; Ottoman Empire retains control of Serbia
1808–1814 Peninsular War  Spain  France Independence of Spain from France
1810s–1820s Latin American wars of independence:

Argentine War of Independence, Bolivian War of Independence, Chilean War of Independence, Foolish Fatherland, Ecuadorian War of Independence, Mexican War of Independence, Peruvian War of Independence, Venezuelan War of Independence

Río de la Plata

 Bolivia

 Chile

Colombia

Ecuador

Mexico

 Peru

 Venezuela

 Spanish Empire Independence of many Spanish-American colonies from Spain
1814 Swedish–Norwegian War (1814) Norway Sweden Partial independence of Norway within the later United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway
1815–1817 Second Serbian Uprising
(Serbian Revolution)
 Serbia  Ottoman Empire Semi-independence of Serbia within the Ottoman Empire
1821–1829 Greek War of Independence  Greece  Ottoman Empire Independence of Greece from the Ottoman Empire
1822–1824 Brazilian War of Independence  Brazil Portuguese Empire Independence of the Empire of Brazil from the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves
1825–1828 Cisplatine War  Uruguay  Brazil

Río de la Plata

Disputed between the Empire of Brazil and United Provinces of the Río de la Plata. Independence of Uruguay from Brazil
1830–1831 November Uprising Poland  Russia Defeat of Polish insurgents. Russian retains control of Poland, introduction of the Organic Statute of the Kingdom of Poland, liquidation of Polish autonomy.
1830–1839 Belgian Revolution  Belgium  Netherlands Independence of Belgium from the Netherlands
1835–1845 Ragamuffin War  Riograndense Republic  Brazil The Riograndense Republic is dissolved; reintegration with Brazil
1835–1836 Texas Revolution  Texas  Mexico Independence of Texas from Mexico
1843–1849 Dominican War of Independence  Dominican Republic Haiti Independence of Dominican Republic from Haiti
1846 Bear Flag Revolt  California  Mexico The California Republic declares independence from the Centralist Republic of Mexico. The republic is quickly annexed by the United States
1848–1849 First Italian War of Independence  Sardinia  Austria Kingdom of Sardinia defeated by the Austrian Empire; Italian unification not achieved
1857–1858 First Indian War of Independence  India British East India Company East India Company loses power to Great Britain, vide Government of India Act 1858.
1859 Second Italian War of Independence Piedmont-Sardinia

Lombardy–Venetia

 Parma

 Modena

Tuscany

 Austria France and the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia defeat the Austrian Empire; most of the Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia transferred to France and then to Piedmont-Sardinia; Duchy of Parma, Duchy of Modena, Grand Duchy of Tuscany and the Papal Legations annexed by Piedmont-Sardinia
1861–1865 American Civil War  Confederate States  United States (Union) Defeat and dissolution of the Confederacy; U.S. territorial integrity preserved
1863–1865 January Uprising Poland  Russia Defeat of Polish insurgents; Russia retains control of Poland
1863–1865 Dominican Restoration War  Dominican Republic  Spain Independence of Dominican Republic from 4 year occupation by the Spanish Empire; ousts Spain from Hispaniola
1866 Third Italian War of Independence   Veneto  Austria Austrian Empire loses Veneto to Kingdom of Italy
1868–1878 Ten Years' War  Cuba  Spain Defeat of insurgents; Spain retains control of Cuba
1869 Red River Rebellion Métis  Canada Establishment of Provisional government of the Red River Colony
1876 April Uprising Bulgaria  Ottoman Empire Defeat of Bulgarian nationalists by the Ottoman Empire; subsequent reprisals by the Ottomans led to the Russo-Turkish War, 1877–78 and the 1878 independence of Bulgaria from the Ottoman Empire.
1877 Romanian War of Independence  Romania  Ottoman Empire Independence of Romania from the Ottoman Empire
1896–1898 Philippine Revolution  Philippines  Spain Inconclusive; Philippines independence from Spain then achieved by Spanish–American War
1895–1898 Cuban War of Independence  Cuba  Spain Independence of Cuba from Spain following four years of American occupation
1899–1913 Philippine–American War  Philippines  United States Defeat of Philippine insurgents; United States retains control of the Philippines
1902–1932 Unification of Saudi Arabia  Saudi Arabia Emirate of Jabal Shammar

Kingdom of Hejaz

Independence of Saudi Arabia from the Kingdom of Hejaz and Emirate of Jabal Shammar
1916–1918 Arab Revolt  Hejaz  Ottoman Empire Defeat of Arab aspirations for independence by post-World War I partition of Arab Ottoman Empire lands into protectorates controlled by United Kingdom and France
1917–1921 Ukrainian War of Independence  Ukraine  Soviet Russia

 Poland

Independence of Ukraine from Russia; partition of Ukraine by Soviet Union and Poland
1918–1920 Estonian War of Independence  Estonia  Soviet Russia Independence of Estonia from Russian Empire/Russian SFSR
1918–1920 Latvian War of Independence  Latvia  Soviet Russia Independence of Latvia from Russian Empire/Russian SFSR
1918–1920 Lithuanian War of Independence  Lithuania  Soviet Russia

 Poland

Independence of Lithuania from Russian Empire/Russian SFSR and Poland
1919–1921 Irish War of Independence  Ireland  United Kingdom Anglo-Irish Treaty; Partition of Ireland; secession of 26 of Ireland's 32 counties (the Irish Free State) from the United Kingdom
1919–1923 Turkish War of Independence  Turkey  Ottoman Empire

Allies of World War I

Creation of the Republic of Turkey
1920–1926 Rif War  Republic of the Rif  Spain Defeat of insurgents and Rif Republic; Spain retains control of Spanish Morocco
1927-1949 Chinese Civil War  China  Republic of China Independence of China from Republic of China
1936–1939 Waziristan Uprising Flag of Waziristan resistance (1930s).svg Waziristan British Empire Rebellion suppressed
1942-1947 Second Indian War of Independence India  United Kingdom INA captured parts of North-East India and Andaman & Nicobar Islands, later INA Trials triggered Bombay Mutiny & Royal Air Force mutiny which resulted in Indian Independence Act 1947[1]
1944–1948 Jewish insurgency in Mandatory Palestine  Israel  United Kingdom Independence of Israel from the United Kingdom
1945–1949 Indonesian National Revolution  Indonesia  Netherlands Independence of Indonesia from the Netherlands
1946–1954 First Indochina War Vietnam

 Laos

 Cambodia

 France Independence of Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia from France; partition of Vietnam
1947–1949 1948 Arab–Israeli War  Israel  United Kingdom

 Arab League

Defeat of Arabs; Israel retains independence
1952–1960 Kenyan Mau Mau Uprising  Kenya  United Kingdom Defeat of insurgents; United Kingdom retains control of Kenya
1954–1962 Algerian War Algeria  France Independence of Algeria from France
1955–1972 First Sudanese Civil War   Southern Sudan  Sudan Conflict between Sudan and South Sudan
1961–1974 Angolan War of Independence Angola  Portugal Independence of Angola from Portugal
1961–1991 Eritrean War of Independence  Eritrea  Ethiopia Independence of Eritrea from Ethiopia
1961–Ongoing Papua conflict  Free Papua  Indonesia Ongoing
1963–1974 Guinea-Bissau War of Independence  Guinea-Bissau  Portugal Independence of Guinea-Bissau from Portugal
1964–1979 Zimbabwe War of Liberation  Zimbabwe  Rhodesia Defeat of unrecognized Republic of Rhodesia; internationally recognized independence of Zimbabwe
1964–1974 Mozambican War of Independence  Mozambique  Portugal Independence of Mozambique from Portugal
1966–1988 Namibian War of Independence Namibia  South Africa Independence of Namibia from South Africa
1967–1970 Nigerian Civil War  Biafra  Nigeria Defeat and dissolution of the Republic of Biafra
1971 Bangladesh Liberation War  Bangladesh  Pakistan Independence of Bangladesh from Pakistan
1975–Ongoing Cabinda War Cabinda  Angola Ongoing
1975–1991 Western Sahara War  Western Sahara  Morocco Partition of Western Sahara between Morocco and Sahrawi Republic
1976-2005 Insurgency in Aceh Free Aceh Movement  Indonesia Special autonomy granted to Aceh, disarmament of the GAM
1981–1991 Somaliland War of Independence Somali National Movement  Somalia De facto independence of Somaliland from Somalia
1982–Ongoing Casamance conflict  Casamance  Senegal Low-level conflict since 2014
1983–2005 Second Sudanese Civil War  South Sudan  Sudan Independence of South Sudan from Sudan
1988–1994 First Nagorno-Karabakh War  Artsakh  Azerbaijan De facto independence of the Republic of Artsakh from Azerbaijan
1988–1998 Bougainville Civil War  Bougainville  Papua New Guinea Bougainville receives autonomy in 2002; voted in favour of independence in 2019
1990–1992 Transnistria War  Transnistria  Moldova De facto independence of Transnistria from Moldova
1991–1992 South Ossetia War  South Ossetia  Georgia De facto independence for South Ossetia from Georgia
1991 Liberation of Kuwait  Kuwait  Iraq Part of the Gulf War; Kuwait regains independence
1991–1995 Croatian War of Independence  Croatia  Yugoslavia Independence of Croatia from Yugoslavia
1991 Ten-Day War  Slovenia  Yugoslavia Independence of Slovenia from Yugoslavia
1992–1993 War in Abkhazia  Abkhazia  Georgia De facto independence for Abkhazia from Georgia
1993–1996 First Chechen War  Chechen Republic of Ichkeria  Russia Chechnya maintains de facto independence from Russia
1998–1999 Kosovo War  Republic of Kosova  Serbia & Montenegro No legal changes to Yugoslav borders according to the Resolution 1244, but de facto independence of Kosovo from the rest of Yugoslavia
1999–2009 Second Chechen War  Chechen Republic of Ichkeria  Russia Defeat of Chechnya; reincorporation into Russia
2012 Tuareg rebellion (2012)  Azawad  Mali Unrecognized independence of Azawad from Mali; renounced it's independence in 2013
2014–Ongoing Russo-Ukrainian War  Ukraine  Russia Also called a "rebirth," or a war of independence from Russia by some Ukrainian sources.[2][3][4]
2014–2022 War in Donbas  Donetsk People's Republic

 Luhansk People's Republic

 Ukraine Part of the Russo-Ukrainian War; recognition of independence by Russia on 21 February 2022; annexed by Russia on September the same year.
2017–Ongoing Anglophone Crisis  Ambazonia  Cameroon Ongoing
2020–Ongoing Western Togoland Rebellion Western Togoland  Ghana Ongoing

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bhat D. "RIN mutiny gave a jolt to the British". The Tribune. Retrieved 2007-09-02.
  2. ^ "Ukraine will fight to the end: Zelenskyy's Independence Day vow". Al Jazeera. August 24, 2022. Archived from the original on August 31, 2022. A new nation appeared in the world on February 24 at 4 o'clock in the morning. It was not born, but reborn.
  3. ^ "Російсько-український конфлікт: проміжні підсумки" [The Russian-Ukrainian conflict: interim results]. DT.ua (in Ukrainian). 23 October 2015. Currently, Ukraine is experiencing the third round of struggle for independence in 100 years
  4. ^ ""Війна на сході — це війна за незалежність України", — Зеленський в Польщі (відео)" ["The war in the east is a war for the independence of Ukraine," — Zelenskyy in Poland (video)]. FOCUS (in Ukrainian). 3 May 2021. Archived from the original on 23 March 2022. We have been fighting for independence for many decades. And today the same thing is happening in the east of our country. We are fighting for our independence again.