Warang Citi

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Warang Citi
Varang Kshiti
CreatorLako Bodra
Parent systems
original invention
  • Warang Citi
ISO 15924Wara, 262
Unicode alias
Warang Citi
Final Accepted Script Proposal

Warang Citi (also written Varang Kshiti or Barang Kshiti; Ho: 𑢹𑣗𑣁𑣜𑣊 𑣏𑣂𑣕𑣂,[1] IPA: /wɐrɐŋ ʧɪt̪ɪ/) is an abugida invented by Lako Bodra, used in primary and adult education and in various publications. It is used to write Ho, a language used in the Indian states of Jharkhand, Odisha, West Bengal, Bihar, Chhattisgarh and Assam.[2]

Community leader Bodra invented it as an alternative to the writing systems devised by Christian missionaries. He claims that the alphabet was invented in the 13th century by Deowan Turi, and that it was rediscovered in a shamanistic vision and modernized by Lako Bodra. The script begins with the letter Ong, the first sound for the creation of the universe and has 32 letters in total with capital and small letters. It is written from left to right in horizontal lines, and each consonant has an inherent vowel, usually /a/ but sometimes /o/ or /e/.

Warang Chiti script

Warang Citi uses its own set of digits.[1]

It has mainly gained acceptance among the easternmost group of speakers and is more prevalent among those who have been educated in it. Many other speakers prefer oral transmission of knowledge, Devanagari, or even Latin, but it holds prestige among many Ho speakers.


It is classified formally as an abugida, but it has many features of a proper alphabet. It follows capitalization rules as are done in English and follows English punctuation. Vowels are added after consonants like in alphabets, but consonants may have the inherent vowel that is present in most Indic languages, so it is ambiguous. There are few ligatures that combine to form new sounds, and there are conjunct consonants that are used as well by stacking in some cases.

Vowel Name IPA
𑢠𑣀 Ang ◌̃
𑢡𑣁 Aa ɐ
𑢢𑣂 Wi ɪ
𑢣𑣃 Yu ʊ
𑢨𑣈 E ɛ
𑢩𑣉 O o̞
𑢤𑣄 Heya ʔ
𑢥𑣅 Yo j
𑢦𑣆 Ii ɐɪ
𑢧𑣇 Uu
         Capital Letters                                            Small Letters                                       Numerical 
   𑢡  𑢢   𑢣  𑢨  𑢩   𑢤  𑢥 𑢦  𑢧                          𑣀  𑣁  𑣂  𑣃  𑣈  𑣉   𑣄  𑣅  𑣆  𑣇                 𑣠  𑣡  𑣢  𑣣  𑣤  𑣥  𑣦  𑣧  𑣨  𑣩       
 𑢪  𑢫  𑢬  𑢭  𑢮  𑢯   𑢰   𑢱  𑢲 𑢳                          𑣊  𑣋  𑣌  𑣍  𑣎  𑣏  𑣐  𑣑  𑣒  𑣓                 𑣪  𑣫  𑣬  𑣭  𑣮 𑣯  𑣰   𑣱  𑣲 
 𑢴  𑢵 𑢶  𑢷  𑢸  𑢹  𑢺   𑢻  𑢼  𑢽                          𑣔 𑣕  𑣖  𑣗 𑣘 𑣙  𑣚  𑣛   𑣜  𑣝                 
 𑢾 𑢿  𑣿                                                     𑣞    𑣿


Warang Citi was added to the Unicode Standard in June 2014 with the release of version 7.0.

The Unicode block for Warang Citi is U+118A0–U+118FF. Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points:

Warang Citi[1][2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+118Ax 𑢠 𑢡 𑢢 𑢣 𑢤 𑢥 𑢦 𑢧 𑢨 𑢩 𑢪 𑢫 𑢬 𑢭 𑢮 𑢯
U+118Bx 𑢰 𑢱 𑢲 𑢳 𑢴 𑢵 𑢶 𑢷 𑢸 𑢹 𑢺 𑢻 𑢼 𑢽 𑢾 𑢿
U+118Cx 𑣀 𑣁 𑣂 𑣃 𑣄 𑣅 𑣆 𑣇 𑣈 𑣉 𑣊 𑣋 𑣌 𑣍 𑣎 𑣏
U+118Dx 𑣐 𑣑 𑣒 𑣓 𑣔 𑣕 𑣖 𑣗 𑣘 𑣙 𑣚 𑣛 𑣜 𑣝 𑣞 𑣟
U+118Ex 𑣠 𑣡 𑣢 𑣣 𑣤 𑣥 𑣦 𑣧 𑣨 𑣩 𑣪 𑣫 𑣬 𑣭 𑣮 𑣯
U+118Fx 𑣰 𑣱 𑣲 𑣿
1.^ As of Unicode version 12.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

𑢹𑣗𑣁𑣜𑣊 𑣏𑣂𑣕𑣂 𑣜𑣄 𑣟𑣌𑣂 - 𑢹𑣗𑣁𑣜𑣊-𑣝𑣂𑣜𑣂𑣎𑣓'𑣄 𑣖𑣁𑣊 𑣝𑣛𑣂 𑣏𑣂 𑣝𑣅𑣑 𑣝𑣃𑣜 𑣝𑣛𑣂 𑣋𑣈𑣌𑣉 𑣖𑣈𑣕𑣄, 𑣉𑣌𑣉𑣓𑣁 𑣏𑣂 𑣎𑣁 𑣎𑣉𑣜𑣊 𑣌𑣁 𑣗𑣉𑣔𑣉𑣚 𑣜𑣈𑣓𑣙 𑣓𑣁. 𑣏𑣂𑣌𑣁 𑣟𑣂𑣒𑣂𑣅𑣁'𑣄 𑣖𑣁𑣊 𑣜𑣄𑣁 𑣝𑣛𑣂 . 𑣔𑣇 𑣔𑣇 𑣗𑣃 𑣎𑣉𑣓𑣉𑣖𑣉𑣄 𑣔𑣇 𑣔𑣇 𑣖𑣓𑣉𑣁𑣙 𑣎𑣕𑣂 𑣌𑣉𑣅𑣕𑣈 𑣈𑣓 𑣝𑣛𑣂 𑣋𑣈 𑣁𑣏𑣃𑣜𑣈𑣓𑣁. 𑣈𑣓𑣁 𑣖𑣈𑣓𑣕𑣈 𑣋𑣈 𑣓𑣈𑣓𑣁 𑢹𑣗𑣁𑣜𑣊 𑣚𑣂𑣘𑣂 𑣖𑣈𑣓𑣉𑣄 𑣕𑣓𑣁. 𑣈𑣓 𑣚𑣈𑣌𑣁𑣋𑣈 𑣏𑣂𑣕𑣂 𑣅𑣉𑣙 𑢹𑣗𑣁𑣜𑣊 𑣏𑣂𑣕𑣂 𑣖𑣈𑣓𑣉𑣄 𑣕𑣓𑣁. 𑢽𑣃𑣖𑣊 𑣓𑣂𑣖𑣂𑣓𑣀 𑣔𑣉 𑣗𑣓𑣉 𑣓𑣈𑣓 𑣙𑣉𑣉 𑣙𑣅𑣖 𑣚𑣂𑣘𑣂 𑣏𑣂𑣕𑣂 𑣙𑣗𑣁𑣜𑣊 𑣚𑣂𑣕𑣂 𑣏𑣂𑣕𑣂 𑣟𑣌𑣂 𑣓𑣃𑣕𑣃𑣖 𑣙𑣉𑣗𑣁 𑣅𑣓 𑣕𑣈𑣅𑣄 𑣜𑣈𑣅𑣄 𑣁𑣉𑣙 𑣌𑣎𑣂 𑣔𑣉 𑣖𑣈𑣓𑣄 𑣋𑣈𑣅𑣁 𑣏𑣂𑣌𑣁 𑣓𑣈𑣓 𑣘𑣉𑣔 𑣕𑣈 𑣟𑣘𑣁 𑣁𑣒𑣌𑣜 𑣔𑣘𑣁𑣉𑣄 𑣁𑣄. 𑣏𑣂𑣌𑣁 𑣙𑣉𑣉 𑣘𑣉𑣔 :- 𑢽𑣂𑣜𑣂𑣖𑣁 𑣜𑣈𑣖𑣁 𑣚𑣂𑣘𑣂 𑣓𑣉𑣕𑣈 𑣜𑣈𑣖𑣁 ....𑣈𑣊𑣋𑣍 𑣁𑣘𑣃𑣍 𑣚𑣈𑣌𑣍 𑣏𑣂𑣓 𑣁𑣖𑣈𑣅𑣁.


  1. ^ a b Everson, Michael (2012-04-19). "N4259: Final proposal for encoding the Warang Citi script in the SMP of the UCS" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-08-20.
  2. ^ Ager, Simon. "Varang Kshiti alphabet". Omniglot.com.