Waray language

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Waray
Waray-Waray, Samar-Leyte Visayan
Winaray, Samareño, Lineyte-Samarnon, Binisayâ nga Winaray, Binisayâ nga Samar-Leyte, "Binisayâ nga Waray"
Native toPhilippines
RegionEastern Visayas, some parts of Masbate, and some parts of Sorsogon
EthnicityWaray people
Native speakers
2.6 million (2000 census)[1]
DialectsStandard Waray (Tacloban dialect), Northern Samar dialect, Calbayog dialect, Culaba-Biliran dialect, Abuyog dialect and other 20 identified dialects and subdialects
Latin;
Historically Baybayin
Official status
Recognised minority
language in
Regulated byKomisyon sa Wikang Filipino
Historically regulated by the Sanghiran san Binisaya ha Samar


ug Leyte
Language codes
ISO 639-2war
ISO 639-3war
Glottologwara1300[2]
Waray-Waray language map.png
Areas where Waray-Waray is spoken
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Waray is the fifth-most-spoken native regional language of the Philippines, native to Eastern Visayas. It is the native language of the Waray people and second language of the Abaknon people of Capul, Northern Samar and some Cebuano-speaking peoples of eastern and southern parts of Leyte island. It is the third most spoken language among the Visayan languages, only behind Hiligaynon and Cebuano.

Terminology[edit]

The language name comes from the word often heard by non-speakers, "waray" (meaning "none" or "nothing" in Waray); similarly, Cebuanos are known in Leyte as "mga Kana" and their language as "Kana" (after the oft-heard word "kana", meaning "that" in the Cebuano language).[not verified in body]

During the Spanish period, texts refer to the language as simply being a dialect of "Visayan" (most linguists today consider many of these "Visayan dialects"- e.g. Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Karay-a, etc. - to be distinct languages). Domingo Ezguerra's 1663 (reprinted 1747) Arte de la lengua bisaya de la provincia de Leyte refers to the "Visayan tongue of the province of Leyte", Figueroa's Arte del idioma Visaya de Samar y Leyte refers to the "Visaya language of Samar and Leyte". Antonio Sanchez's 1914 "Diccionario español-bisaya" (Spanish-Visayan Dictionary) refers to the speech of "Sámar and Leyte".

Dialects[edit]

Linguist Jason Lobel (2009) considers there are 25 dialects and subdialects of Waray-Waray.[3]

  • Tacloban: "standard" dialect: the dialect used in television and radio broadcasts and in education
  • Abuyog, Leyte: heavy Cebuano influence
  • Culaba, Biliran: heavy Cebuano influence
  • Catbalogan: "original" dialect: Pure Waray, central part of Samar Island
  • Calbayog: mixture of the Tacloban dialect and the dialect of Northern Samar
  • Allen, Northern Samar: mostly Southern Sorsoganon mixed with Northern Samarenyo. Dialects in neighboring towns have also borrowed extensively from Southern Sorsoganon.

Waray is characterized by a unique sound change in which Proto-Bisayan *s becomes /h/ in a small number of common grammatical morphemes. This sound change occurs in all areas of Samar south of the municipalities of Santa Margarita, Matuginao, Las Navas, and Gamay (roughly corresponding to the provinces of Samar and Eastern Samar, but not Northern Samar), as well as in all of the Waray-speaking areas of Leyte, except the towns of Javier and Abuyog. However, this sound change is an areal feature rather than a strictly genetic one (Lobel 2009).[3]

Most Waray dialects in northeastern and eastern Samar have the close central unrounded vowel /ɨ/ as a reflex of Proto-Austronesian *e.[3]

Usage[edit]

Waray is one of the many regional languages found in the Philippines and used in local government. It is widely used in media particularly in television and radio broadcasts, however, not in print media because most regional newspapers are published in English.

The language is used in education from kindergarten to primary level as part of the Philippine government's K-12 program since 2012 in which pupils from Kindergarten to third grade are taught in their respective indigenous languages.

Waray is also used in the Mass in the Roman Catholic Church and in the worship services of different Christian sects in the region. Bibles in Waray are also available.[citation needed]

Phonology[edit]

Consonants[edit]

Waray has a total of 16 consonant phonemes: /p, t, k, b, d, ɡ, m, n, ŋ, s, h, w, l, ɾ, j, ʔ/.

Vowels[edit]

Waray has three native vowel phonemes: /a/ [a], /i/ [ɛ~i], and /u/ [o~ʊ, u]. Two more /e, o/ are used in Spanish loanwords.

The use of /u/ instead of an /o/ or /ɔ/ does not change the meaning. Since they are in free variation, usage varies in different dialects or sociolects.

Grammar[edit]

Writing system[edit]

Waray, like all Philippine languages today, is written using the Latin script. There is no officially-approved orthography for the language and different writers may use differing orthographic styles. In general, it has become common to write the language following the current orthographic conventions of Filipino.

Vocabulary[edit]

Numbers[edit]

Native numbers are used for numbers one through ten. From eleven onwards, Spanish numbers are exclusively used in Waray today, their native counterparts being almost unheard of by the majority of native speakers (except for gatos for hundred and yukot for thousand). Some, specially the old ones, are spoken alongside the Spanish counterparts.

English Native Waray Derived from Spanish
one usá uno
two duhá dos
three tuló tres
four upat kuwatro
five limá singko
six unom sais/says
seven pitó syete
eight waló otso
nine siyám nuebe/nuybe
ten napúlô dies/dyis
eleven napúlô kag-usá onse
twelve napúlô kagduhá dose
thirteen napúlô kagtuló trese
fourteen napúlô kag-upat katorse
fifteen napúlô kaglimá kinse
sixteen napúlô kag-unom disisays/disisais
seventeen napúlô kagpitó disisyete
eighteen napúlô kagwaló disiotso
nineteen napúlô kagsiyám disinuybe
twenty karuhaàn baynte
twenty one karuhaàn kag-usà baynte uno
twenty two karuhaàn kagduhà baynte dos
thirty katluàn traynta
forty kap-atàn kuwarenta
fifty kalim-àn singkwenta
sixty kaunmàn saysenta/sisenta
seventy kapituàn setenta
eighty kawaluàn otsenta/ochienta
ninety kasiyamàn nobenta
one hundred usa ka gatòs syen
one thousand usa ka yukòt mil
one million usa ka milyòn milyon

Some common words and phrases[edit]

Below are examples of the Waray spoken in Metropolitan Tacloban and the nearby areas:

  • Can you understand Waray?: Nakakaintindi / Nasabut ka hin Winaray? (hin or hiton)
  • Good morning (noon / afternoon / evening): Maupay nga aga (udto / kulop / gab-i)
  • Thank you: Salamat
  • I love you: Hinihigugma ko ikaw or Ginhihigugma ko ikaw or Pina-ura ta ikaw
  • Where are you from? : Taga-diin ka? or Taga-nga-in ka?
  • What is your name? : Ano it imo ngaran?
  • Who are you?: Hin-o ka?
  • How are you? : Kumusta ka na?
  • I'm fine / In God's will: Kalu-oy sa Diyos
  • How much is this? : Tagpira ini?
  • I like this / that: Karuyag ko ini / iton.
  • I can't understand: Diri ako nakakaintindi or Diri ako nakakasabut
  • I don't know: Diri ako maaram or Ambot
  • What: Ano
  • Who: Hin-o
  • Where: Hain or Di-in or "Ngain"
  • When (future): San-o
  • When (past): Kakan-o
  • Why: Kay ano
  • How: Gin-aano?/Patiunan-o?
  • Yes: Oo
  • No: Dire or Diri
  • There: Adto or Didto or Ngadto
  • Here: Didi or Nganhi or Dinhi
  • Up: Igbaw
  • Down: Ubos
  • Top: Bawbaw
  • Bottom: Ilarom or Sirong
  • Right: Tu-o
  • Left: Wala
  • Far: Harayo
  • Near: Hirani
  • Front or in front: Atubang or Atubangan
  • Night: Gab-i
  • Day: Adlaw
  • Nothing: Waray
  • Good: Maupay
  • Beautiful: Mahusay
  • Handsome: Gwapo
  • Boy: Lalaki
  • Girl: Babayi
  • Gay: Bayot
  • Lesbian: Tomboy/Lesbyana
  • I'm a friend of...: Sangkay ako ni...
  • I'm lost here: Nawawara ak didi.
  • Maybe: Bangin
  • I wish...: Kunta

Other common words[edit]

Technical terms[edit]

  • Gold - bulawan
  • Steel - puthaw
  • Car - awto / sarakyan/ kotse" / "sasakyan
  • Airplane - edro / eroplano
  • Airport - lupadan or landingan

Astronomical terms[edit]

  • Earth - kalibutan
  • Moon - bulan; Indonesian - bulan
  • Sun - adlaw
  • Star - bituon Indonesian - bintang

Natural terms[edit]

  • Wind - hangin; Indonesian - angin
  • Fire - kalayo
  • Land - tuna; Indonesian - tanah
  • Water - lawod/tubig
  • Nature - libong
  • Mountain - bukid; Indonesian - bukit
  • Sea - dagat
  • Ocean - kalawdan Indonesian = laut i.e. ka-laut-an
  • Island - puro/isla Indonesian - pulau
  • Archipelago - kapuruan; Indonesian - kepulauan
  • River - salog
  • Lake - danaw; Indonesian - danau

Parts of the house[edit]

  • House - balay or payag
  • Room - kwarto or sulod
  • Bedroom - sulod-katurugan
  • Kitchen - kusina
  • Outdoor Kitchen - abuhan
  • Dining Room - kaunan
  • Bathroom - kubeta/kasilyas/karigu-an

Members of the Family[edit]

  • Father - amay/tatay/papa
  • Mother - iroy/nanay/mama
  • Son/Daughter - anak
  • Brother - bugto nga lalaki
  • Sister - bugto nga babayi
  • Grandparent - apoy/lolo (male) / lola (female)
  • Cousin - patod
  • Nephew/Niece - umangkon
  • Son-in-Law/Daughter-in-Law - umagad
  • Brother-in-Law/Sister-in-Law - bayaw(male) / hipag (female)
  • Father-in-Law/Mother-in-Law - ugangan
  • Oldest Child - suhag
  • Youngest Child - puto or pudo

Fashion words[edit]

  • Jeans - saruwal
  • Clothes - bado / duros
  • Belt - paha

Food[edit]

  • Bread - tinapay
  • Rice - kan-on / luto
  • Viand - sura
  • Coffee - kape
  • Vinegar - suoy

Animals[edit]

  • Dog - ayam/ iru/ ido
  • Cat - uding/ misay
  • Rat - yatot
  • Crocodile - buwaya
  • Bird - tamsi
  • Snake - halas
  • Carabao - karabaw
  • Crab - masag
  • Lobster - tapusok

Loanwords and Cognates[edit]

Waray has borrowed vocabulary extensively from other languages, especially from Spanish. These words are being adopted to fill lexical gaps of the recipient language. Spanish colonialization introduced new systems to the Philippine society.[citation needed]

Common Waray Waray words and its foreign and local origin[edit]

Indonesian/Malay Cognates[edit]
  • Mulay (English: to play)- from Indonesian mulai
  • Balay (English: house) - from Indonesian balai
  • Sarapati (English: pigeon) - from Indonesian merpati
  • Kapuruan (English: archipelago) - from Indonesian/Malay kepulauan
  • Posporo (English: match) - from Indonesian/Malay posporo
  • Mata (English: eyes) - from Indonesian/Malay mata
  • Bulan (English: moon/month) - from Indonesian/Malay bulan
  • Ini (English: this/these) - from Indonesian/Malay ini
  • Kamo (English: you [plural]) - from Indonesian/Malay kamu
Spanish[edit]
  • Abandonada (Spanish: Abandonado/a) – abandoned
  • Abaniko (Spanish: Abanico) – fan
  • Abriha (Spanish: Abrir, Filipino: Abrihin) – to open
    • Abrelata (Spanish: Abrelatas) – tin-opener/can opener
  • Abril (Spanish: Abril) – April
  • Abogado (Spanish: Abogado) – lawyer, attorney
  • Aborido (Spanish: Aburrido) – bored (used in Tagalog as 'anxious, confused')
  • Akasya (Spanish: Acacia) – acacia tree
  • Aksidente (Spanish: Accidente) – accident
  • Adurnuha (Spanish: Adornar, Filipino: Adurnuhan) – to decorate
  • Agrabiyado (Spanish: Agraviado) – being aggrieved
  • Aginaldo (Spanish: Aguinaldo) – Christmas gift
  • Agosto (Spanish: Agosto) – August
  • Ahensiya (Spanish: Agencia) – agency
  • Ahente (Spanish: Agente) – agent
  • Alahas (Spanish: Alhaja) – jewel
  • Alambre (Spanish: Alambre) – wire
  • Alkansiya (Spanish: Alcancía) – piggy bank
  • Alpilir (Spanish: Alfiler) – pin
  • Alsaha (Spanish: Alzar, Filipino: Alsahin) – Ambisyoso (Spanish: Ambicioso) – ambitious
  • Ambisyon (Spanish: Ambición) – ambitionArbularyo (Spanish: Herbolario) - Medicine man (from "Herbo" -herb)
  • Arina (Spanish: Harina) – flour
  • Arkitekto (Spanish: Arquitecto) – architect
  • Armado (Spanish: Armado) – armed
  • Armibal (Spanish: Almíbar) – syrup
  • Artista (Spanish: Artista) – artist (used in Waray Waray as 'actor/actress')
  • Ariyos (Spanish: Arreos) – tack (used in Waray Waray as 'earrings')
  • Asintado (Spanish: Asentado) – settled
  • Asero (Spanish: Acero) – steel
  • Asno (Spanish: Asno) – donkey
  • Asoge (Spanish: Azogue) – mercury
  • Asosasyon (Spanish: Asociación) – association
  • Asukal (Spanish: Azúcar) – sugar
  • Asul (Spanish: Azul) – blue
  • Asyatiko (Spanish: Asiatico) – Asian
  • Intyendeha (Spanish: Atender) – to attend to
  • Atrasado (Spanish: Atrasado) – overdue, slow (clock), backward (used in Waray Waray as 'late')
  • Ayudaha (Spanish: Ayudar, Filipino: Ayudahan) – to help
  • Banyo/Kasilyas (Spanish: Baño) – bathroom, toilet
  • Baraha (Spanish: Baraja) – deck of playing cards
  • Baratilyo (Spanish: Baratillo) – flea market (used in Waray Waray as 'bargain sale')
  • Barato (Spanish: Barato) – cheap
  • Barbero (Spanish: Barbero) – barber
  • Barbula (Spanish: Válvula) – valve
  • Bareta (Spanish Bareta) – bar
  • Bagahe (Spanish: Bagaje) – baggage
  • Baho (Spanish : Vaho) – steam (used in Waray Waray as 'foul smell')
  • Bintana (Spanish: Ventana) – window
  • Bintilador (Spanish: Ventilador) – electric fan
  • Birhen (Spanish: Virgen) – virgin
  • Bisagra (Spanish: Bisagra) – hinge
  • Bisikleta (Spanish: Bicicleta) – bicycle
  • Bisitaha (Spanish: Visitar) – to visit
  • Botika/Botica/Parmasya/Farmacia - drugstore, pharmacy
  • Conbensido (Spanish: Convencido) - convinced
  • Demanda (Spanish: Demanda) – demand
  • Demokrasiya (Spanish: Democracia) – democracy
  • Demonyo (Spanish:Demonio) – demon, evil spirit
  • Huygo (Spanish:Juego)- game (used in Waray Waray as 'gambling'
  • Hugador (Spanish:Jugador)- game (used in Waray Waray as 'gambler'
  • Dentista (Spanish: Dentista) – dentist
  • Departamento (Spanish: Departamento) – department, bureau
  • Depensa (Spanish: Defensa) – defense
  • Deposito (Spanish: Depósito) – depot (fuel), deposit (money)
  • Desisyon (Spanish: Decisión) – decision
  • Diyos/a (Spanish: Dios/a) – god/goddess
  • Doble (Spanish: Doble) – double
  • Doktor/a (Spanish: Doctor/a) – doctor
  • Don (Spanish: Don) – Mr. (used in Waray Waray to address a rich man)
  • Donya (Spanish: Doña) – Mrs. (used in Waray Waray to address a rich woman)
  • Dos (Spanish: Dos) – two
  • Dose (Spanish: Doce) – twelve
  • Dosena (Spanish: Docena) – dozen
  • Drama (Spanish: Drama) – drama
  • Droga (Spanish: Droga) – drugs
  • Karsonsilyo/Carsoncillo (Spanish: Carsoncillo) – boxer shorts (used in Waray Waray as 'shorts')
  • Marigoso (Spanish: Amargoso) - bittermelon
  • Padre (Spanish: Padre) - father (used in Waray Waray as a title for a Roman Catholic priest)
Portuguese[edit]
  • Porta (Portuguese: Porta) - door
  • Multo (Portuguese: Morto) - ghost
Nahuatl[edit]
  • Achuete (Nahuatl: Achiotl; Mexican Spanish: Achiote) – annatto seeds used to give food a reddish color
  • Kakao/Kakaw (Cacao) (Nahuatl: Cacahuatl) – cacao or cocoa
  • Sayote (Nahuatl: Chayotli; Mexican Spanish: Chayote) – a Mexican squash
  • Tiyangge (Nahuatl: Tianquiztli; Mexican Spanish: Tianguis) – seasonal markets
  • Tsokolate (Nahuatl: Xocolatl) – chocolate
Chinese[edit]
  • Bakya (Fukien Chinese) – native wooden sandals
  • Bihon – Vermicelli (made of rice flour)
  • Bitsin (Fukien Chinese: Bi chhin) – monosodium glutamate
  • Jueteng (Fukien Chinese) – illegal numbers game
  • Lumpia (Fukien Chinese) – spring rolls
English[edit]
  • Basket – basket
  • Basketbol – basketball
  • Basketbulan - basketball court
  • Bilib - believe
  • Bilyar - billiard
  • Bilyaran - billiard hall
  • Chiki - check
  • Dyipi – jeep
  • Elementari – elementary
  • Ekonomiks - economics
  • Eksport – export
  • Ekpres - express
  • Erkon - air con
  • Greyd – grade
  • Groseri – grocery
  • Hai Skul – High School
  • Iskor – score
  • Iskrin – screen
  • Ispiker - speaker
  • Keyk – cake
  • Kostomer/Kustomer – customer
  • Kompyuter – computer
  • Kondisyoner - conditioner
  • Kontrol - control
  • Krim - cream
  • Kukis - cookies
  • Lider – leader
  • Losyon - lotion
  • Manedyer – manager
  • Masel – muscle
  • Makroekonomiks - macroeconomics
  • Maikroekonomiks - microeconomics
  • Isparkol - sparkle
Cebuano[edit]
  • Bana (Cebuano: Bana) - husband

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Waray at Ethnologue (19th ed., 2016)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Waray (Philippines)". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ a b c Lobel, Jason. 2009. Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World, 914-917. Oxford: Elsevier.

Further reading[edit]

  • Dictionary English Waray-Waray/Tagalog (2005) by Tomas A. Abuyen, National Book Store, 494 pp., ISBN 971-08-6529-3.
  • Rubino, Carl. Waray-Waray. In Garry, Jane and Carl Rubino (eds.), Facts About the World's Languages, An Encyclopedia of the World's Languages: Past and Present (2001), pp. 797-800.

External links[edit]