Waray (also Waray-Waray, Samar-Leyte, Winaray, Binisaya nga Winaray, Samarenyo and Lineyte-Samarnon) is the fifth-most-spoken native [4 ] language of the Philippines, specific to the provinces of Samar, Northern Samar, Eastern Samar, Biliran, and in the north-east of Leyte Island (surrounding Tacloban). The name comes from the word often heard by non-speakers, "waray" (meaning "none" or "nothing"), in the same way that Cebuanos are known in Leyte as "mga Kana" (after the oft-heard word "kana", meaning "that", among people speaking the Cebuano language).
Dialects [ edit ]
Linguist Jason Lobel (2009) considers there are 25 dialects and subdialects of Waray-Waray.
Waray-Waray is characterized by a unique
sound change in which Proto-Bisayan *s becomes /h/ in a small number of common grammatical morphemes. This sound change occurs in all areas of Samar south of the municipalities of Santa Margarita, Matuginao, Las Navas, and Gamay (roughly corresponding to the provinces of Samar and Eastern Samar, but not Northern Samar), as well as in all of the Waray-speaking areas of Leyte, except the towns of Javier and Abuyog. However, this sound change is an areal feature rather than a strictly genetic one (Lobel 2009). [5 ]
Most Waray dialects in northeastern and
eastern Samar have the close central unrounded vowel /ɨ/ as a reflex of Proto-Austronesian *e. [5 ]
Waray is one of the 19 officially recognized
regional languages in the Philippines and used in local government.
However, print media in this language are rare because most regional newspapers are published in English. The language is also used in the Eucharistic celebrations or Holy Masses in the
Roman Catholic Church in the region. Bibles published in Waray are also available.
Loanwords [ edit ]
The language of Waray has borrowed vocabulary extensively from other languages.
lexical gaps of the recipient language. Spanish colonialization introduced new systems to the Philippine society.
These words are being adopted to fill
See also [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
^ Waray at (18th ed., 2015) Ethnologue
^ Philippine Census, 2000. Table 11. Household Population by Ethnicity, Sex and Region: 2000
^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Waray (Philippines)". . Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. Glottolog
^ . SIL International. Waray-Waray Ethnologue
^ a b c Lobel, Jason. 2009. , 914-917. Oxford: Elsevier. Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World
Further reading [ edit ]
Dictionary English Waray-Waray/Tagalog (2005) by Tomas A. Abuyen, National Book Store, 494 pp.,
External links [ edit ]