|Elevation||234 m (768 ft)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
Wardha pronunciation (help·info) is a city and a municipal council in Wardha district in the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is the administrative headquarters of Wardha district. Wardha gets its name from the Wardha River which flows at the north, west and south boundaries of district. Founded in 1866, the town is now an important center for the cotton trade. It was an important part of Gandhian Era.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography and climate
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Transport
- 5 Economy
- 6 Education
- 7 Important Places
- 8 Notable People
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
Wardha was included in the empire of the Mauryas, Shungas, Satavahanas and Vakatakas. Pravarapura, modern Pavnar, was once the capital of the Vakataka dynasty. Vakatakas were contemporaries of the Imperial Guptas. Prabhavatigupta, the daughter of Chandragupta II (Vikramaditya), was married to the Vakataka ruler Rudrasena. The period of the Vakatakas was from the 2nd to the 5th century CE. The empire stretched from the Arabian Sea in the west to the Bay of Bengal in the east, and from the Narmada River in the north to the Krishna-Godavari delta in south.
Later on, Wardha was ruled by the Chalukyas, Rashtrakutas, Yadavas, the Delhi Sultanate, the Bahamani Sultanate, the Muslim ruler of Berar, Gonds and Marathas. Raja Buland Shaha of Gonds, Raghuji of Bhonsale were the prominent rulers in the Medieval period.
During the 1850s Wardha district, (then a part of Nagpur district) fell into the hands of the British who included Wardha in the Central Province. In 1862 it was separated for convenient administrative purposes and Kawatha near Pulgaon was the district headquarters. In 1866, the district headquarters moved at Palakwadi village. The huts in the village were destroyed and a new city was constructed by English town-planner Sir Bachelor and Sir Reginald Craddock. This new city was named Wardha after the river Wardha which flows through the district.
Wardha has an adjacent city Sevagram, and both were major centers for the Indian Independence Movement, especially as the location for an annual meeting of the Indian National Congress in 1934, and Mahatma Gandhi's Ashram.
Wardha was one of the pre-planned cities of British India. The town-planners were Sir Reginald Craddock and SirBachelor. In Craddock's memory, his name was given to the district's biggest school and an important road was named after Sir Bachelor in the British period. The Craddock School was renamed Mahatma Gandhi School. The District Hospital was named King George Hospital, but was renamed later on. The stone in which the old name was carved was at main gate for more than century. It was hidden by a new name board reading District Hospital. There are many buildings of the British period in the city which include Z.P. old building, the Central Jail, the Church at Bajajwadi, the Christian cemetery etc.
Geography and climate
Wardha is located at  It has an average elevation of 234 m (768 ft)..
|Climate data for Wardha (1971–2000)|
|Record high °C (°F)||35.0
|Average high °C (°F)||28.7
|Average low °C (°F)||13.9
|Record low °C (°F)||6.7
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||16.7
|Average rainy days||0.9||1.0||0.9||0.8||1.3||8.9||13.6||12.0||9.7||3.7||0.7||1.1||54.6|
|Source: India Meteorological Department|
Wardha city is governed by a municipal council (category-A). According to the 2011 census, there are about 105,543 citizens within the municipal boundaries. Urbanisation has helped develop neighboring villages including Sindi, Sawangi, Borgaon, Pipri, Mhasala, Nalwadi and Chitoda.
As of the 2011 Indian census, Wardha district had a population of 1,296,157 Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%. Wardha has an average literacy rate of 80%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 83%, and female literacy is 76%. In Wardha, 11% of the population is under six years of age. Wardha is the largest city in Wardha district.
The population of Wardha city constitutes Hindus and Buddhists with a small percentage of Muslims, Christians, Jains and Sikhs. The main spoken languages are Marathi and Hindi. Other languages include: Marwari, Gujarati, Sindhi and Punjabi.
There are many temples, viharas, gurdwaras, Jain temples, mosques and churches of which Laxminarayan Temple (Bachchhraj Road), Lingi Mandir (Mahadeo Mandir) near Dr. Raosaheb Gade Bhavan, Vitthal Mandir (Hawaldwarpura), Ganesh Mandir (Main Road), Gajanan Maharaj Mandir, Sai mandir (M.G. Road), Digambar and Shwetambar Jain temples (mahadeopura), Shanti Stupa (Gopuri), Gurudwara (Samtanagar) are important. There is a church named St. Thomas Church in Wardha which was built by the British. It was transferred to the Church of India in 1874. CNI Church in Wardha is the main Presbyterian church before the formation of the Church of North India in 1970. CNI later established Christ Church in Sewagram.
Wardha city is well connected by roads to the other cities of Maharashtra. A newly declared National Highway No.361 (Nagpur-Wardha-Yavatmal-Nanded-Latur-Tuljapur) will pass through the city. Also Nagpur-Aurangabad-Mumbai Express Highway passes through it.
Wardha city is well connected to most of the parts of India by railways. Wardha railway station is an important rail junction on the Howrah-Nagpur-Mumbai line. The town is also connected to the southern part of the country through Sevagram railway station. Traffic on the Mumbai-Kolkata route is mainly dealt with at Wardha Station, and traffic on the Delhi-Chennai route is dealt with at Sewagram Station (formerly Wardha East station). A new Wardha–Nanded line via Yavatmal, Pusad, Deoli etc... is being constructed. Both the Delhi-Chennai and the Mumbai-Kolkata railway routes are already carrying heavy traffic and both routes are actually one between Sewagram and Nagpur stations. A new third and fourth line is under construction between Sewagram and Nagpur stations to cater to the heavy traffic.
The Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar International Airport at Nagpur is the nearest airport with scheduled air services.
Many institutions are encouraging farmers to go natural or organic but the lack of support systems either with the availability of techniques or the marketability of this produce is preventing the spread of this movement.
Wardha is becoming the second industrial hub of the Vidarbha area. This is due to its geographical location and good rail and road connectivity. A decade ago, it was industrially backward. But in the last decade many companies and industrial plants were established there.
Wardha IT park of C. Dass group is under construction at the IT park in the city. It is the second in the Vidarbha region after Nagpur. It is located at MIDC area on the Wardha-Sevagram road.
The Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences is the major medical college in the city. The Bapurao Deshmukh College of Engineering is the major engineering college in the city. The Ramkrishna Bajaj College Of Agriculture is an agriculture college in the city. The Mahatma Gandhi Antarrashtriya Hindi Vishwavidyalaya is an international lingual college in the city. There are many other private as well as government institution in Wardha. In short, some of notable institutions in Wardha are given below
• Govindram Seksaria College of Commerce
This temple is in Gopuri near Vishwa Shanti Stupa. It is a unique temple in India as it has no deity or roof. It has only walls made of granite slabs on which 18 chapters of Gitai (Shrimad-bhagwad-gita in Marathi) are inscribed. The walls enclose a beautiful little park. The temple was inaugurated by Acharya Vinoba Bhave in 1980. Beside it are two exhibitions about the lives of Acharya Vinoba Bhave and Jamnalal Bajaj.
Magan Sangrahalaya (museum)
This museum was inaugurated by Mahatma Gandhi in 1938. It is in Maganwadi near the village's center of Science. The purpose of the museum is to spread awareness about the research and development of rural industries, agriculture, dairy, various types of charkhas, khadi, handicrafts by rural artisans, methods to promote the Swadeshi movement, magandeep hkhadi bhandar, sele khadi gramodyog khadi cloth and gramodyog products, and gandhi charkha sample, for example.
Vishwa Shanti Stupa
Vishwa Shanti Stupa was a dream of Nichidatsu Fujii or Fujii guruji as he was called by Gandhi. It is beside Gitai Mandir. It is a large white stupa. Statues of Buddha are mounted on stupa in four directions. It also has a small Japanese Buddhist temple with a large park. There is a temple near the stupa where prayers are said for universal peace. It is one of many Peace Pagoda's which have been built around the world.
Sevagram Ashram was the residence of Mahatma Gandhi from 1936 to 1948. After his 1930 Dandi salt march, he decided not to return to his ashram at Sabarmati. After spending two years in jail, he travelled around India and, at the invitation of the Gandhian industrialist Jamnalal Bajaj, stayed for some time in Wardha City at Jamnalal's bungalow. In 1936, at the age of 67, Gandhiji moved to a village (which he subsequently called Sewagram - (Hindi for village of service) at the outskirts of Wardha and started to live here in a group of huts with his wife Kasturba and other disciples. This slowly grew into an ashram, where Gandhi lived with his followers for the next twelve years, until his death. The premises are very calming. Many personal items used by Gandhi and his contemporaries are preserved here including his spectacles, telephone, notebook, tables, mats, etc...
This ashram was established by Acharya Vinoba Bhave in 1934 at Pawnar on the bank of the river Dham with a spiritual purpose. He also established Brahma Vidya Mandir ashram within it. He started the Bhoodan Movement. It was also the starting point of Bharat Chhodo Andolan. Pawnar is an ancient city dating back to Mahabharata. During the Bhonsle reign Pawnar was the Vidarbha Kingdom's most important military station. During excavation for the construction of the ashram, many sculptures and idols were found which are kept at the ashram which is open to visitors.
Kelzar Ganpati temple
The Kelzar Ganpati Temple is about 26 km (16 mi) from Wardha on the Nagpur Road. This temple is on a hill and is surrounded by the scenic beauty of forests and hills near the Bor National Tiger Reserve and Bird Sanctuary. . It is a historical place and its history goes back to Vashishtha Purana.
The place is also mentioned in Mahabharata as Ekchakranagari. According to myth, Pandavas lived here during agyatvas. Bhima killed Bakasura at this place and threw him down this hill. An ancient cave where Bakasura lived is at foot of the hill and his famous well is also nearby. This well has sculptured stones on its inner wall and stairs. Remains of an old fort are also seen here. Finding sculptures during digging for any purpose is common. Sculptures relating to Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism have been found, the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) is not paying attention to this. Many sculptures have been ruined due to lack of proper care. Some sculptures can be seen in this temple, on a nearby hillock, the gram panchayat office, the Buddha Vihar and at emerging Angel's Paradise English Medium School with its huge campus and all the facilities for students and modern teaching techniques.
Wardha is associated with number of great personalities. Some of them are
- Wardha District at a Glance Archived 4 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine.. Wardha.nic.in. Retrieved on 2013-05-04.
- "Ahmedabad Climatological Table Period: 1971–2000". India Meteorological Department. Retrieved 18 April 2016.
- "Ever recorded Maximum and minimum temperatures up to 2010" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 May 2013. Retrieved 18 April 2016.
- Wardha City Population Census 2011 | Maharashtra. Census2011.co.in. Retrieved on 2013-05-04.
- "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01.
- Wardha District Population Census 2011, Maharashtra literacy sex ratio and density. Census2011.co.in. Retrieved on 2013-05-04.
- Desai, Mahadev (1968). Day-to-day with Gandhi: Secretary's Diary. Mahadev Haribhai Desai.
- "The history of Sewagram". gandhiashramsevagram.org/. The Gandhi Ashram, Sevagram (Official website). Retrieved 17 June 2014.