Jump to content

Warner Bros.

Page semi-protected
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Warner Bros. Entertainment Inc.
Warner Bros.
Company typeSubsidiary
PredecessorWarner Features Company
FoundedApril 4, 1923; 101 years ago (1923-04-04)
Headquarters4000 Warner Blvd., ,
Area served
Key people
RevenueDecrease US$12.15 billion (2020)
Decrease US$2.07 billion (2020)
Number of employees
est. 8,000 (2014)
ParentWarner Bros. Discovery
Websitewww.warnerbros.com Edit this at Wikidata
Footnotes / references

Warner Bros. Entertainment Inc. (commonly known as Warner Bros.,[a] or abbreviated as WB, or WBEI) is an American film and entertainment studio headquartered at the Warner Bros. Studios complex in Burbank, California, and a subsidiary of Warner Bros. Discovery (WBD). Founded in 1923 by four brothers, Harry, Albert, Sam, and Jack Warner, the company established itself as a leader in the American film industry before diversifying into animation, television, and video games, and is one of the "Big Five" major American film studios, as well as a member of the Motion Picture Association (MPA).

The company is known for its film studio division, the Warner Bros. Motion Picture Group, which includes Warner Bros. Pictures, New Line Cinema, Warner Bros. Pictures Animation, Castle Rock Entertainment, DC Studios, and the Warner Bros. Television Group. Bugs Bunny, a character created for the Looney Tunes series, is the company's official mascot.



The company's name originated from the founding Warner brothers (born Wonsal, Woron, and Wonskolaser[8][9][10] before Anglicization):[11][12] Harry, Albert, Sam, and Jack Warner. Harry, Albert and Sam emigrated as young children with their Polish-Jewish[13][14][15][16] mother to the United States from Krasnosielc, Poland (then part of Congress Poland within the Russian Empire), in October 1889, a year after their father emigrated to the U.S. and settled in Baltimore, Maryland. As in many other immigrant families, the elder Wonsal children gradually acquired anglicized versions of their Yiddish-sounding names: Szmuel Wonsal became Samuel Warner (nicknamed "Sam"), Hirsz Wonsal became Harry Warner, and Aaron Wonsal (although born with a given name common in the Americas) became Albert Warner.[17] Jack, the youngest brother, was born in London, Ontario, during the family's two-year residency in Canada.

The Warner brothers: Albert, Jack, Harry and Sam

The three elder brothers began in the movie theater business, having acquired a movie projector with which they showed films in the mining towns of Pennsylvania and Ohio. In the beginning,[18] Sam and Albert Warner invested $150 to present Life of an American Fireman and The Great Train Robbery. They opened their first theater, the Cascade, in New Castle, Pennsylvania, in 1903. When the original building was in danger of being demolished, the modern Warner Bros. called the current building owners and arranged to save it. The owners noted people across the country had asked them to protect it for its historical significance.[19]

In 1904, the Warners founded the Pittsburgh-based Duquesne Amusement & Supply Company,[20][21] to distribute films. In 1912, Harry Warner hired an auditor named Paul Ashley Chase. By the time of World War I, they had begun producing films; in the early 1920s they acquired their first studio facilities on Sunset Boulevard in Hollywood. Sam and Jack produced the pictures, while Harry and Albert, along with their auditor and now-controller Chase, handled finance and distribution in New York City. During World War I their first nationally syndicated film, My Four Years in Germany, based on a popular book by former ambassador James W. Gerard, was released. On April 4, 1923, with help from money loaned to Harry by his banker Motley Flint,[22] they formally incorporated as Warner Bros. Pictures, Incorporated. (As late as the 1960s, Warner Bros. claimed 1905 as its founding date.)[23]

Lobby card from Open Your Eyes (1919)
Lobby card from The Beautiful and Damned (1922)

The first important deal was the acquisition of the rights to Avery Hopwood's 1919 Broadway play, The Gold Diggers, from theatrical impresario David Belasco. However, Rin Tin Tin,[24] a dog brought from France after World War I by an American soldier, established their reputation.[25] Rin Tin Tin's third film was the feature Where the North Begins, which was so successful that Jack signed the dog to star in more films for $1,000 per week.[24] Rin Tin Tin became the studio's top star.[24] Jack nicknamed him "The Mortgage Lifter"[24] and the success boosted Darryl F. Zanuck's career.[26] Zanuck eventually became a top producer[27] and between 1928 and 1933 served as Jack's right-hand man and executive producer, with responsibilities including day-to-day film production.[28] More success came after Ernst Lubitsch was hired as head director;[26] Harry Rapf left the studio to join Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer.[29] Lubitsch's film The Marriage Circle was the studio's most successful film of 1924, and was on The New York Times best list for that year.[26]

The first logo of Warner Bros. Pictures (1923–1925)

Despite the success of Rin Tin Tin and Lubitsch, Warner's remained a lesser studio.[30] Sam and Jack decided to offer Broadway actor John Barrymore the lead role in Beau Brummel.[30] The film was so successful that Harry signed Barrymore to a long-term contract;[31] like The Marriage Circle, Beau Brummel was named one of the ten best films of the year by the Times.[31] By the end of 1924, Warner Bros. was arguably Hollywood's most successful independent studio,[31] where it competed with "The Big Three" Studios (First National, Paramount Pictures, and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM)).[32] As a result, Harry Warner—while speaking at a convention of 1,500 independent exhibitors in Milwaukee, Wisconsin—was able to convince the filmmakers to spend $500,000 in newspaper advertising,[33] and Harry saw this as an opportunity to establish theaters in places such as New York City and Los Angeles.[33]

As the studio prospered, it gained backing from Wall Street, and in 1924 Goldman Sachs arranged a major loan. With this new money, the Warners bought the pioneer Vitagraph Company which had a nationwide distribution system.[33] In 1925, Warners' also experimented in radio, establishing a successful radio station, KFWB, in Los Angeles.[34]

1925–1935: Sound, color, style

Warner Bros. was a pioneer of films with synchronized sound (then known as "talking pictures" or "talkies"). In 1925, at Sam's urging, Warner's agreed to add this feature to their productions.[35] By February 1926, the studio reported a net loss of $333,413.[36]

Movie-goers awaiting Don Juan opening at Warners' Theatre

After a long period denying Sam's request for sound, Harry agreed to change, as long as the studio's use of synchronized sound was for background music purposes only.[35] The Warners signed a contract with the sound engineer company Western Electric and established Vitaphone.[37] In 1926, Vitaphone began making films with music and effects tracks, most notably, in the feature Don Juan starring John Barrymore. The film was silent, but it featured a large number of Vitaphone shorts at the beginning. To hype Don Juan's release, Harry acquired the large Piccadilly Theater in Manhattan, New York City, and renamed it Warners' Theatre.[38]

Don Juan premiered at the Warners' Theatre in New York on August 6, 1926.[38] Throughout the early history of film distribution, theater owners hired orchestras to attend film showings, where they provided soundtracks. Through Vitaphone, Warner Bros. produced eight shorts (which were played at the beginning of every showing of Don Juan across the country) in 1926. Many film production companies questioned the necessity.[39] Don Juan did not recoup its production cost[40] and Lubitsch left for MGM.[30] By April 1927, the Big Five studios (First National, Paramount, MGM, Universal Pictures, and Producers Distributing) had ruined Warners,[41] and Western Electric renewed Warner's Vitaphone contract with terms that allowed other film companies to test sound.[41]

As a result of their financial problems, Warner Bros. took the next step and released The Jazz Singer starring Al Jolson. This movie, which includes little sound dialogue, but did feature sound segments of Jolson singing, was a sensation. It signaled the beginning of the era of "talking pictures" and the twilight of the silent era. However, Sam died the night before the opening, preventing the brothers from attending the premiere. Jack became sole head of production.[42] Sam's death also had a great effect on Jack's emotional state,[43] as Sam was arguably Jack's inspiration and favorite brother.[44] In the years to come, Jack kept the studio under tight control.[43] Firing employees was common.[45] Among those whom Jack fired were Rin Tin Tin (in 1929) and Douglas Fairbanks Jr. (in 1933), the latter having served as First National's top star since the brothers acquired the studio in 1928.[45]

Thanks to the success of The Jazz Singer, the studio was cash-rich. Jolson's next film for the company, The Singing Fool was also a success.[46] With the success of these first talkies (The Jazz Singer, Lights of New York, The Singing Fool and The Terror), Warner Bros. became a top studio and the brothers were now able to move out from the Poverty Row section of Hollywood, and acquire a much larger studio lot in Burbank.[47] They expanded by acquiring the Stanley Corporation, a major theater chain.[48] This gave them a share in rival First National Pictures, of which Stanley owned one-third.[49] In a bidding war with William Fox, Warner Bros. bought more First National shares on September 13, 1928;[50] Jack also appointed Zanuck as the manager of First National Pictures.[50]

Warner Bros.–First National Studios, Burbank, c. 1928

In 1928, Warner Bros. released Lights of New York, the first all-talking feature. Due to its success, the movie industry converted entirely to sound almost overnight. By the end of 1929, all the major studios were exclusively making sound films. In 1929, First National Pictures released their first film with Warner Bros., Noah's Ark.[51] Despite its expensive budget, Noah's Ark was profitable.[52] In 1929, Warner Bros. released On with the Show!, the first all-color all-talking feature. This was followed by Gold Diggers of Broadway which would play in theaters until 1939. The success of these pictures caused a color revolution. Warner Bros. color films from 1929 to 1931 included The Show of Shows (1929), Sally (1929), Bright Lights (1930), Golden Dawn (1930), Hold Everything (1930), Song of the Flame (1930), Song of the West (1930), The Life of the Party (1930), Sweet Kitty Bellairs (1930), Under a Texas Moon (1930), Bride of the Regiment (1930), Viennese Nights (1931), Woman Hungry (1931), Kiss Me Again (1931), 50 Million Frenchmen (1931) and Manhattan Parade (1932). In addition to these, scores of features were released with Technicolor sequences, as well as numerous Technicolor Specials short subjects. The majority of these color films were musicals.

In 1929, Warner Bros. bought the St. Louis-based theater chain Skouras Brothers Enterprises. Following this takeover, Spyros Skouras, the driving force of the chain, became general manager of the Warner Brothers Theater Circuit in America. He worked successfully in that post for two years and turned its losses into profits. Harry produced an adaptation of a Cole Porter musical titled Fifty Million Frenchmen.[53] Through First National, the studio's profit increased substantially.[54] After the success of the studio's 1929 First National film Noah's Ark, Harry agreed to make Michael Curtiz a major director at the Burbank studio.[55] Mort Blumenstock, a First National screenwriter, became a top writer at the brothers' New York headquarters.[56] In the third quarter, Warner Bros. gained complete control of First National, when Harry purchased the company's remaining one-third share from Fox.[50] The Justice Department agreed to allow the purchase if First National was maintained as a separate company.[57] When the Great Depression hit, Warner asked for and got permission to merge the two studios. Soon afterward Warner Bros. moved to the First National lot in Burbank. Though the companies merged, the Justice Department required Warner to release a few films each year under the First National name until 1938. For thirty years, certain Warner productions were identified (mainly for tax purposes) as 'A Warner Bros.–First National Picture.'

In the latter part of 1929, Jack Warner hired George Arliss to star in Disraeli,[58] which was a success.[58] Arliss won an Academy Award for Best Actor and went on to star in nine more movies for the studio.[58] In 1930, Harry acquired more theaters in Atlantic City, despite the beginning of the Great Depression.[59] In July 1930, the studio's banker, Motley Flint, was murdered by a disgruntled investor in another company.[60]

Harry acquired a string of music publishers (including M. Witmark & Sons, Remick Music Corp., and T.B. Harms, Inc.) to form Warner Bros. Music. In April 1930, Warner Bros. acquired Brunswick Records. Harry obtained radio companies, foreign sound patents and a lithograph company.[50] After establishing Warner Bros. Music, Harry appointed his son, Lewis, to manage the company.[61]

By 1931, the studio began to feel the effects of the Great Depression, reportedly losing $8 million, and an additional $14 million the following year.[62] In 1931, Warner Bros. Music head Lewis Warner died from an infected wisdom tooth.[60] Around that time, Zanuck hired screenwriter Wilson Mizner,[63] who had little respect for authority and found it difficult to work with Jack,[63] but became an asset.[63] As time passed, Warner became more tolerant of Mizner and helped invest in Mizner's Brown Derby restaurant.[63] Mizner died of a heart attack on April 3, 1933.[64]

By 1932, musicals were declining in popularity, and the studio was forced to cut musical numbers from many productions and advertise them as straight comedies. The public had begun to associate musicals with color, and thus studios began to abandon its use.[citation needed] Warner Bros. had a contract with Technicolor to produce two more pictures in that process. As a result, the first horror films in color were produced and released by the studio: Doctor X (1932) and Mystery of the Wax Museum (1933). In the latter part of 1931, Harry Warner rented the Teddington Studios in London, England.[65] The studio focused on making "quota quickies" for the domestic British market[66] and Irving Asher was appointed as the studio's head producer.[66] In 1934, Harry officially purchased the Teddington Studios.[65]

In February 1933, Warner Bros. produced 42nd Street, a very successful musical under the direction of Lloyd Bacon. Warner assigned Bacon to "more expensive productions including Footlight Parade, Wonder Bar, Broadway Gondolier" (which he also starred in), and Gold Diggers[67][68] that saved the company from bankruptcy.[69] In the wake of 42nd Street's success, the studio produced profitable musicals.[70] These starred Ruby Keeler and Dick Powell and were mostly directed by Busby Berkeley.[71] In 1935, the revival was affected by Berkeley's arrest for killing three people while driving drunk.[72] By the end of the year, people again tired of Warner Bros. musicals,[70] and the studio — after the huge profits made by 1935 film Captain Blood — shifted its focus to Errol Flynn swashbucklers.[73]

1930–1935: Pre-code realistic period

With the collapse of the market for musicals, Warner Bros., under Zanuck, turned to more socially realistic storylines. Because of its many films about gangsters,[74] Warner Bros. soon became known as a "gangster studio".[75] The studio's first gangster film, Little Caesar, was a great box office success[76] and Edward G. Robinson starred in many of the subsequent Warner gangster films.[77] The studio's next effort, The Public Enemy,[78] made James Cagney arguably the studio's new top star,[79] and Warner Bros. made more gangster films.[78]

Cagney with his arm around actress Joan Blondell, who has her eyes closed.
James Cagney and Joan Blondell in Footlight Parade (1933)

"Movie for movie, Warners was the most reliable source of entertainment through the thirties and forties, even though it was clearly the most budget-conscious of them all."

— Film historian Andrew Sarris in "You Ain't Heard Nothin' Yet.": The American Talking Film History & Memory, 1927–1949.[80]

Another gangster film the studio produced was the critically acclaimed I Am a Fugitive from a Chain Gang, based on a true story and starring Paul Muni,[81] joining Cagney and Robinson as one of the studio's top gangster stars[82] after appearing in the successful film,[78] which convinced audiences to question the American legal system.[83] By January 1933, the film's protagonist Robert Elliot Burns—still imprisoned in New Jersey—and other chain gang prisoners nationwide appealed and were released.[84] In January 1933, Georgia chain gang warden J. Harold Hardy—who was also made into a character in the film—sued the studio for displaying "vicious, untrue and false attacks" against him in the film.[85] After appearing in the Warner's film The Man Who Played God, Bette Davis became a top star.[86]

In 1933, relief for the studio came after Franklin D. Roosevelt became president and began the New Deal.[87] This economic rebound allowed Warner Bros. to again become profitable.[87] The same year, Zanuck quit. Harry Warner's relationship with Zanuck had become strained after Harry strongly opposed allowing Zanuck's film Baby Face to step outside Hays Code boundaries.[88] The studio reduced his salary as a result of losses from the Great Depression,[89] and Harry refused to restore it as the company recovered.[90] Zanuck[91] established his own company. Harry thereafter raised salaries for studio employees.[90]

In 1933, Warner was able to link up with newspaper tycoon William Randolph Hearst's Cosmopolitan Films.[92] Hearst had previously worked with MGM,[93] but ended the association after a dispute with head producer Irving Thalberg over the treatment of Hearst's longstanding mistress, actress Marion Davies, who was struggling for box office success.[94] Through his partnership with Hearst, Warner signed Davies to a studio contract.[92] Hearst's company and Davies' films, however, did not increase the studio's profits.[93]

In 1934, the studio lost over $2.5 million,[95] of which $500,000 was the result of a 1934 fire at the Burbank studio, destroying 20 years' worth of early Vitagraph, Warner Bros. and First National films.[95] The following year, Hearst's film adaption of William Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream (1935) failed at the box office and the studio's net loss increased.[96] During this time, Harry and six other movie studio figures were indicted for conspiracy to violate the Sherman Antitrust Act,[95] through an attempt to gain a monopoly over St Louis movie theaters.[97] In 1935, Harry was put on trial;[95] after a mistrial, Harry sold the company's movie theaters and the case was never reopened.[95] 1935 also saw the studio make a net profit of $674,158.00.[95]

The studio as depicted in the trailer for The Petrified Forest (1936)

By 1936, contracts of musical and silent stars were not renewed, instead being replaced by tough-talking, working-class types who better fit these pictures. As a result, Dorothy Mackaill, Dolores del Río, Bebe Daniels, Frank Fay, Winnie Lightner, Bernice Claire, Alexander Gray, Alice White, and Jack Mulhall that had characterized the urban, modern, and sophisticated attitude of the 1920s gave way to James Cagney, Joan Blondell, Edward G. Robinson, Warren William and Barbara Stanwyck, who would be more acceptable to the common man. The studio was one of the most prolific producers of Pre-Code pictures and had a lot of trouble with the censors once they started clamping down on what they considered indecency (around 1934).[98] As a result, Warner Bros. turned to historical pictures from around 1935 to avoid confrontations with the Breen office. In 1936, following the success of The Petrified Forest, Jack signed Humphrey Bogart to a studio contract.[99] Warner, however, did not think Bogart was star material,[100] and cast Bogart in infrequent roles as a villain opposite either James Cagney or Edward Robinson over the next five years.[99]

After Hal B. Wallis succeeded Zanuck in 1933,[101] and the Hays Code began to be enforced in 1935, the studio was forced to abandon this realistic approach in order to produce more moralistic, idealized pictures. The studio's historical dramas, melodramas (or "women's pictures"), swashbucklers, and adaptations of best-sellers, with stars like Bette Davis, Olivia de Havilland, Paul Muni, and Errol Flynn, avoided the censors. In 1936, Bette Davis, by now arguably the studio's top star,[102] was unhappy with her roles. She traveled to England and tried to break her contract.[102] Davis lost the lawsuit and returned to America.[103] Although many of the studio's employees had problems with Jack Warner, they considered Albert and Harry fair.[104]

Code era

In the 1930s many actors and actresses who had characterized the realistic pre-Code era, but who were not suited to the new trend into moral and idealized pictures, disappeared. Warner Bros. remained a top studio in Hollywood, but this changed after 1935 as other studios, notably MGM, quickly overshadowed the prestige and glamor that previously characterized Warner Bros. However, in the late 1930s, Bette Davis became the studio's top draw and was even dubbed as "The Fifth Warner Brother". [citation needed]

Humphrey Bogart in The Petrified Forest (1936)

In 1935, Cagney sued Jack Warner for breach of contract.[105] Cagney claimed Warner had forced him to star in more films than his contract required.[105] Cagney eventually dropped his lawsuit after a cash settlement.[106] Nevertheless, Cagney left the studio to establish an independent film company with his brother Bill.[107] The Cagneys released their films though Grand National Films; however, they were not able to get good financing[107] and ran out of money after their third film.[107] Cagney then agreed to return to Warner Bros., after Jack agreed to a contract guaranteeing Cagney would be treated to his own terms.[107] After the success of Yankee Doodle Dandy at the box office, Cagney again questioned if the studio would meet his salary demand[108] and again quit to form his own film production and distribution company with Bill.[108]

Another employee with whom Warner had troubles was studio producer Bryan Foy.[109] In 1936, Wallis hired Foy as a producer for the studio's low budget B movies leading to his nickname "the keeper of the B's".[104] Foy was able to garnish arguably more profits than any other B-film producer at the time.[104] During Foy's time at the studio, however, Warner fired him seven different times.[109]

During 1936, The Story of Louis Pasteur proved a box office success[110] and star Paul Muni won the Oscar for Best Actor in March 1937.[110] The studio's 1937 film The Life of Emile Zola gave the studio the first of its seven Best Picture Oscars.[110]

In 1937, the studio hired Midwestern radio announcer Ronald Reagan, who would eventually become the President of the United States. Although Reagan was initially a B-film actor, Warner Bros. was impressed by his performance in the final scene of Knute Rockne, All American, and agreed to pair him with Flynn in Santa Fe Trail (1940). Reagan then returned to B-films.[111] After his performance in the studio's 1942 Kings Row, Warner decided to make Reagan a top star and signed him to a new contract, tripling his salary.[112]

In 1936, Harry's daughter Doris read a copy of Margaret Mitchell's Gone with the Wind and was interested in making a film adaptation.[113] Doris offered Mitchell $50,000 for screen rights. Jack vetoed the deal, realizing it would be an expensive production.[113]

Major Paramount star George Raft also eventually proved to be a problem for Jack.[114] Warner had signed him in 1939, finally bringing the third top 1930s gangster actor into the Warners fold, knowing that he could carry any gangster picture when either Robinson or Cagney were on suspension.[114] Raft had difficulty working with Bogart and refused to co-star with him.[115] Eventually, Warner agreed to release Raft from his contract in 1943.[116] After Raft had turned the role down, the studio gave Bogart the role of "Mad Dog" Roy Earle in the 1941 film High Sierra,[116] which helped establish him as a top star.[117] Following High Sierra and after Raft had once again turned the part down, Bogart was given the leading role in John Huston's successful 1941 remake of the studio's 1931 pre-Code film, The Maltese Falcon,[118] based upon the Dashiell Hammett novel.

Warner's cartoons

Warner's cartoon unit had its roots in the independent Harman and Ising studio. From 1930 to 1933, Walt Disney Studios alumni Hugh Harman and Rudolf Ising produced musical cartoons for Leon Schlesinger, who sold them to Warner. Harman and Ising introduced their character Bosko in the first Looney Tunes cartoon, Sinkin' in the Bathtub, and created a sister series, Merrie Melodies, in 1931.[119]

Harman and Ising broke away from Schlesinger in 1933 due to a contractual dispute, taking Bosko with them to MGM. As a result, Schlesinger started his own studio, Leon Schlesinger Productions, which continued with Merrie Melodies while starting production on Looney Tunes starring Buddy, a Bosko clone. By the end of World War II, a new Schlesinger production team, including directors Friz Freleng (started in 1934), Tex Avery (started in 1935), Frank Tashlin (started in 1936), Bob Clampett (started in 1937), Chuck Jones (started in 1938), and Robert McKimson (started in 1946), was formed. Schlesinger's staff developed a fast-paced, irreverent style that made their cartoons globally popular.

In 1935, Avery directed Porky Pig cartoons that established the character as the studio's first animated star.[120] In addition to Porky, Daffy Duck (who debuted in 1937's Porky's Duck Hunt), Elmer Fudd (Elmer's Candid Camera, 1940), Bugs Bunny (A Wild Hare, 1940), and Tweety (A Tale of Two Kitties, 1942) would achieve star power.[121] By 1942, the Schlesinger studio had surpassed Walt Disney Studios as the most successful producer of animated shorts.[122]

Warner Bros. bought Schlesinger's cartoon unit in 1944 and renamed it Warner Bros. Cartoons. However, senior management treated the unit with indifference, beginning with the installation as senior producer of Edward Selzer, whom the creative staff considered an interfering incompetent. Jack Warner had little regard for the company's short film product and reputedly was so ignorant about the studio's animation division that he was mistakenly convinced that the unit produced cartoons of Mickey Mouse, the flagship character of Walt Disney Productions.[123] He sold off the unit's pre-August 1948 library for $3,000 each, which proved a shortsighted transaction in light of its eventual value.[123]

Warner Bros. Cartoons continued, with intermittent interruptions, until 1969 when it was dissolved as the parent company ceased its production of film shorts entirely. Characters such as Bugs Bunny, Daffy Duck, Tweety, Sylvester, and Porky Pig became central to the company's image in subsequent decades. Bugs in particular remains a mascot to Warner Bros., its various divisions, and Six Flags (which Time Warner once owned). The success of the compilation film The Bugs Bunny/Road Runner Movie in 1979, featuring the archived film of these characters, prompted Warner Bros. to organize Warner Bros. Animation as a new production division to restart production of original material.

World War II

According to Warner's autobiography, prior to US entry in World War II, Philip Kauffman, Warner Bros. German sales head, was murdered by the Nazis in Berlin in 1936.[124][125][126] Harry produced the successful anti-German film The Life of Emile Zola (1937).[127] After that, Harry supervised the production of more anti-German films, including Confessions of a Nazi Spy (1939),[128] The Sea Hawk (1940), which made King Philip II an equivalent of Hitler,[129] Sergeant York,[130] and You're In The Army Now (1941).[130] Harry then decided to focus on producing war films.[131] Warners' cut its film production in half during the war, eliminating its B Pictures unit in 1941. Bryan Foy joined Twentieth Century Fox.[132]

Bette Davis in Now, Voyager (1942)

During the war era, the studio made Casablanca; Now, Voyager; Yankee Doodle Dandy (all 1942); This Is the Army, and Mission to Moscow (both 1943).[133] The last of these films became controversial a few years afterwards. At the premieres of Yankee Doodle Dandy (in Los Angeles, New York, and London), audiences purchased $15.6 million in war bonds for the governments of England and the United States. By the middle of 1943, however, audiences had tired of war films, but Warner continued to produce them, losing money. In honor of the studio's contributions to the cause, the Navy named a Liberty ship after the brothers' father, Benjamin Warner. Harry christened the ship. By the time the war ended, $20 million in war bonds were purchased through the studio, the Red Cross collected 5,200 pints of blood plasma from studio employees[133] and 763 of the studio's employees served in the armed forces, including Harry Warner's son-in-law Milton Sperling and Jack's son Jack Warner Jr.[131] Following a dispute over ownership of Casablanca's Oscar for Best Picture, Wallis resigned. After Casablanca made Bogart a top star, Bogart's relationship with Jack deteriorated.[108]

In 1943, Olivia de Havilland (whom Warner frequently loaned to other studios) sued Warner for breach of contract.[134] De Havilland had refused to portray famed abolitionist Elizabeth Blackwell in an upcoming film for Columbia Pictures.[134] Warner responded by sending 150 telegrams to different film production companies, warning them not to hire her for any role.[134] Afterwards, de Havilland discovered employment contracts in California could only last seven years; de Havilland had been under contract with the studio since 1935.[135] The court ruled in de Havilland's favor and she left the studio in favor of RKO Radio Pictures, and, eventually, Paramount.[134] Through de Havilland's victory, many of the studio's longtime actors were now freed from their contracts, and Harry decided to terminate the studio's suspension policy.[134][136]

The same year, Jack signed newly released MGM actress Joan Crawford, a former top star who found her career fading.[137] Crawford's first role with the studio was 1944's Hollywood Canteen.[138] Her first starring role at the studio, in the title role as Mildred Pierce (1945), revived her career[138] and earned her an Oscar for Best Actress.[139]

After World War II: changing hands

In the post-war years, Warner Bros. prospered greatly and continued to create new stars, including Lauren Bacall and Doris Day.[140] By 1946, company payroll reached $600,000 a week[140] and net profit topped $19.4 million (equivalent to $303.1 million in 2023). Jack Warner continued to refuse to meet Screen Actors Guild salary demands.[141] In September 1946, employees engaged in a month-long strike.[141] In retaliation, Warner—during his 1947 testimony before Congress about Mission to Moscow—accused multiple employees of ties to Communists.[142] By the end of 1947, the studio reached a record net profit of $22 million (equivalent to $300 million in 2023).[143]

Warner acquired Pathé News from RKO in 1947. On January 5, 1948, Warner offered the first color newsreel, covering the Tournament of Roses Parade and the Rose Bowl Game. In 1948, Bette Davis, still their top actress and now hostile to Jack, was a big problem for Harry after she and others left the studio after completing the film Beyond the Forest.[144]

Warner was a party to the United States v. Paramount Pictures, Inc. antitrust case of the 1940s. This action, brought by the Justice Department and the Federal Trade Commission, claimed the five integrated studio-theater chain combinations restrained competition. The Supreme Court heard the case in 1948, and ruled for the government. As a result, Warner and four other major studios were forced to separate production from the exhibition. In 1949, the studio's net profit was only $10 million (equivalent to $128.06 million in 2023).[143]

Warner Bros. had two semi-independent production companies that released films through the studio.[citation needed] One of these was Sperling's United States Pictures.[145]

Vivien Leigh as Blanche DuBois in A Streetcar Named Desire (1951)

In the early 1950s, the threat of television emerged. In 1953, Jack decided to copy[146] United Artists successful 3D film Bwana Devil, releasing his own 3D films beginning with House of Wax.[147] However, 3D films soon lost their appeal among moviegoers.[148]

3D almost caused the demise of the Warner Bros. cartoon studio. Having completed a 3D Bugs Bunny cartoon, Lumber Jack-Rabbit, Jack Warner ordered the animation unit to be closed, erroneously believing that all cartoons hence would be produced in the 3D process. Several months later, Warner relented and reopened the cartoon studio. Warner Bros. had enough of a backlog of cartoons and a healthy reissue program so that there was no noticeable interruption in the release schedule.

In 1952, Warner Bros. made their first film (Carson City) in "Warnercolor", the studio's name for Eastmancolor.

After the downfall of 3D films, Harry Warner decided to use CinemaScope in future Warner Bros. films.[149] One of the studio's first CinemaScope films, The High and the Mighty (owned by John Wayne's company, Batjac Productions), enabled the studio to show a profit.[150]

Early in 1953, Warner's theater holdings were spun off as Stanley Warner Theaters; Stanley Warner's non-theater holdings were sold to Simon Fabian Enterprises,[151] and its theaters merged with RKO Theatres to become RKO-Stanley Warner Theatres.[152]

By 1956, the studio was losing money,[153] declining from 1953's net profit of $2.9 million (equivalent to $33 million in 2023) [154] and the next two years of between $2 and $4 million.[155] On February 13, 1956, Jack Warner sold the rights to all of the studio's pre-1950 films to Associated Artists Productions (which merged with United Artists Television in 1958, and was subsequently acquired by Turner Broadcasting System in early 1986 as part of a failed takeover of MGM/UA by Ted Turner).[156][157][158]

In May 1956, the brothers announced they were putting Warner Bros. on the market.[159] Jack secretly organized a syndicate – headed by Boston banker Serge Semenenko[153] – to purchase 90% of the stock.[153] After the three brothers sold, Jack – through his under-the-table deal – joined Semenenko's syndicate[160] and bought back all his stock.[160] Shortly after the deal was completed in July,[161] Jack – now the company's largest stockholder – appointed himself its new president.[162][161] Shortly after the deal closed, Jack announced the company and its subsidiaries would be "directed more vigorously to the acquisition of the most important story properties, talents, and to the production of the finest motion pictures possible."[163]

Warner Bros. Television and Warner Bros. Records

By 1949, with the success of television threatening the film industry more and more, Harry Warner decided to emphasize television production.[146] However, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) would not permit it.[146] After an unsuccessful attempt to convince other movie studio bosses to switch, Harry abandoned his television efforts.[147]

Jack had problems with Milton Berle's unsuccessful film Always Leave Them Laughing during the peak of Berle's television popularity. Warner felt that Berle was not strong enough to carry a film and that people would not pay to see the man they could see on television for free. However, Jack was pressured into using Berle, who replaced Danny Kaye.[164] Berle's outrageous behavior on the set and the film's massive failure led to Jack banning television sets from film sets and mentions of television itself from film scripts. In his 1991 autobiography, Don't Shoot, It's Only Me, Bob Hope remarked that "when Warners filmed a living room after that, the whole family would just gather around a fireplace".[165]

James Garner and Jack Kelly in Maverick (1957)

On March 21, 1955, the studio was finally able to engage in television through the successful Warner Bros. Television unit run by William T. Orr, Jack Warner's son-in-law. Warner Bros. Television provided ABC with a weekly show, Warner Bros. Presents. The show featured rotating shows based on three film successes, Kings Row, Casablanca and Cheyenne, followed by a promotion for a new film.[166][167] It was not a success.[168] The studio's next effort was to make a weekly series out of Cheyenne.[169] Cheyenne was television's first hour-long Western. Two episodes were placed together for feature film release outside the United States. In the tradition of its B movies, the studio followed up with a series of rapidly produced popular Westerns, such as writer/producer Roy Huggins' critically lauded Maverick as well as Sugarfoot, Bronco, Lawman, The Alaskans and Colt .45.[169] The success of these series helped to make up for losses in the film business.[169] As a result, Jack Warner decided to emphasize television production.[170] Warners produced a series of popular private detective shows beginning with 77 Sunset Strip (1958–1964) followed by Hawaiian Eye (1959–1963), Bourbon Street Beat (1960) and Surfside 6 (1960–1962).

Within a few years, the studio provoked hostility among its TV stars such as Clint Walker and James Garner, who sued over a contract dispute and won.[171] Edd Byrnes was not so lucky and bought himself out of his contract. Jack was angered by their perceived ingratitude. Television actors evidently showed more independence than film actors, deepening his contempt for the new medium.[172] Many of Warner's television stars appeared in the casts of Warner's cinema releases. In 1963, a court decision forced Warner Bros. to end contracts with their television stars and to cease engaging them for specific series or film roles. That year, Jack Webb, best known for originating the role of Sgt. Joe Friday in the Dragnet franchise, became the head of the studio's TV division.[173]

Dean Martin and Frank Sinatra appear in a number of Warner Bros. films produced in the early 1960s. Both singers also recorded for Reprise Records, which the studio purchased in 1963.

On March 19, 1958, the studio launched Warner Bros. Records, with its inaugural office based above the studio's machine shop on 3701 Warner Boulevard in Burbank.[174] Initially, the label released recordings made by their television stars—whether they could sing or not—and records based on television soundtracks. Warner Bros. was already the owner of extensive music-publishing holdings, whose tunes had appeared in countless cartoons (arranged by Carl Stalling) and television shows (arranged by Max Steiner).[175] In 2004, Time Warner sold the Warner Music Group, along with Warner Bros. Records, to a private equity group led by Edgar Bronfman Jr.[176] In 2019, the since-separated Warner Bros. record division was rechristened Warner Records, as WMG held a short-term license to use the Warner Bros. name and trademarks; as such, the label currently reissues the pre-2019 Warner Bros. back catalog.

In 1963, Warner agreed to a "rescue takeover" of Frank Sinatra's Reprise Records.[177] The deal gave Sinatra US$1.5 million and part ownership of Warner Bros. Records, making Reprise a sub-label.[177] Most significantly the deal brought Reprise manager Morris "Mo" Ostin into the company. In 1964, upon seeing the profits record companies made from Warner film music, Warner decided to claim ownership of the studio's film soundtracks.[178] In its first eighteen months, Warner Bros. Records lost around $2 million.[179]

New owners

Warner Bros. rebounded in the late 1950s, specializing in adaptations of popular plays like The Bad Seed (1956), No Time for Sergeants (1958), and Gypsy (1962).

While he slowly recovered from a car crash that occurred while vacationing in France in 1958, Jack returned to the studio and made sure his name was featured in studio press releases. From 1961 to 1963, the studio's annual net profit was a little over $7 million.[180] Warner paid an unprecedented $5.5 million for the film rights to the Broadway musical My Fair Lady in February 1962. The previous owner, CBS Chairman William S. Paley, set terms including half the distributor's gross profits "plus ownership of the negative at the end of the contract."[181] In 1963, the studio's net profit dropped to $3.7 million.[180] By the mid-1960s, motion picture production was in decline, as the industry was in the midst of a painful transition from the Golden Age of Hollywood to the era now known as New Hollywood. Few studio films were made in favor of co-productions (for which Warner provided facilities, money and distribution), and pickups of independent pictures.

With the success of the studio's 1964 film of Broadway play My Fair Lady,[179] as well as its soundtrack,[179] Warner Bros. Records became a profitable subsidiary. The 1966 film Who's Afraid Of Virginia Woolf? was a huge success.[182]

Following Jack Warner's 1966 year end sale to Seven Arts Productions, the company was known as Warner Bros.-Seven Arts from 1967 until 1969. The company's logo was used until 1972.

In November 1966, Jack gave in to advancing age and changing times,[183] selling control of the studio and music business to Seven Arts Productions, run by Canadian investors Eliot and Kenneth Hyman, for $32 million.[184] The company, including the studio, was renamed Warner Bros.-Seven Arts. Warner remained president until the summer of 1967, when Camelot failed at the box office and Warner gave up his position to his longtime publicity director, Ben Kalmenson;[185] Warner remained on board as an independent producer and vice-president.[184] With the 1967 success of Bonnie and Clyde, Warner Bros. was again profitable.[186]

Two years later the Hymans were tired and fed-up with Jack Warner and his actions.[186] They accepted a cash-and-stock offer from Kinney National Company for more than $64 million.[186] In 1967, Kinney had previously acquired DC Comics (then officially known as National Periodical Publications), as well as a Hollywood talent agency, Ashley-Famous,[187] whose founder Ted Ashley led Kinney head Steve Ross to purchase Warner Bros. Ashley-Famous was soon spun off due to antitrust laws prohibiting the simultaneous ownership of a film studio and a talent agency. Ashley became the studio head and changed the name to Warner Bros. Inc. once again.[188] Jack Warner was outraged by the Hymans' sale, and decided to move into independent production (most successfully with 1776 at Columbia). He retired in 1973 and died from serious health complications of heart inflammation in September 1978.

The logo, designed by Saul Bass, was used from 1972 until 1984. It is currently used by the separately spun-off Warner Music Group.

Although movie audiences had shrunk, Warner's new management believed in the drawing power of stars, signing co-production deals with several of the biggest names of the day, including Paul Newman, Robert Redford, Barbra Streisand, and Clint Eastwood, carrying the studio successfully through the 1970s and 1980s. Its hits in the early 1970s included those starring the aforementioned actors, along with comedian Mel Brooks' Blazing Saddles, Stanley Kubrick's A Clockwork Orange, The Exorcist, John Boorman's Deliverance, and the Martin Scorsese productions Mean Streets and Alice Doesn't Live Here Anymore. Warner Bros. also made major profits on films and television shows built around the characters of Superman, Batman, Wonder Woman and The Flash owned by Warner Bros. subsidiary DC Comics. The 1970s also saw Warner Bros. Records become one of the major record labels worldwide, and that company gained sister labels in Elektra Records and Atlantic Records. In 1971, Filmation and Warner Bros. entered into an agreement to produce and distribute cartoons for film and television, with its television subsidiary handling worldwide television rights.[189]

In late 1973, Warner Bros. announced that it had partnered with 20th Century Fox to co-produce a single film: producer Irwin Allen's The Towering Inferno.[190] Both studios found themselves owning the rights to books about burning skyscrapers: Warner was attempting to adapt Thomas N. Scortia and Frank M. Robinson's The Glass Inferno and Fox was preparing an adaptation of Richard Martin Stern's The Tower. Allen insisted on a meeting with the heads of both studios and announced that as Fox was already in the lead with their property it would be preferable to lump the two together as a single film, with Fox owning domestic rights and Warner Bros. handling the film's foreign distribution. The resulting partnership resulted in the second-highest-grossing film of 1974, turning profits for both studios, and influencing future co-productions between major studios. Although Allen would make further films for Warner Bros., he would not repeat the success he had with The Towering Inferno.

Abandoning parking lots and funeral homes, the refocused Kinney renamed itself in honor of its best-known holding, Warner Communications. Throughout the 1970s and 1980s Warner Communications branched out into other business, such as video game company Atari, Inc. in 1976, and later the Six Flags theme parks.

In 1972, in a cost-cutting move, Warner and Columbia formed a third company called The Burbank Studios (TBS).[191] They would share the Warner lot in Burbank.[191] Both studios technically became production entities, giving TBS day-to-day responsibility for studio grounds and upkeep.[191] The Columbia Ranch (about a mile north of Warner's lot) was part of the deal.[191] The Warner–Columbia relationship was acrimonious, but the reluctance of both studios to approve or spend money on capital upgrades that might only help the other did have the unintended consequence of preserving the Warner lot's primary function as a filmmaking facility while it produced relatively little during the 1970s and 1980s.[191] However, a famous film that had been filmed at The Burbank Studios at that time was Blade Runner (1982) by director Ridley Scott.[192]

All in all, most films produced after 1968 were filmed on location after the failure of Camelot was partially attributed to the fact it was set in England but obviously filmed in Burbank.[191] With control over its own lot tied up in TBS, Warner ultimately retained a significant portion of its backlot,[191] while Fox sold its backlot to create Century City, Universal turned part of its backlot into a theme park and shopping center, and Disney replaced its backlot with office buildings and exiled its animation department to an industrial park in Glendale.

In 1989, a solution to the situation became evident when Warner Bros. acquired Lorimar-Telepictures and gained control of the former MGM studio lot in Culver City, and that same year, Sony bought Columbia Pictures.[191] Sony was flush with cash and Warner Bros. now had two studio lots.[191] In 1990, TBS ended when Sony bought the MGM lot from Warner and moved Columbia to Culver City.[191] However, Warner kept the Columbia Ranch, now known as the Warner Bros. Ranch.[191]

Robert A. Daly joined Warner Bros. on December 1, 1980, taking over from Ted Ashley. His titles were chairman of the board and Co-Chief Executive Officer. One year later, he was named chairman of the board and chief executive officer and appointed Terry Semel President and Chief Operating Officer.

Time Warner subsidiary

A panoramic view over today's studio premises

Warner Communications merged in 1989 with white-shoe publishing company Time Inc. Time claimed a higher level of prestige, while Warner Bros. provided the profits. The Time-Warner merger was almost derailed when Paramount Communications (formerly Gulf+Western, later sold to the first incarnation of Viacom), launched a $12.2 billion hostile takeover bid for Time Inc., forcing Time to acquire Warner with a $14.9 billion cash/stock offer. Paramount responded with a lawsuit filed in Delaware court to break up the merger. Paramount lost and the merger proceeded.

In 1992, Warner Bros. Family Entertainment was established to produce various family-oriented films, plus animated films. The Family Entertainment label was dormant in 2009. In 1994, Jon Peters, whose Peters Entertainment company had a non-exclusive deal at Sony Pictures, received another non-exclusive, financing deal at the studio, citing that then president Terry Samel and producer Jon Peters were friends.[193]

The former Warner Bros. shield logo, which was used from 1993 to 2019, and extensively used in films and on its TV shows until 2022. Currently used as the on-screen logo for Warner Bros. Home Entertainment.

In 1995, Warner Bros. and television station owner Tribune Company of Chicago launched The WB Television Network, seeking a large share of the niche market of teenage viewers. The WB's early programming included an abundance of teenage fare, such as Buffy the Vampire Slayer, Smallville, Dawson's Creek and One Tree Hill. Two dramas produced by Spelling Television, 7th Heaven and Charmed, helped bring The WB into the spotlight. Charmed lasted eight seasons, becoming the longest-running drama with female leads. 7th Heaven ran for eleven seasons and was the longest-running family drama and longest-running show for the network. In 2006, Warner Bros. and CBS Corporation decided to close The WB and CBS's UPN and jointly launch The CW Television Network.

In 1996, Turner Pictures was folded into Warner Bros. via the Turner-Time Warner Entertainment merger. This brought projects such as City of Angels and You've Got Mail into the studio.[194] Later that year, Warner Bros. partnered with PolyGram Filmed Entertainment to distribute various movies produced by Castle Rock Entertainment, also brought into Warner Bros. by the Turner deal.[195] Also that same year, Bruce Berman left Warner Bros. to begin Plan B Entertainment, then he subsequently headed Village Roadshow Pictures with a deal at the studio.[196]

In 1998, Time Warner Entertainment sold Six Flags to Premier Parks.[197] The takeover of Time Warner Entertainment in 2001 by then-high-flying America Online (AOL) did not prove a good match, and following the collapse in "dot-com" stocks, the AOL element was banished from the corporate name.

In 1998, Warner Bros. celebrated its 75th anniversary. In 1999, Terry Semel and Robert Daly resigned as studio heads after a career with 13 Oscar-nominated films. Daly and Semel were said to have popularized the modern model of partner financing and profit sharing for film production. In mid-1999, Alan F. Horn and Barry Meyer replaced Daly and Semel as new studio heads, in which the studio had continued success in movies, television shows, cartoons, that the previous studio heads had for the studio. In late 2003, Time Warner reorganized Warner Bros.' assets under Warner Bros. Entertainment Inc., in an effort to distinguish the film studio from its then-sister record label (which since became Warner Records in May 2019) and Warner Music Group.

In the late 1990s, Warner Bros. obtained rights to the Harry Potter novels and released feature film adaptations of the first in 2001. Subsequently, they released the second film in 2002, the third in June 2004, the fourth in November 2005, the fifth in July 2007, and the sixth in July 2009.[198] The seventh (and at that time, final) book was released as two movies; Deathly Hallows — Part 1 in November 2010 and Deathly Hallows — Part 2 in July 2011.

From 2006, Warner Bros. operated a joint venture with China Film Group Corporation and HG to form Warner China Film HG to produce films in Hong Kong and China, including Connected, a remake of the 2004 thriller film Cellular.

Warner Bros. played a large part in the discontinuation of the HD DVD format. On January 4, 2008, Warner Bros. announced that they would drop support of HD DVD in favor of Blu-ray Disc.[199] HD DVDs continued to be released through May 2008, but only following Blu-ray and DVD releases.

Warner Bros.' Harry Potter film series was the worldwide highest-grossing film series of all time without adjusting for inflation. Its Batman film series was one of only two series to have two entries earn more than $1 billion worldwide. Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 2 was Warner Bros.' highest-grossing movie ever (surpassing The Dark Knight).[200] However, the Harry Potter movies have produced a net loss due to Hollywood accounting.[201] IMAX Corp. signed with Warner Bros. Pictures in April 2010 to release as many as 20 giant-format films through 2013.[202]

On October 21, 2014, Warner Bros. created a short form digital unit, Blue Ribbon Content, under Warner Bros. Animation and Warner Digital Series president Sam Register.[203] Warner Bros. Digital Networks announced its acquisition of online video company Machinima, Inc. on November 17, 2016.[204]

As of 2015, Warner Bros. is one of only three studios to have released a pair of billion-dollar films in the same year (along with Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures and Universal Studios); the distinction was achieved in 2012 with The Dark Knight Rises and The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey.[205][206][207] As of 2016, it is the only studio to cross $1 billion at the domestic box office every year since 2000.[208]

AT&T subsidiary

In June 2018, Warner Bros. parent company Time Warner was acquired by U.S. telecom company AT&T, and renamed WarnerMedia, the former Time Inc. properties having been sold off to new owners.[209] On October 16, 2018, WarnerMedia shut down DramaFever, affecting 20 percent of Warner Bros.' digital networks staff.[210]

On March 4, 2019, WarnerMedia announced a planned reorganization that would dissolve Turner Broadcasting System by moving Cartoon Network, Adult Swim, Boomerang, their respective production studios (Cartoon Network Studios and Williams Street), as well as Turner Classic Movies and Otter Media, directly under Warner Bros. (Turner's remaining television services would be divided into WarnerMedia Entertainment and WarnerMedia News & Sports respectively). Aside from Otter Media, these assets operate under a newly formed Global Kids & Young Adults division,[211] renamed on April 7, 2020, to Warner Bros. Global Kids, Young Adults and Classics.[212] On May 31, 2019, Otter Media was transferred from Warner Bros. to WarnerMedia Entertainment to oversee the development of HBO Max, a new streaming service that would feature content from HBO and WarnerMedia brands.[213] Tom Ascheim resigned as president of cable network Freeform to become the president of the Global Kids, Young Adults, and Classics division on July 1, 2020.[214]

The 2019 Warner Bros. shield logo by Pentagram, which is used since 2019, and concurrently used with Chermayeff & Geismar & Haviv's 2023 Warner Bros. logo since 2023.
These are the two versions of Pentagram's 2019 Warner Bros. shield logo, which are used since 2019. One is the regular logo on the left, and the other is the "dimensional" version on the right.[215]

On November 13, 2019, Warner Bros. unveiled an updated iteration of its shield logo by Pentagram in anticipation of the company's upcoming centennial, which features a streamlined appearance designed to make it better-suited for multi-platform usage and iterations. The company also commissioned a new corporate typeface that is modeled upon the "WB" lettering.[216][217]

Warner Bros. and HBO Max announced the Warner Max film label on February 5, 2020, which was to produce eight-to-ten mid-budget movies per year for the streaming service starting in 2020.[218] However, the label was ultimately discontinued in October 2020 as part of a consolidation of the Warner Bros. Pictures group.[219][220][221]

In February 2022, Village Roadshow Pictures, a co-financier of The Matrix Resurrections, began a lawsuit against Warner Bros. over the hybrid release of the sci-fi sequel. Like all of Warner Bros.' 2021 films, the fourth Matrix film was given a simultaneous release on both HBO Max and in theaters due to the COVID-19 pandemic. According to a complaint filed by Village Roadshow, the decision ruined any December box office hopes.[222] In May of that same year, Village Roadshow agreed to arbitration with Warner Bros. over the release of The Matrix Resurrections.[223]

Warner Bros. Discovery

On April 8, 2022, AT&T divested WarnerMedia to its shareholders, and in turn merged with Discovery Inc. to form Warner Bros. Discovery. The new company is led by Discovery's CEO David Zaslav.[224][225][226][227]

In March 2022, Warner Bros. soft launched a campaign for its centennial in 2023, with the tagline "100 Years of Storytelling". In December 2022, the centennial campaign was launched with the new tagline "Celebrating Every Story", which will include commemorative initiatives across all Warner Bros. divisions and properties.[228][229] The campaign utilizes a commemorative logo featuring an updated shield by Chermayeff & Geismar & Haviv (first introduced in the Warner Bros. Discovery logo), which was revised with a softer appearance, thicker outlines, and a return to using blue and gold as its corporate colors (if not rendered in different colors or textures to suit a specific property). The updated shield is used as a secondary logo, and is used concurrently with the 2019 logo (which is the main and primary logo) since May 2023.[230][1] As part of the 100th anniversary campaign, the studio will release new short features for the Max streaming service that recreates Warner Bros. classics with a focus on diversity.[231] In November 2022, James Gunn and Peter Safran became the co-chairpersons and CEOs of DC Films, which was renamed to "DC Studios". The studio also become an independent division of Warner Bros.[232][233]

Company units

Warner Bros. Entertainment operates three primary business segments they call "divisions": Motion Picture Group, Television, and other entertainment assets (which includes Digital Networks, Technology, Live Theatre, and Studio Facilities).

Motion Pictures includes the company's primary business units, such as Warner Bros. Pictures, New Line Cinema, DC Studios and Castle Rock Entertainment.

Motion Picture Group Television Group Entertainment

Executive management

Chairman of the board
Vice chairman
Chief executive officers
Chief operating officers

International distribution arrangements

From 1971 until the end of 1987, Warner's international distribution operations were a joint venture with Columbia Pictures. In some countries, this joint venture distributed films from other companies (such as EMI Films and Cannon Films in the UK). Warner ended the venture in 1988.

On May 4, 1987, Buena Vista Pictures Distribution signed a theatrical distribution agreement with Warner Bros. International for the release of Disney, Touchstone and Hollywood Pictures films in overseas markets, with Disney retaining full control of all distribution and marketing decisions on their product.[234] In 1992, Disney opted to end their joint venture with Warner Bros. to start autonomously distributing their films in the aforementioned markets.

On February 6, 2014, Columbia TriStar Warner Filmes de Portugal Ltda., a joint venture with Sony Pictures which distributed both companies' films in Portugal, announced that it would close its doors on March 31, 2014.[235] NOS Audiovisuais handles distribution of Warner Bros. films in Portugal since then, while the distribution duties for Sony Pictures films in the country were taken over by Big Picture Films.

Warner Bros. still handles the distribution of Sony Pictures films in Italy.

Since January 1, 2021, Warner Bros. films are distributed through Universal Pictures in Hong Kong, Mexico, Australia and New Zealand citing WarnerMedia's closure of its Hong Kong theatrical office.[236] As of 2024, Warner Bros. currently handles theatrical distribution of Universal Pictures films in Brazil, India and the Philippines.[237][238][239]

In August 2022, Warner Bros. Pictures entered into a multi-year deal for distributing MGM films outside the United States, including on home entertainment. The contract included joint participation of both companies for marketing, advertising, publicity, film distribution, and relationship with exhibitors for future MGM titles.[240]

Film library

Gate 4, Warner Bros. Studios, looking south towards the water tower

Acquired libraries

Mergers and acquisitions have helped Warner Bros. accumulate a diverse collection of films, cartoons and television programs. As of 2022, Warner Bros. owned more than 145,000 hours of programming, including 12,500 feature films and 2,400 television programs comprising more than tens of thousands of individual episodes.[241]

In the aftermath of the 1948 antitrust suit, uncertain times led Warner Bros. in 1956 to sell most of its pre-1950[242][156][157][158] films and cartoons to Associated Artists Productions (a.a.p.). In addition, a.a.p. also obtained the Fleischer Studios and Famous Studios Popeye cartoons, originally from Paramount Pictures. Two years later, a.a.p. was sold to United Artists (UA), which owned the company until 1981, when Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM) acquired United Artists.[243][244]

In 1982, during their independent years, Turner Broadcasting System acquired Brut Productions, the film production arm of France-based then-struggling personal-care company Faberge Inc.[245]

In 1986, Turner Broadcasting System acquired MGM. Finding itself in debt, Turner Entertainment kept the pre-May 1986 MGM film and television libraries and a small portion of the United Artists library (including the a.a.p. library and North American rights to the RKO Radio Pictures library) while spinning off the rest of MGM.[246]

In 1989, Warner Communications acquired Lorimar-Telepictures Corporation.[247][248] Lorimar's catalogue included the post-1974 library of Rankin/Bass Productions, and the post-1947 library of Monogram Pictures/Allied Artists Pictures Corporation.

In 1991, Turner Broadcasting System acquired animation studio Hanna-Barbera and the Ruby-Spears library from Great American Broadcasting, and years later, Turner Broadcasting System acquired Castle Rock Entertainment on December 22, 1993,[249][250] and New Line Cinema on January 28, 1994.[251][252] On October 10, 1996, Time Warner acquired Turner Broadcasting System, thus bringing Warner Bros.' pre-1950 library back home. However, Warner Bros. only owns Castle Rock Entertainment's post-1994 library. In 2008, Time Warner integrated New Line Cinema into Warner Bros. Pictures.

The Warner Bros. Archives

The University of Southern California Warner Bros. Archives is the largest single studio collection in the world. Donated in 1977 to USC's School of Cinema-Television by Warner Communications, the WBA houses departmental records that detail Warner Bros. activities from the studio's first major feature, My Four Years in Germany (1918), to its sale to Seven Arts in 1968. It presents a complete view of the production process during the Golden Age of Hollywood. UA donated pre-1950 Warner Bros. nitrate negatives to the Library of Congress and post-1951 negatives to the UCLA Film and Television Archive. Most of the company's legal files, scripts, and production materials were donated to the Wisconsin Center for Film and Theater Research.

See also


  1. ^ Pronounced "Warner Brothers".[6] The abbreviated form is always used in writing, except when referring to the four Warner brothers themselves.[7] It is never read out loud as "Warner Bros" (-⁠BROHZ or similarly); the opening voiceover of The Lego Batman Movie (2017) alludes to this common mistake.



  1. ^ a b Burgos, Matthew (May 4, 2023). "warner bros. logo gets a thicker, bolder, and sharper look from chermayeff & geismar & haviv". Designboom. Archived from the original on May 4, 2023. Retrieved May 4, 2023.
  2. ^ "2020 Financial and Operational Trends" (PDF). AT&T. January 27, 2021. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 11, 2021. Retrieved April 27, 2022.
  3. ^ "Company history". Warner Bros. Archived from the original on October 16, 2015. Retrieved April 9, 2014.
  4. ^ Patten, Dominic; Yamato, Jen. "Warner Bros Layoffs Long Planned But "Accelerated" By Failed Fox Bid". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on September 6, 2014. Retrieved September 6, 2014.
  5. ^ "Warner Archive Collection podcast". Warnerbros.com. April 8, 2014. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved December 17, 2016.
  6. ^ Thomson, David (2017). Warner Bros: The Making of an American Movie Studio. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 1. ISBN 9780300197600. Retrieved August 17, 2023.
  7. ^ Gomery, Douglas; Pafort-Overduin, Clara (2011). Movie History: A Survey (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge. p. 150. ISBN 9781136835254. Archived from the original on April 9, 2023. Retrieved March 20, 2023 – via Google Books.
  8. ^ "CCNY Film Professor Pens Two Books While on Sabbatical". July 14, 2015. Archived from the original on April 25, 2021. Retrieved April 25, 2021.
  9. ^ "Pollywood (2020)". IMDb. Archived from the original on August 8, 2021. Retrieved April 25, 2021.
  10. ^ "YouTube, a Google company". YouTube. Archived from the original on April 25, 2021.
  11. ^ Warner Sperling, Cass (Director) (2008). The Brothers Warner (DVD film documentary). Warner Sisters, Inc. Archived from the original on February 17, 2016.
  12. ^ McMorris, Bill (January 29, 2009). "Journey of discovery: Warner documentary the result of a twenty-year effort". Santa Barbara News-Press. Retrieved May 27, 2008.[permanent dead link]
  13. ^ Jacobson, Lara (June 28, 2018). "The Warner Brothers Prove Their Patriotism". Voces Novae. 10 (1). Archived from the original on October 30, 2019. Retrieved October 30, 2019.
  14. ^ Hixson, Walter L. (2003). The American Experience in World War II: The United States and the road to war in Europe. Taylor & Francis. p. 28. ISBN 978-0-415-94029-0 – via Google Books.
  15. ^ Cocks, Geoffrey (2004). The Wolf at the Door: Stanley Kubrick, History, & the Holocaust. Peter Lang. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-8204-7115-0 – via Google Books.
  16. ^ Meyer, Carla (March 17, 2013). "California Hall of Fame to induct the four Warner brothers". California Museum. Archived from the original on October 28, 2019. Retrieved October 30, 2019.
  17. ^ "Wielcy Polacy – Warner Bros czyli bracia Warner: Aaron (Albert), Szmul (Sam) i Hirsz (Harry) Wonsal oraz Jack (Itzhak) Wonsal – Białczyński". April 22, 2016. Archived from the original on September 21, 2019. Retrieved November 16, 2017.
  18. ^ Green, Fitzhugh (1929). The Film Finds Its Tongue. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons. p. 41 – via Google Books.
  19. ^ WQED educational film "Things that are still here", PBS WQED, Pittsburgh, PA
  20. ^ "Harry M. Warner film festival named one of thirty two 'premier' events in state". Slippery Rock University of Pennsylvania. January 31, 2006. Archived from the original on August 17, 2007. Retrieved March 5, 2009.
  21. ^ "Progressive Silent Film List". SilentEra.com. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved September 2, 2015.
  22. ^ Warner, Sperling & Millner 1998, p. 77
  23. ^ "Is Fox really 75 this year? Somewhere, the fantastic Mr. (William) Fox begs to differ". New York Post. February 10, 2010. Archived from the original on December 20, 2014. Retrieved June 30, 2012.
  24. ^ a b c d Warner, Sperling & Millner 1998, p. 81
  25. ^ Warner, Sperling & Millner 1998, p. 80
  26. ^ a b c Warner, Sperling & Millner 1998, p. 82
  27. ^ Warner, Sperling & Millner 1998, p. 101
  28. ^ Behlmer (1985), p. xii
  29. ^ Thomas46, 47
  30. ^ a b c Warner, Sperling & Millner 1998, p. 83
  31. ^ a b c Warner, Sperling & Millner 1998, p. 84
  32. ^ "Theatre Owners Open War on Hays". The New York Times. May 12, 1925. p. 14.
  33. ^ a b c Warner, Sperling & Millner 1998, p. 86
  34. ^ Warner, Sperling & Millner 1998, p. 88
  35. ^ a b Warner, Sperling & Millner 1998, p. 95
  36. ^ Freedland, Michael (December 1983). The Warner Brothers. St. Martin's Press. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-312-85620-5 – via Google Books.
  37. ^ Warner, Sperling & Millner 1998, p. 96
  38. ^ a b Thomas 1990, p. 56
  39. ^ Thomas 1990, p. 57
  40. ^ Warner, Sperling & Millner 1998, p. 103
  41. ^ a b Thomas 1990, p. 59
  42. ^ Warner and Jennings (1964), pp.180–181
  43. ^ a b "Jews in Hollywood". Jewishmag.com. Archived from the original on January 7, 2008. Retrieved December 30, 2007.
  44. ^ Thomas 1990, p. 62
  45. ^ a b Thomas 1990, pp. 100–101
  46. ^ Warner, Sperling & Millner 1998, p. 141
  47. ^ Warner, Sperling & Millner 1998, pp. 142–145
  48. ^ Warner, Sperling & Millner 1998, p. 144
  49. ^ Thomas 1990, p. 65
  50. ^ a b c d Warner, Sperling & Millner 1998, p. 147
  51. ^ Warner, Sperling & Millner 1998, p. 151
  52. ^ Warner, Sperling & Millner 1998, p. 150
  53. ^ Warner, Sperling & Millner 1998, p. 148
  54. ^ Thomas 1990, p. 4
  55. ^ Thomas 1990, p. 127
  56. ^ Thomas 1990, p. 208
  57. ^ Thomas 1990, p. 67
  58. ^ a b c Thomas 1990, p. 77
  59. ^ "Warner Week". Time. June 9, 1930. Archived from the original on January 14, 2009. Retrieved July 9, 2008.
  60. ^ a b Thomas 1990, p. 72
  61. ^ Thomas 1990, p. 66
  62. ^ Warner, Sperling & Millner 1998, p. 160
  63. ^ a b c d Thomas 1990, pp. 89–92
  64. ^ Thomas 1990, p. 93
  65. ^ a b Thomas 1990, p. 110
  66. ^ a b Warren, Patricia (1995). British Film Studios: An Illustrated History. London: B.T. Batsford. p. 161. ISBN 978-0-7134-7559-3 – via Google Books.
  67. ^ Meyer, William R. (1978). Warner Brothers Directors: The Hard-Boiled, the Comic, and the Weepers. New York: Arlington House. pp. 19–20. ISBN 978-0-87000-397-4.
  68. ^ Warner, Sperling & Millner 1998, p. 190
  69. ^ Thomas 1990, p. 85
  70. ^ a b Warner, Sperling & Millner 1998, p. 194
  71. ^ Warner, Sperling & Millner 1998, p. 192
  72. ^ Thomas 1990, p. 86
  73. ^ Warner, Sperling & Millner 1998, p. 195
  74. ^ Doherty, Thomas Patrick (August 15, 1999). Pre-code Hollywood: Sex, Immorality, and Insurrection in American Cinema. New York City: Columbia University Press. pp. 149–157. ISBN 978-0-231-11095-2 – via Google Books. Doherty discusses the contemporary controversy around the gangster genre
  75. ^ "The mobster and the movies". CNN. August 24, 2004. Archived from the original on March 21, 2008. Retrieved July 9, 2008.
  76. ^ Warner, Sperling & Millner 1998, p. 184
  77. ^ Thomas 1990, pp. 77–79
  78. ^ a b c Warner, Sperling & Millner 1998, p. 185
  79. ^ Thomas 1990, p. 81
  80. ^ Sarris, 1998. p. 26
  81. ^ Thomas 1990, p. 83
  82. ^ Warner, Sperling & Millner 1998, p. 186
  83. ^ "Fugitive". Time. December 26, 1932. Archived from the original on January 14, 2009. Retrieved July 9, 2008.
  84. ^ "Fugitive Free". Time. January 2, 1933. Archived from the original on January 14, 2009. Retrieved July 9, 2008.
  85. ^ "Milestones, Jan. 16, 1933". Time. January 16, 1933. Archived from the original on January 14, 2009. Retrieved July 9, 2008.
  86. ^ Thomas 1990, pp. 82–83
  87. ^ a b Warner, Sperling & Millner 1998, p. 161
  88. ^ "Musicomedies of the Week". Time. July 3, 1933. p. 2. Archived from the original on January 14, 2009. Retrieved June 28, 2008.
  89. ^ Warner, Sperling & Millner 1998, pp. 182, 183
  90. ^ a b "New Deal in Hollywood". Time. May 1, 1933. p. 2. Archived from the original on January 14, 2009. Retrieved June 28, 2008.
  91. ^ Behlmer (1985), p.12
  92. ^ a b Thomas 1990, p. 96
  93. ^ a b Thomas 1990, p. 95
  94. ^ Thomas 1990, pp. 95–96
  95. ^ a b c d e f Warner, Sperling & Millner 1998, pp. 209–211
  96. ^ Thomas 1990, p. 99
  97. ^ "St. Louis Suit". Time. January 21, 1935. Archived from the original on January 14, 2009. Retrieved July 9, 2008.
  98. ^ Warner, Sperling & Millner 1998, pp. 188–189
  99. ^ a b Thomas 1990, p. 109
  100. ^ Thomas 1990, pp. 109, 110
  101. ^ Thomas 1990, p. 88
  102. ^ a b Warner, Sperling & Millner 1998, pp. 219–221
  103. ^ Warner, Sperling & Millner 1998, p. 221
  104. ^ a b c Thomas 1990, p. 115
  105. ^ a b Thomas 1990, pp. 104, 106
  106. ^ Thomas 1990, p. 105
  107. ^ a b c d Thomas 1990, p. 106
  108. ^ a b c Thomas 1990, p. 144
  109. ^ a b Thomas 1990, p. 116
  110. ^ a b c Thomas 1990, p. 114
  111. ^ Thomas 1990, p. 117
  112. ^ Thomas 1990, p. 117 118
  113. ^ a b Warner, Sperling & Millner 1998, p. 235
  114. ^ a b Thomas 1990, p. 123 125
  115. ^ Thomas 1990, p. 124
  116. ^ a b Thomas 1990, p. 125
  117. ^ Thomas 1990, pp. 125–126
  118. ^ Thomas 1990, pp. 126–127
  119. ^ Warner, Sperling & Millner 1998, p. 187
  120. ^ Barrier, Michael (1999). pp.329–333
  121. ^ "Porky Pig and the Small Dog". Aharon's Jewish Books and Judaica – Mile Chai City. Archived from the original on July 14, 2011. Retrieved July 9, 2008.
  122. ^ "Warner Bros. Studio biography Archived May 24, 2009, at the Wayback Machine". AnimationUSA.com. Retrieved June 17, 2007.
  123. ^ a b Thomas 1990, pp. 211–12
  124. ^ McLaughlin, Robert L.; Parry, Sally E. (March 3, 2006). We'll Always Have the Movies: American Cinema in World War II. University Press of Kentucky. p. 37. ISBN 0-8131-7137-7 – via Google Books.
  125. ^ Birdwell, Michael E. (December 1, 2000). Celluloid Soldiers: The Warner Bros. Campaign Against Nazism. NYU Press. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-8147-9871-3 – via Google Books.
  126. ^ Youngkin, Stephen D. (2005). The Lost One: A Life of Peter Lorre. University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 978-0-8131-2360-8 – via Google Books.
  127. ^ Warner, Sperling & Millner 1998, p. 225
  128. ^ Warner, Sperling & Millner 1998, p. 233
  129. ^ Warner, Sperling & Millner 1998, p. 247
  130. ^ a b Warner, Sperling & Millner 1998, p. 246
  131. ^ a b Warner, Sperling & Millner 1998, p. 240
  132. ^ Schatz, Thomas (November 23, 1999). Boom and Bust: American Cinema in the 1940s. University of California Press. p. 178. ISBN 9780520221307. Retrieved September 29, 2017 – via Google Books.
  133. ^ a b Warner, Sperling & Millner 1998, pp. 247–255
  134. ^ a b c d e Thomas 1990, p. 145
  135. ^ Thomas 1990, p. 98
  136. ^ Thomas 1990, p. 148
  137. ^ Thomas 1990, p. 150
  138. ^ a b Thomas 1990, p. 151
  139. ^ Thomas 1990, p. 152
  140. ^ a b Warner, Sperling & Millner 1998, pp. 258–279
  141. ^ a b Thomas 1990, p. 163
  142. ^ Thomas 1990, p. 164
  143. ^ a b Warner, Sperling & Millner 1998, p. 279
  144. ^ Thomas 1990, pp. 175, 176
  145. ^ Hal Erickson (2016). "Milton Sperling biography". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 6, 2016.
  146. ^ a b c Warner, Sperling & Millner 1998, p. 286
  147. ^ a b Warner, Sperling & Millner 1998, p. 287
  148. ^ Thomas 1990, p. 191
  149. ^ Warner, Sperling & Millner 1998, pp. 287–288
  150. ^ Warner, Sperling & Millner 1998, p. 288
  151. ^ "Boston to Hollywood". Time. May 21, 1956. Archived from the original on December 14, 2008. Retrieved July 9, 2008.
  152. ^ Balio, Tino (1985). The American Film Industry. Univ of Wisconsin Press. p. 567. ISBN 978-0-299-09874-2.
  153. ^ a b c Warner, Sperling & Millner 1998, p. 303
  154. ^ Thomas 1990, p. 190
  155. ^ Thomas 1990, p. 225
  156. ^ a b Schickel & Perry 2008, p. 255
  157. ^ a b WB retained a pair of features from 1949 that they merely distributed, and all short subjects released on or after September 1, 1948; in addition to all cartoons released in August 1948
  158. ^ a b "Media History Digital Library". archive.org. Archived from the original on March 25, 2019. Retrieved September 17, 2019.
  159. ^ "Boston to Hollywood". Time. May 21, 1956. p. 2. Archived from the original on December 14, 2008. Retrieved June 20, 2008.
  160. ^ a b Warner, Sperling & Millner 1998, p. 308
  161. ^ a b Thomas 1990, p. 226
  162. ^ Warner, Sperling & Millner 1998, p. 306
  163. ^ "2 Warners Sell Most of Stock in Film Firm: Harry and Albert Dispose of Shares to Banker; Jack to Be President". Youngstown Vindicator. The United Press. July 12, 1956. p. 22.
  164. ^ "Issuu.com".[permanent dead link]
  165. ^ p.127 Hope, Bob & Shavelson, Mel Don't Shoot, It's Only Me 1991 Jove Books
  166. ^ "Warner Bros. Enters Tv Field With Pact for ABC-TV Shows" (PDF). Broadcast Magazine. March 21, 1955. p. 112.
  167. ^ Thomas 1990, p. 192
  168. ^ Thomas 1990, p. 193
  169. ^ a b c Thomas 1990, p. 194
  170. ^ Thomas 1990, p. 195
  171. ^ Thomas 1990, pp. 196–8
  172. ^ Thomas 1990, p. 199
  173. ^ Irvin, Richard (May 12, 2014). George Burns Television Productions: The Series and Pilots, 1950–1981. McFarland. ISBN 978-1-4766-1621-6 – via Google Books.
  174. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". Warner Bros. Records. Archived from the original on July 16, 2011. Retrieved June 4, 2024.
  175. ^ Max Steiner at IMDb
  176. ^ "Warner Music to be sold for $2.6B". CNN Money. November 24, 2003. Archived from the original on October 26, 2020. Retrieved March 17, 2020.
  177. ^ a b Thomas 1990, p. 255
  178. ^ Thomas 1990, pp. 264–265
  179. ^ a b c Thomas 1990, p. 265
  180. ^ a b Warner, Sperling & Millner 1998, p. 325
  181. ^ Thomas 1990, p. 259
  182. ^ Thomas 1990, p. 278
  183. ^ Thomas 1990, p. 280
  184. ^ a b Thomas 1990, p. 279
  185. ^ Thomas 1990, pp. 279–280
  186. ^ a b c Thomas 1990, p. 288
  187. ^ William Poundstone, Fortune's Formula
  188. ^ Fleming, Karl (June 24, 1974). "Who Is Ted Ashley? Just the King of Hollywood, Baby!". New York Magazine. New York Media, LLC: 30–35. Retrieved January 14, 2018 – via Google Books.
  189. ^ "Animator, Warner Bros. teams up for TV, movies" (PDF). Broadcasting Magazine. February 1, 1971. p. 51. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 17, 2022. Retrieved December 17, 2022.
  190. ^ Anderson, Erik (September 28, 2013). "Best Supporting Studio: Warner Bros. Pictures' Track Record in the Best Supporting Actor Category". Awards Watch. United States. Archived from the original on June 3, 2016. Retrieved April 29, 2016.
  191. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Bingen, Steven; Marc Wanamaker (2014). Warner Bros.: Hollywood's Ultimate Backlot. London: Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 194–202. ISBN 978-1-58979-962-2. Archived from the original on January 1, 2016. Retrieved April 25, 2015 – via Google Books.
  192. ^ "AFI|Catalog". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved October 14, 2023.
  193. ^ Frook, John Evan (February 22, 1994). "Sony, Peters change nature of their deal". Variety. Archived from the original on October 24, 2021. Retrieved October 24, 2021.
  194. ^ Johnson, Ted; Cox, Dan (January 15, 1997). "'ABSOLUTE POWER' (SORT OF)". Variety. Archived from the original on September 12, 2021. Retrieved September 12, 2021.
  195. ^ Cox, Dan (December 8, 1997). "WB, Polygram to co-fund Castle Rock". Variety. Archived from the original on September 12, 2021. Retrieved September 12, 2021.
  196. ^ Karon, Paul (December 10, 1997). "WB takes a Village". Variety. Archived from the original on September 14, 2021. Retrieved September 15, 2021.
  197. ^ Shapiro, Eben (February 10, 1998). "Premier Parks to Buy Six FlagsFrom Time Warner and Partner". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on March 3, 2017. Retrieved March 3, 2017.
  198. ^ "Harry Potter and The Half-Blood Prince Moves to Summer 2009" (Press release). Time Warner. August 14, 2008. Archived from the original on September 30, 2017. Retrieved September 29, 2017.
  199. ^ "Warner Bros Goes Blu Ray Exclusive". Consolewatcher.com. Archived from the original on October 7, 2008. Retrieved June 30, 2012.
  200. ^ "Box Office: Final 'Harry Potter' film has highest-grossing domestic opening of all time [Updated]". Los Angeles Times. July 17, 2011. Archived from the original on August 17, 2016. Retrieved January 25, 2017.
  201. ^ Fleming, Mike Jr. (July 6, 2010). "Studio Shame! Even Harry Potter Pic Loses Money Because Of Warner Bros' Phony Baloney Net Profit Accounting". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on August 7, 2014. Retrieved September 2, 2015.
  202. ^ Georgiades, Andy (April 28, 2010). "Imax, Warner Bros. Sign Pact". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on October 4, 2013. Retrieved September 2, 2015.
  203. ^ Spangler, Todd (October 21, 2014). "Warner Bros. Unveils Digital Short-Form Studio: Blue Ribbon Content". Variety. Archived from the original on October 22, 2014. Retrieved October 22, 2014.
  204. ^ Lieberman, David (November 17, 2016). "Warner Bros Agrees To Buy Machinima". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on March 22, 2017. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  205. ^ "'Toy Story 3' Reaches $1 Billion". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on April 4, 2019. Retrieved September 2, 2015.
  206. ^ "Around-the-World Roundup: 'Avengers' Reaches $1 Billion Worldwide". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on September 5, 2015. Retrieved September 2, 2015.
  207. ^ "Universal Crosses $3 Billion at the Worldwide Box Office". GeekNation. Archived from the original on July 11, 2015. Retrieved July 9, 2015.
  208. ^ Lang, Brent (June 26, 2015). "'American Sniper,' 'San Andreas' Push Warner Bros. Past $1 Billion Domestically". Variety. Archived from the original on October 24, 2016. Retrieved December 30, 2016.
  209. ^ Stelter, Brian (June 15, 2018). "Time Warner's new name: WarnerMedia". CNN Money. Archived from the original on December 15, 2018. Retrieved March 8, 2019.
  210. ^ Lopez, Matt (October 16, 2018). "WarnerMedia Shuts Down DramaFever Streaming Service". Archived from the original on October 16, 2018. Retrieved October 16, 2018.
  211. ^ Feiner, Lauren (March 4, 2019). "WarnerMedia reorganizes its leadership team after AT&T acquisition". CNBC. Archived from the original on March 4, 2019. Retrieved March 4, 2019.
  212. ^ Andreeva, Nellie (April 7, 2020). "Tom Ascheim Joins Warner Bros As President of Global Kids, Young Adults And Classics". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on April 10, 2020. Retrieved April 10, 2020.
  213. ^ Spangler, Todd (May 31, 2019). "WarnerMedia Reorg Gives Otter Media's Tony Goncalves Oversight of Streaming Service Development". Variety. Archived from the original on July 10, 2019. Retrieved July 9, 2019.
  214. ^ Low, Elaine; Otterson, Joe (April 7, 2020). "Freeform Boss Tom Ascheim Moves to Warner Bros". Variety. Archived from the original on April 22, 2020. Retrieved April 24, 2020.
  215. ^ "Warner Bros. — Story". Pentagram. Archived from the original on March 26, 2023. Retrieved March 26, 2023.
  216. ^ Smith, Lilly (November 13, 2019). "Warner Bros.' new brand is a glimpse at the future of entertainment". Fast Company. Archived from the original on December 3, 2019. Retrieved November 26, 2019.
  217. ^ D'Alessandro, Anthony (November 13, 2019). "Warner Bros Refreshes Logo As Studio's 2023 Centennial Approaches". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on November 14, 2019. Retrieved November 15, 2019.
  218. ^ Rubin, Rebecca (February 5, 2020). "Warner Bros., HBO Max Set New Film Division for Streaming Service". Variety. Archived from the original on February 5, 2020. Retrieved February 5, 2020.
  219. ^ "Warner Max Restructures as WarnerMedia Consolidates Film Production". The Hollywood Reporter. October 23, 2020. Archived from the original on December 3, 2020. Retrieved January 29, 2021.
  220. ^ Fleming, Mike Jr. (October 23, 2020). "WarnerMedia Film Group Streamline: HBO Max's Jessie Henderson To Exit, While Nikki Ramey Moves To New Line & WB". Deadline. Archived from the original on February 20, 2022. Retrieved January 29, 2021.
  221. ^ Donnelly, Matt (October 23, 2020). "HBO Max Film Shake-Up: Toby Emmerich Consolidates Power, Two Executives Depart". Variety. Archived from the original on February 20, 2022. Retrieved January 29, 2021.
  222. ^ Lee, Benjamin (February 7, 2022). "Warner Bros sued over 'abysmal' Matrix Resurrections release". The Guardian News. p. 1. Archived from the original on February 8, 2022. Retrieved February 8, 2022.
  223. ^ Patten, Dominic; Hayes, Dade (May 27, 2022). "Village Roadshow Agrees To Arbitration With Warner Bros. In 'Matrix' Streaming Strategy Lawsuit – Update". Deadline. Archived from the original on June 11, 2022. Retrieved June 11, 2022.
  224. ^ Meredith, Sam; Kovach, Steve (May 17, 2021). "AT&T announces $43 billion deal to merge WarnerMedia with Discovery". CNBC. Archived from the original on January 20, 2022. Retrieved May 17, 2021.
  225. ^ Hayes, Dade (May 17, 2021). "David Zaslav And John Stankey Outline Plans For Merging Discovery And WarnerMedia, Addressing Future Of Jason Kilar, CNN, Streaming". Deadline. Archived from the original on May 17, 2021. Retrieved May 17, 2021.
  226. ^ Mass, Jennifer (April 5, 2022). "Discovery-WarnerMedia Merger Could Close as Early as This Friday (EXCLUSIVE)". Variety. Archived from the original on April 6, 2022. Retrieved April 6, 2022.
  227. ^ Maas, Jennifer (April 8, 2022). "Discovery Closes $43 Billion Acquisition of AT&T's WarnerMedia". Variety. Archived from the original on April 8, 2022. Retrieved April 8, 2022.
  228. ^ Maas, Jennifer (March 23, 2022). "Warner Bros. Reveals 100th Anniversary Logo, Teases Rollout of Commemorative Content, Products and Events". Variety. Archived from the original on May 8, 2022. Retrieved May 16, 2022.
  229. ^ Murphy, J. Kim (December 14, 2022). "Warner Bros. Discovery Launches Centennial Celebration for 100th Anniversary". Variety. Archived from the original on December 14, 2022. Retrieved December 15, 2022.
  230. ^ Del Valle, Rachel (April 23, 2022). "After embarrassing leak, Warner Bros. Discovery gets a modern new logo". Fast Company. Archived from the original on June 29, 2022. Retrieved July 2, 2022.
  231. ^ Sun, Rebecca (April 18, 2023). "Warner Bros. Studios Celebrates 100th Anniversary With Diverse Shorts Re-Creating Warner Bros. Classics (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on May 13, 2023. Retrieved April 19, 2023.
  232. ^ Couch, Aaron; Kit, Borys (October 25, 2022). "DC Shocker: James Gunn, Peter Safran to Lead Film, TV and Animation Division (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on October 25, 2022. Retrieved October 25, 2022.
  233. ^ McMillan, Graeme (November 1, 2022). "DC Has a Chance to Save Superman. Here's What It Needs to Do". Wired. Retrieved November 1, 2022.
  234. ^ "Warner Bros. and Disney have a distribution pact". Los Angeles Times. May 4, 1987. Archived from the original on January 29, 2018. Retrieved January 17, 2018.
  235. ^ de Barros, Eurico (February 6, 2014). "Columbia Tristar Warner encerra escritórios em Portugal" [Columbia Tristar Warner closes offices in Portugal]. Diário de Notícias (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on September 30, 2017. Retrieved September 29, 2017.
  236. ^ "WarnerMedia Closing Hong Kong Theatrical Division; Universal To Release WB Pictures In Market" (Press release). Deadline. December 24, 2020. Retrieved December 22, 2022.
  237. ^ "Portal Exibidor – CADE autoriza acordo entre Universal e Warner; saiba mais!". www.exibidor.com.br (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on June 18, 2022. Retrieved May 19, 2022.
  238. ^ "Warner and Universal join hands to sustain business". India Times. Retrieved April 14, 2024.
  239. ^ "'No Time To Die' — Daniel Craig's Final Bond Film — Premieres in Cinemas This December 15" (Press release). Universal Pictures/Warner Bros. (F.E.) Inc. November 21, 2021. Retrieved November 15, 2021 – via Click the City. From Universal Pictures International PH, distributed by Warner Bros., No Time To Die opens December 15 in Philippine cinemas.
  240. ^ D'Alessandro, Anthony (August 14, 2022). "Warner Bros Forms Multi-Year Pact To Distribute MGM Movies Overseas Beginning With 'Bones And All', 'Creed III'; How Bond Will Be Handled". Deadline. Archived from the original on August 15, 2022. Retrieved October 4, 2022.
  241. ^ "Warner Bros. Unveils Centennial Logo in Advance of the Iconic Studio's 100th Anniversary" (Press release). Warner Bros. March 23, 2022. Archived from the original on September 5, 2022. Retrieved September 12, 2022.
  242. ^ "Warner Films Bought for $21 Million; Largest Library Yet for Television" (PDF). Broadcasting. March 5, 1956. p. 42.
  243. ^ Hoyt, Eric (July 3, 2014). Hollywood Vault: Film Libraries Before Home Video. Univ of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-95857-9 – via Google Books.
  244. ^ Cole, Robert J. (May 16, 1981). "M-G-M Is Reported Purchasing United Artists for $350 million". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on September 8, 2016. Retrieved October 26, 2016.
  245. ^ "Faberge Sells Brut's Assets". The New York Times. January 1982. Archived from the original on July 1, 2017. Retrieved November 27, 2014.
  246. ^ "Turner Sells Fabled MGM but Keeps a Lion's Share". Los Angeles Times. December 20, 1985. Archived from the original on August 1, 2017. Retrieved February 2, 2018.
  247. ^ "Crash Landing Merv Adelson—TV mogul, multimillionaire, and friend of the famous—lived a show-business fantasy. His bankruptcy has shocked Hollywood. – November 10, 2003". CNN. Archived from the original on January 26, 2013. Retrieved September 2, 2015.
  248. ^ "Warner Completes Merger With Lorimar Telepictures". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on November 3, 2012. Retrieved October 23, 2010.
  249. ^ "Turner Broadcasting Company Report". sec.gov. Securities and Exchange Commission. Archived from the original on July 10, 2017. Retrieved November 8, 2017.
  250. ^ "Done deal: Turner Broadcasting System Inc. said it closed..." Chicage Tribune. Archived from the original on March 2, 2016. Retrieved September 2, 2015.
  251. ^ "New Line to Join Ted Turner Empire Today : Film: With more money, the company is likely to add a few big movies to its annual production schedule". Los Angeles Times. January 28, 1994. Archived from the original on March 25, 2019. Retrieved October 30, 2019.
  252. ^ "New Line Cinema". ethicalbusinessbureau.com. Archived from the original on March 2, 2016. Retrieved October 30, 2019.

Works cited

Further reading

External links