Warthin–Starry stain

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Helicobacter pylori colonized on the surface of regenerative epithelium, stained with the Warthin-Starry method.
Clusters of bacteria (arrow) shown on Warthin–Starry stain.

The Warthin–Starry stain (WS) is a silver nitrate-based staining method (a silver stain) used in histology. It was first introduced in 1920 by American pathologists Aldred Scott Warthin (1866-1931) and Allen Chronister Starry (1890-1973), for the detection of spirochetes.[1][2] It has been considered a standard stain for the detection of spirochetes,[3] and is also used to stain Helicobacter pylori, Lawsonia intracellularis,[4] Microsporidia,[5][6] and particulates.[7] It is also important for confirmation of Bartonella henselae, a causative organism in cat-scratch disease.

Warthin–Starry stains organisms dark brown to black, and the background light golden brown/golden yellow.[5]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Warthin-Starry stain". Merriam-Webster's Medical Dictionary. Retrieved 2009-09-04.
  2. ^ Warthin, AS; Chronister, AC (1920). "A more rapid and improved method of demonstrating spirochetes in tissues (Warthin and Starry's cover-glass method)". American Journal of Syphilis. 4: 97–103.
  3. ^ "Special Stains in Histology". The Internet Pathology Laboratory. University of Utah Spencer S. Eccles Health Sciences Library. n.d. Retrieved 2009-09-04.
  4. ^ Huerta, B.; Arenas, A.; Carrasco, L.; Maldonado, A.; Tarradas, C.; Carbonero, A.; Perea, A. (Aug 2003). "Comparison of diagnostic techniques for porcine proliferative enteropathy (Lawsonia intracellularis infection)". Journal of Comparative Pathology. 129 (2–3): 179–185. doi:10.1016/S0021-9975(03)00030-6. ISSN 0021-9975. PMID 12921724.
  5. ^ a b Field, As; Marriott, Dj; Hing, Mc (1993). "The Warthin-Starry stain in the diagnosis of small intestinal microsporidiosis in HIV-infected patients" (Free full text). Folia parasitologica. 40 (4): 261–6. ISSN 0015-5683. PMID 7516907.
  6. ^ Słodkowicz-Kowalska, A (2004). "Laboratory diagnostics of human microsporidiosis" (Free full text). Wiadomosci parazytologiczne. 50 (4): 679–89. ISSN 0043-5163. PMID 16862802.
  7. ^ Liu, H. (2008). "Warthin-starry Silver Method Showing Particulate Matter in Macrophage1". Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. 21: 85–9. doi:10.1016/S0895-3988(08)60011-2. PMID 18478983.

External links[edit]