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Wasei-eigo (和製英語, "Japanese-made English", "English words coined in Japan") are Japanese-language expressions based on English words or parts of word combinations, that do not exist in standard English or whose meanings differ from the words from which they were derived. Linguistics classifies them as pseudo-loanwords or pseudo-anglicisms.
Wasei-eigo words, compound words and portmanteaus are constructed by Japanese speakers on the basis of loanwords derived from English and embedded into the Japanese lexicon with refashioned, novel meanings diverging significantly from the originals.:124 An example of wasei-eigo is reberu appu (レベルアップ 'level up'), which means "rise a level" (the preposition being interpreted in line with Japanese word order as a verb qualifying its preceding object). Some wasei-eigo terms are not recognizable as English words in English-speaking countries, such as sukinshippu (スキンシップ 'skinship'), which refers to physical contact between close friends or loved ones and appears to have been coined from skin and kinship.:156–157 In other cases, a word may simply have gained a slightly different meaning; kanningu (カンニング) means not "cunning", but "cheating" (on a test). Some wasei-eigo are subsequently borrowed from Japanese into other languages, including English itself.
Confusion with gairaigo
Wasei-eigo is often confused with gairaigo, which is simply loanwords or "words from abroad". The main contributor to this confusion is that many gairaigo words derived from English are mistaken for wasei-eigo due to the phonological and morphological transformation they undergo to suit Japanese phonology and syllabary. These transformations often result in truncated (or "backclipped") words and words with extra vowels inserted to accommodate the Japanese mora syllabic structure.:70 Wasei-eigo, on the other hand, is the re-working of and experimentation with these words that result in an entirely novel meaning as compared to the original intended meaning.:123–139
Compared to other Japanese word classes
Wasei-eigo is distinct from Engrish, the misuse or corruption of the English language by native Japanese speakers, as it consists of words used in Japanese conversation, not an attempt at speaking English. These include acronyms and initialisms particular to Japan (see list of Japanese Latin alphabetic abbreviations). Wasei-eigo can be compared to wasei kango (和製漢語, Japanese-created kango (Chinese compounds)), which are Japanese pseudo-Sinicisms (Japanese words created from Chinese roots) and are also extremely common.
History and process
There was a large influx of English loanwords introduced to Japan during the Meiji period, which was an important factor in Japan’s modernization. Because they were so quickly accepted into Japanese society there is not a thorough understanding of the actual meaning of the word, leading to misinterpretations and deviations from their original meaning.
Since English loanwords are adopted into Japan intentionally (as opposed to diffusing "naturally" through language contact, etc.), the meaning often deviates from the original. When these loanwords become so deeply embedded in the Japanese lexicon, it leads to experimentation and re-fashioning of the words' meaning, thus resulting in wasei-eigo.:127
In the media
Many scholars also agree that the main proponent behind these wasei-eigo terms is mainly the media to create interest and novelty in their advertising and products.:133 The use of English words is also an attempt by advertisers to portray a modern, cosmopolitan image – one that is often associated with Western culture.:48
Social connotations and main users
Though there is disagreement about the assumption that the majority of wasei-eigo are created by advertisers, the audience that predominantly uses wasei-eigo is youth and women.:123–139 Many Japanese consider English loanword usage to be more casual and as being used mainly among peers of the same status.:49
English loanwords are usually written in katakana, making it apparent that they are words non-native to Japan.:73 This constant reminder that these are loanwords, and not natively Japanese, links the meanings of the words with the idea of "foreignness". Because of this, wasei-eigo (and some English loanwords) is often used as a method for speaking about taboo and controversial topics in a safe and neutral way.:52 Further, being non-native Japanese words and marked as foreign in their writing, they can be associated with concepts and subjects that are non-normal, or uncommon in Japan.:57
- List of gairaigo and wasei-eigo terms
- List of wasei-eigo
- List of Japanese Latin alphabetic abbreviations
- Konglish – the same phenomenon in Korean language
- Bonin English, sometimes considered an Anglo-Japanese mixed language
- Miller, L. (1998). Wasei eigo: English “loanwords” coined in Japan. The life of language: Papers in linguistics in honor of William Bright.
- Miura, Akira (1998). English in Japanese: a selection of useful loanwords.
- KAY, G. (1995), English loanwords in Japanese. World Englishes, 14. doi:10.1111/j.1467-971X.1995.tb00340.x
- Nagae, Akira (October 28, 2005). 恥ずかしい和製英語 [著]スティーブン・ウォルシュ [Embarrassing Japanese-English Words [Author] Stephen Walsh] (book review) (in Japanese). Weekly Asahi. Retrieved July 29, 2014.
- MacGregor, Laura (2003). The language of shop signs in Tokyo. English Today, null, pp 18 doi:10.1017/S0266078403001020
- Hogan, J. (2003). The social significance of English usage in Japan. Japanese studies, 23(1).
- Miller, Laura (1997). "Wasei eigo: English 'loanwords' Coined in Japan". In Hill, Jane H.; Mistry, P.J.; Campbell, Lyle. The Life of Language: Papers in Linguistics in Honor of William Bright. Trends in Linguistics: Studies and Monographs. 108. Berlin: Mouton / De Gruyter. pp. 123–139. ISBN 3110156334. at Google Books
- Masuda, Koh, ed. (1991). Kenkyusha's New Japanese-English Dictionary (4th ed.). Tokyo: Kenkyusha Limited. ISBN 4-7674-2015-6.
- Gakken (2003). 用例でわかるカタカナ新語辞典 [Katakana Shingo-jiten (Katakana by Example New Word Dictionary)] (in Japanese). ISBN 4-05-301351-8.
- Miura, Akira (1998). English in Japanese : a selection of useful loanwords (1. Weatherhill ed.). New York [u.a.]: Weatherhill. ISBN 0834804212.