Washburn Guitars

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Washburn Guitars
Subsidiary
Industry Musical instruments
Founded 1883; 134 years ago (1883) in Chicago, Illinois
Founder George Washburn Lyon
Headquarters Chicago, Illinois, United States
Area served
Worldwide
Products Electric, acoustic & resonator guitars
Bass Guitars
Banjos
Mandolins
Ukuleles
Amplifiers
Parent US Music
Website washburn.com

Washburn Guitars is an American manufacturer and importer of guitars, mandolins, and other string instruments. The original company was established in 1883 in Chicago, Illinois. The modern Washburn is a division of US Music Corp., in turn now owned by JAM Industries USA.

Corporate history[edit]

1864-1940[edit]

Washburn Banjorine (1892).
Parlor guitar (1894) and "New Model" (1896)
right: archtop guitar model 5250 (1928).

Lyon & Healy began in 1864 as a partnership of businessmen George W. Lyon and Patrick J. Healy, acting as the Chicago outlet for Boston sheet music publisher Oliver Ditson and Company. By 1865, Lyon & Healy had expanded into reed organs and some small instruments. The company achieved independence by 1880, and around 1888 the company launched fully into fretted and plucked instruments (guitars, mandolins, banjos, and zithers)[1] under the "Washburn" brand, which happened to be Lyon's middle name.[2]

Tracing the history of any particular instrument of this period presents many obstacles. Not only did the Lyon & Healy company often change designs to follow the rapidly evolving consumer demand, but the company also repaired instruments, and offered engraving services, including decorating instruments that it retailed but did not actually manufacture. As well, they built instruments for other retailers and distributors under various house brands, and outsourced construction of some models.

In 1912, Washburn introduced the Lakeside Jumbo guitar, which some consider the first dreadnought-sized guitar.[3] It bridged the gap between smaller-bodied "parlor" guitars of the late 19th and early 20th century and modern-day dreadnought and jumbo acoustic guitars.

George Lyon retired from the company in 1889 (died 1894). Patrick Healy then led the company into a period of major expansion, beginning with a larger new factory and improved mass-production techniques, and soon dominated the domestic market.[4] Their 1892 catalog claimed to manufacture 100,000 instruments annually. Healy died 1905.

By the 1920s, Lyon & Healy faced growing competition from other instrument manufacturers as well as from the rise of other forms of entertainment, particularly film and the gramophone. Lyon & Healy gradually shifted manufacturing chores onto wholesaler Tonk Brothers, to whom they sold the guitar portion of the business in 1928, continuing to produce their own lines of harps, pianos, and organs.

Tonk Brothers turned to manufacturer J.R. Stewart Company to purchase and operate the massive factory, but this transition proved problematic and Stewart went bankrupt in 1930. Some of the Stewart assets were acquired by the Regal Musical Instrument Company, which had purchased the "Regal" brand name in 1908 from Lyon & Healy (who acquired it in 1905). Regal was chosen to reopen the Washburn factory (producing Regal instruments as well). Though the Washburn brand was preserved, it never regained its preeminence, and by the early 1940s had declined to nothing.

Modern era[edit]

An unbroken lineage is often alluded to by Washburn International (in press releases and advertising materials, and on the company website): "Washburn has been building stringed instruments since 1883. … 130 years of history is at the root of our strong foundation building high quality instruments." There is no direct connection between the original Washburn brand and the modern Washburn International.

In the early 1960s, retail store The Chicago Guitar Gallery hired Rudolf "Rudy" Schlacher, a young German violin builder, as a repair technician. A few years later, Schlacher opened The Sound Post[5][6] (in Evanston, Illinois) to focus on guitars. He soon realized the sales potential for lower-cost quality instruments.

Tom Beckmen and his wife Judy Fink Beckmen in 1972 left careers as music salesman and teacher (respectively) to launch a wholesale music business in Los Angeles, Beckmen Musical Instruments. It was Beckmen Music that resurrected the Washburn name, and beginning in 1974 applied it to a series of quality imported acoustic guitars, made in Japan by Terada, as well as a selection of mandolins and banjos.

Schlacher and Rick Johnstone, as Fretted Industries, Inc., acquired the Washburn name in 1977 (for $13,000) when the Beckmens took their business a different direction,[7] and so the Washburn name was returned to Chicago. With assistance from Ikutaro Kakehashi (founder of Roland Corporation), Schlacher was able to find instrument factories in Japan that could meet the desired standards.[8]

Fretted Industries acquired other lines as well, such as Oscar Schmidt autoharps.

Schlacher bought out Johnstone in 1987, and changed the company name to Washburn International. A stateside manufacturing operation was opened in 1991 for higher-end, short-run, and one-off instruments, as well as development and prototyping. That year, a Chicago Tribune article[9] confidently places Washburn "among the top three guitar manufacturers in the world," behind only Fender and Gibson.

On December 15, 2002, Washburn International announced that it had completed acquisition of U.S. Music Corporation,[10] and would be rolling its assets into that company in a reverse merger.[11] Schlacher remained as CFO, appointing Gary Gryczan to COO; Gryczan had been Washburn's CFO from 1995 through 1998. The new USM's headquarters were in Mundelein (440 E. Courtland Street), which also housed the stateside Washburn luthiery, often referred to as "the USA Custom Shop."

Schlacher announced completion of selling USM to JAM Industries on August 24, 2009, and that he would be stepping away from his company after fully four decades.[12]

We are pleased to join forces with a strategic partner like Jam Industries, that has a long, successful history in the music industry and has been a long-term business partner with U.S. Music for more than 20 years. It has been a thrilling and rewarding 40-year ride that has allowed me to realize my dreams and goals.[13]

As R S Consulting he remained a consultant to the musical-instrument industry[14] and was an executive producer for a small-budget film[15]

The corporate offices of U.S. Music were relocated to Buffalo Grove in 2012.

Production[edit]

Very few modern Washburn instruments have been built by the company itself. It has relied on outside factories and luthiers to fulfill their designs and meet public demand.

The first modern Washburn instruments were full-size acoustic guitars imported from Japan by Beckmen Music. The 1974 range included one folk-style guitar (W-200) and eight dreadnoughts of increasing quality and decoration: W-240-12, W-250, W-260, W-280, W-300, W-300-12, W-500, W-600. These were constructed by Yamaki.

Under Rudy Schlacher, most Washburn models were ordered in runs of 200 units, rather than ongoing production; if sales went well, a further run might be ordered. This application of just-in-time manufacturing (or lean manufacturing) kept the company from needing to warehouse and liquidate overproduction, improving profitability. As a result, many Washburn instruments (acoustic or electric) are difficult to locate once out of production, and are scarcer than the "limited editions" of other manufacturers.

The first Washburn electric guitars were the Wing Series models, offered 1978-1984. These instruments featured innovative push-pull split humbuckers, brass hardware and inlays, and neck-through construction. Most of the Wing Series models were produced by Yamaki, a Japanese manufacturer of Washburn acoustic guitars as well as their own Daion brand (late 1970s to early 1980s).

By 1991, production of Washburn instruments had shifted almost entirely to Korea, built by Samick. When Samick opened their Cileungsi, Indonesia, facility in 1992, this factory also began to produce Washburn-branded instruments, generally identifiable by an "SI-" serial number prefix.

Between 1994 and 2001, ten models of acoustic guitar were built for Washburn in the United States, five by Tacoma Guitars (Tacoma, Washington) and five by Bourgeois Guitars (Lewiston, Maine).

Washburn brought out a line of four USA-made dreadnoughts, available from 2002 to 2008. These were the D-78, D-80, D-82, and D-84. (All had the "-SW" suffix, for "solid wood," indicating that no laminate wood was employed.)

In 2012, when JAM Industries declined to renew the lease on the Mundelein facility, the Washburn luthiery closed. At the time, it was the ninth-largest employer in the village (the third-largest business), providing 180 jobs.[16] The stated intent was to reopen at a smaller building in Buffalo Grove (1000 Corporate Grove Drive)[17] but this did not materialize, and is the probable end to Washburn instruments made in the United States.

As of 2017, primary production has largely shifted from Korea to factories in Indonesia and China.

Innovation and success[edit]

Most widely known for its guitars (both electric and acoustic), Washburn also makes electric basses, acoustic basses, banjos, mandolins, travel guitars, ukuleles, and amplifiers, as well as accessories including guitar cases, clothing, tuners, and straps.[18]

In the 1980s, Washburn introduced the Festival Series of acoustic/electric guitars (the EA series, for "electrified acoustic"). They were thinner than standard acoustic guitars and less acoustically resonant by design, thereby reducing susceptibility to feedback, a significant problem using acoustic or electrified acoustic guitars in large-venue performances. The addition in later models of sound slots (rather than the traditional round soundhole), a patented innovation, further reduced the possibility of feedback, and the guitars quickly became the go-to stage acoustic for artists such as Jimmy Page, George Harrison, and Bob Dylan. In the early 1990s when MTV introduced their Unplugged series, hardly a show went by without seeing a Festival Series guitar. The design also lent itself well to acoustic basses, and Washburn's AB Series quickly became popular both for its look and its tone, whether amplified or unplugged.

Headstock of a Washburn RB2802 eight-string bass.

In recent years, Washburn licensed several notable guitar construction features:

  • the Buzz Feiten Tuning System — a corrected-temperation tuning formula, using a compensated nut and saddle to minimize the inherent intonation problems of the Western tuning formula. The BFTS was first used by Washburn in 1995 on a very few models, then increasingly with the introduction of the WI-64 (1999), and was entirely phased out after the 2010 production year. At its peak, this system came standard on U.S.-made Washburn guitars and basses and the better imports.[19]
  • Stephen's Extended Cutaway — a unique bolt-on neck joint invented by luthier Stephen Davies to allow greater unrestricted access for a guitarist's fretting hand. Used primarily with the Nuno Bettencourt signature models, the SEC has also been employed with acoustic guitars, and remains on some current (2017) models of the Parallaxe line.[20]
  • Voice Contour Control (VCC) — a special potentiometer and wiring, intended to allow access to the entire range of tones "between" the one-coil ("single-coil" mode) and two-coil sounds of a humbucking pickup, rather than one or the other.[21] Designed by Trevor Wilkinson, the VCC is no longer in use by Washburn, but is available in various models of Vintage (UK) guitar as the Roll Control knob.

VCC is similar to coil splitting, in that it changes the tone of a humbucking pick-up to that of a single coil, but it does it by turning the tone knob … without the hum normally associated with single coils.

Model number suffixes[edit]

Over the past 40 years, Washburn has accreted a system of identifying some of the most pertinent features in many of its acoustic instruments and some of the electric. Additional letters may be used to indicate the instrument's finish. While imperfectly applied, and sometimes awkwardly long, this can often be useful in identifying a given guitar.

suffix —
  • C - cutaway
  • DL - deluxe (generally, a standard model with a few upgraded features)
  • E - electric (i.e., built-in pickup)
  • K - kit (i.e., includes case or gig bag)
  • LH - left-handed
  • M - mahogany top
  • Q - quilt maple top
  • R - rosewood
  • S - solid-wood top (rather than laminate)
  • SP - spalt maple top
  • SW - solid wood used throughout
  • V - vibrato (on electric guitars)

This often combines with the prefix to tell a guitar's story. For example, the WLG110SWCEK indicates that it's part of the Woodline series (WL-), likely top of the line (110), Grand Auditorium (G) size, all solid wood, cutaway, piezo pickup, and originally included a case.

Past and present models[edit]

WG587 7-string guitar.
N4 Special
HB35.
J5 Jazz guitar.

Any given series may have as little as one model.

electric guitars[edit]

prefix Series a.k.a type duration comments
J Jazz hollowbody archtop 1989-date
HB Hollow Body semihollow archtop 1981-date
B Bantam headless bass 1984-1986 no connection to 1990s Bantams
GB Bantam headless bass/guitar 1984-1986 no connection to 1990s Bantams
G Bantam headless guitar 1984-1986 no connection to 1990s Bantams
CT Centurian carved-top 1997-2002
P Centurian carved-top 1997-2002
E Centurian carved-top 2001-2002
CP Culprit 1998-2000
Dime Dimebag Darrell 1995-2004 signature line
G Force 1983-1988
CS Hard Rock 2000-2002
NX Nextar 2002-2003 Stephen's Extended Cutaway
PT Poptop 2000-2002
RS Hard Rock 2000-2002
WG Hard Rock 2000-2002
WR Hard Rock 2000-2002
HM 2008-2010 Series, not prefix
WI Idol 1999-2010
WM HM 2008-2010 no connection to 1990s WM
WV Wavepoint; Vee 2008-2010
WIN Idol 2010-2014
JB Jennifer Batten 2000-2004 signature line
KC Chicago 1989-1991
LS Laredo Legacy; Silverado S copy 1992-1994
LT Laredo Legacy; Silverado T copy 1993-1994
MR Magnum 1997-2000
BT Maverick BillyT; Bantam 1995-2002 all 24.75" scale
WM Maverick 1997-2002 no connection to 2008 WM
DD Maya Dan Donegan 2005-2010 signature line
MG Mercury 1992-1996
NC Nick Catanese 2005-2009 signature line
N Nuno Bettencourt 1990-date Stephen's Extended Cutaway
PS Paul Stanley 1998-date signature line
RX RX 2011-date
SI Scott Ian 2005-2010 signature line
A Stage 1980-1986
EC Extended Cutaway 1988-1991 Stephen's Extended Cutaway
SS Steve Stephens 1993-1994
AF Tour Ace Frehley 1987-1988 signature line
FV Tour Flying Vee 1984-1985
HM Tour 1985-1987
RR Tour 1985-1987
RS Tour 1987-1988
WP Tour Paul copy 1987-1991
WT Tour 1984-1994
Wing 1978-1985
SB Wing Reissue 1992-1995
X X 2002-2010
XM XM 2011-date
S Sonamaster 2016-date
PX Parallaxe 2013-date
PXM Parallaxe 2013-date
PXS Parallaxe 2013-date
PXL Parallaxe LP shape 2013-date
TB Tabu 2009
WB Lyon S copy 1994-1995
left: AB-10 acoustic bass.
right: XB-600 6-string bass (right).

basses[edit]

prefix Series a.k.a type duration comments
B 1983-1985
B 1992
Wing Scavenger 1980-1981
B Stage 1981-1984
B Stage 1981-1984
B Force P copy 1983-1986
B ABT 1987-1989
XS Axxess 1990-1991
BB Bantam 2006-2010
XB Bantam 1994-2006
MB Mercury 1992-1993
MB Mercury 2002-2006
RB RB 1999-2003
WP Shadow P copy 1997-1999
WJ Shadow J copy 1997-1999
S Status 1000 1988-1993
SHB Stu Hamm 2012-2016 signature
T Taurus 2002-date
AB 2004-2006
Bootsy Collins Space Bass 2002-2006
CB 2007-2010
DB 2000
Force 2002-2010
M 2002-2003
WB Idol 2007-2010
SB Sonamaster 2016-date
AB Festival Acoustic 1988-date
D100DL acoustic.

acoustic guitars[edit]

prefix Series shape duration type comments
RW Roger Waters 2004 acoustic/electric RW300 signature (USA)
D dreadnought 1978-2010
WD dreadnought 2011-date
R 125th Anniversary parlor 2008-2009
WSJ 125th Anniversary southern jumbo 2008-2009
D southern jumbo 1985-2000
F folk 1978-2010
WF folk 2012-date
WG grand auditorium 2011-date
J jumbo 1991-2010
SJ southern jumbo 2004-2005
WB baby jumbo 2007-2010
WJ jumbo 2011-date
PS Paul Stanley dreadnought 2007
PS Paul Stanley folk 2007
PR Prairie State 1920s 2002-2003
DC dreadnought 1987-1994 Stephen's Extended Cutaway

mandolins[edit]

banjos[edit]

resonator guitars[edit]

amplifiers[edit]

effects[edit]

Endorsers[edit]

Washburn uses the mechanism of endorsements, where:

  • Manufacturer provides custom-shop instrument that suits the artist best, for free (or even paying artist).
  • Artists promotes his or her usage of that instrument and advertises manufacturer company.

The current list of Washburn Signature endorsers.
Standard Washburn Endorsers.

Product lineup[edit]

2017 Signature Lines[edit]

N4 XX anniversary edition.
  • Nuno Bettencourt models are flagshipped by the American hand-made N4. The N4 is a small reverse-headstock "super-strat" that features the Stephen's Extended Cutaway neck joint for easy access to the higher frets. It is outfitted with a Bill Lawrence® and a Seymour Duncan pickup, and a licensed Floyd Rose-type tremolo. The N1 and N2 are production (budget) models of this line, factory-built in Korea, and feature standard bolt-on necks and lower-grade pickups and tremolo systems. The N3 (discontinued) was also produced in Korea and sported the Stephen's Extended Cutaway but used lower-grade pickups.
    Bettencourt has endorsed several Washburn acoustic models as well. There is the N7 7-string model, and an acoustic/electric based on the Festival Series, the EA20SNB.
  • Ola Englund Solar (2013/2014): Signature model announced by Washburn in 2013 for Swedish guitarist Ola Englund of Six Feet Under, Feared, and The Haunted.[22]
  • Warren Haynes - vocalist and guitarist, Gov't Mule, The Allman Brothers, and the Warren Haynes Band. The Washburn WSD5249 acoustic guitar is based on the original Washburn Solo Deluxe from 1937, which is similar in size to the popular OM shaped guitars on the market today. Adirondack Spruce top with period-correct vintage sunburst finish. Hand-shaped scalloped Adirondack Spruce bracing, solid rosewood sides, 2-piece back with vintage-inspired 1930s zipper-style inlaid herringbone stripe. The top has 3-ply ivoroid binding and the sound hole is finished by a ringed herringbone rosette.[23]

Previous Signature Product lineup[edit]

DIME 333 (Dean ML-style).
CP2003 "Culprit".
  • "Dimebag Darrell" Abbott Washburn's Dean ML-style Dime 333 and radical Gibson Explorer-like Dime Culprit models were the most popular. The Dime 333 had a Floyd Rose double-locking tremolo; the 332 variant featured a stop-tail bridge. The Culprit, with its sliced-up Explorer-style body, featured a Floyd Rose tremolo, a mirror pickguard and a pair of hot ceramic humbucking pickups with chrome cover.
Paul Stanley model.
  • Paul Stanley Models for 2014were the PS2014, PS2012, PS 12 and PS10.[24] Previous models have been the PS600 and PS800 (extensively used while touring with KISS), as well as the "Preacher" PS7000/PS7200/PS9000/PS9200 (which he used during his 2006-2007 tour to promote his solo album Live to Win). Stanley's line also includes the PS9 and PS11E acoustic guitars that feature his image on the front and come bundled with a custom gig bag.
  • Jennifer Batten three guitars based on the WM design (the USA version of the Maverick BT Series guitars). All had three single-coil pickups: JB-80 (Korea), JB-100 (USA), JB-100 MIDI (USA) with installed Roland GK-2A divided pickup system.
  • Steve Stevens Signature Model (1993) SS80 and SS100 models made at Washburn's Chicago custom shop. The SS40 was mass-produced in Korea. The SS80 was produced in black with gold hardware and a Schaller-licensed Floyd Rose tremolo, Seymour Duncan JB humbucking pickups. The SS100 featured black hardware and Frankenstein monster graphics.
  • George Washburn / Stephens Extended Cutaway electric models were introduced in 1987 and designed entirely by Stephen Davies. The EC series had 3 models in the series: the EC-26 Atlantis, the EC-29 Challenger, and the EC-36 Spitfire. The EC-29 and EC-36 were the first mass-produced guitars that had over 27 frets. The EC26 had 26 frets, was made in the U.S.A. and is a very rare model.
  • Nick Catanese Signature Model (1999) Idol Series for Nick Catanese.
  • Stu Hamm - Signature electric bass model designed by Stu Hamm.[25]
  • Dan Donegan Signature Model/Maya Series (2003): A six-string electric guitar series for Disturbed guitarist Dan Donegan and named after his daughter Maya. There were two models: the Maya Standard (DD-70) and the Maya Pro (DD-75). Both use Seymour Duncan pickups.
  • Bootsy Collins Space bass (2006): Signature model for Bootsy Collins. Features Fender Jazz Bass pickups.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hubert Pleijsier (2008). Washburn Prewar Instrument Styles. Anaheim Hills, CA: Hal Leonard. p. 3. ISBN 978-1-57424-227-0. 
  2. ^ "History of Lyon & Healy - origin of Washburn name". Lyon & Healy, Inc. 
  3. ^ John Teagle, U.S. Music Corp. (1996). Washburn, Over One Hundred Years of Fine Stringed Instruments (1st ed.). New York: Amsco Publications. p. 73. ISBN 0-8256-1435-X. 
  4. ^ Bacon, Tony (1 September 2001). The history of the American guitar: 1833 to the present day (1st ed.). Hal Leonard. ISBN 9781617130335. 
  5. ^ [1], heading of "Rudy Schlacher" video in NAMM Oral History video project.
  6. ^ "Grand Piano Haus: our history"
  7. ^ [2]:Beckmen Music became Roland's distributor for the western United States in 1976, and in 1978 a 50% partner in founding Roland USA. The Beckmens sold their share back to Roland in 1993 and bought a vineyard in the Santa Ynez Valley.
  8. ^ Di Perna, Alan (July 2009). "Burning for you" (PDF). Guitar World. Retrieved 7 March 2017. 
  9. ^ "Guitar-maker Strikes Comeback Chord: Washburn Hits The Top 3 On 15 Years Of Growth", February 17, 1991
  10. ^ [3] Hoovers.com, entry: U.S. MUSIC CORPORATION Company Profile
  11. ^ U.S. Music press release, 12/15/2002
  12. ^ "Schlacher Says Farewell"
  13. ^ U.S. Music press release, 08/24/2009, in Music Inc Magazine
  14. ^ LinkedIn entry "Rudy Schlacher"
  15. ^ IMDB entry: Steel Panther: The British Invasion
  16. ^ Village of Mundelein 2011 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report
  17. ^ [4], Guitar maker leaves Mundelein.
  18. ^ "Washburn History". Washburn Guitars / U.S. Music Corp., a division of JAM Industries, LTD. 
  19. ^ "Buzz Feiten Tuning System". Washburn Guitars. Archived from the original on 2011-12-21. 
  20. ^ "The Washburn Days". Stephen's Extended Cutaway. 2010. Archived from the original on 2012-03-17. 
  21. ^ "Washburn Voics Contour Control (VCC)". Washburn Guitars. Archived from the original on 2011-12-29. 
  22. ^ "Ola Englund Signs With Washburn Guitars". Guitar Noize. July 1, 2013. Ola Englund recently posted an announcement that he wouldn’t be renewing his contract with S7 Guitars and I also recently mentioned that S7G are no longer manufacturing the Strandberg Boden and Washburn have taken over those duties. Well it seems Washburn are making a big move back into the Metal guitar community as Ola Englund … has just signed with Washburn to create a new Solar Series guitar, which will be part of the new Parallaxe series. 
  23. ^ "Washburn WSD5249 Acoustic Guitar". Washburn Guitars. 
  24. ^ "Washburn Paul Stanley Series Electric Guitars". Washburn Guitars. Archived from the original on 2014-08-12. PS10BK / PS10WHK / PS12BK / PS12WHK / PS2012B / PS2012WH / PS2014TS 
  25. ^ "Washburn Stu Hamm Series Bass Guitars". Washburn Guitars. Archived from the original on 2014-04-19. SHB30B / SHB30SVS / SHB40RS / SHB40TNG / SHB60NM / SHB60TSS / SHBH3N / SHBH3TNG 

External links[edit]