Washington Heights, Manhattan
Location in New York City
|City||New York City|
|Community District||Manhattan 12|
|• Total||1.655 sq mi (4.29 km2)|
|• Density||92,000/sq mi (35,000/km2)|
|• Median household income||$52,302|
|Time zone||UTC−5 (Eastern)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−4 (EDT)|
10032, 10033, 10040
|Area code||212, 332, 646, and 917|
Washington Heights is a neighborhood in the uppermost part of the New York City borough of Manhattan. It is named for Fort Washington, a fortification constructed at the highest natural point on Manhattan Island by Continental Army troops in order to defend the area from the British forces during the American Revolutionary War. Washington Heights is bordered by Inwood to the north along Dyckman Street, by Harlem to the south along 155th Street, by the Harlem River and Coogan's Bluff to the east, and by the Hudson River to the west.
Washington Heights, which before the 20th century was sparsely populated by luxurious mansions and single-family homes, was rapidly developed during the early 1900s as the neighborhood became connected to the rest of Manhattan via the A, C, and 1 subway lines. Beginning as a middle-class neighborhood with many Irish and Eastern European immigrants, the neighborhood has at various points been home to communities of German Jews, Greek Americans, Puerto Ricans, Cuban Americans, and Russian Americans. Throughout the 1960s and 70s, White residents began to leave the neighborhood for nearby suburbs as the Black and Latino populations increased. Dominican Americans became the dominant group by the 1980s despite facing difficult economic circumstances, leading the neighborhood to its status today as the most prominent Dominican community in the United States. While crime became a serious issue during the crack cocaine crisis of the 1980s and 90s, in the 2000s Washington Heights became much safer community and began to experience some upward mobility as well as gentrification.
Washington Heights is set apart among Manhattan neighborhoods for its high residential density despite the lack of modern construction, with the majority of its few high-rise buildings belonging to the NewYork–Presbyterian Hospital / Columbia University Medical Center. Other higher education institutions include Yeshiva University and Boricua College. The neighborhood has generous access to green space in Fort Washington Park, Highbridge Park, and Fort Tryon Park, home to the historical landmarks the Little Red Lighthouse, the High Bridge Water Tower, and the Cloisters respectively. Other points of interest include Audubon Terrace, the Morris–Jumel Mansion, the United Palace, the Audubon Ballroom, and the Paul Robeson Residence.
Washington Heights is part of Manhattan Community District 12, and its primary ZIP Codes are 10032, 10033, and 10040. It is served by the 33rd and 34th Precincts of the New York City Police Department and Engine Companies 67, 84, and 93 of the New York City Fire Department. Politically, it is part of the New York City Council's 7th and 10th districts.
Prior to the arrival of Europeans, Northern Manhattan was settled by the Wecquaesgeeks (originally a name for the area meaning "birch-bark country"),:3 who were a band of the Wappinger and a Lenape Native American people.:5 The winding path of Broadway north of 168th Street and St. Nicholas Avenue to its south is living evidence of the old Wecquaesgeek trail which travelled along the Hudson Valley from Lower Manhattan all the way through Albany.:74:442 On the plateau west of Broadway between 175th and 181st streets, the residents had been cultivating crops in a field known to Dutch colonists as the "Great Maize Field.":133:2 The area was also travelled by American Indians from the Early Woodland Period,:117 who left remains of shellfish and pottery at the site of the present-day Little Red Lighthouse.:79
Arriving in 1623, the Dutch initially worked as trade partners with the American Indians but became more and more hostile as time went on, with the natives frequently reciprocating.:20 Even after the bloody assault by the Dutch in Kieft's War (1643–1645), however, some Wecquaesgeeks managed to maintain residence in Washington Heights up until the Dutch paid them a settlement for their last land claims in 1715.:5
To the Dutch, the elevated area of northwestern Washington Heights was known as "Long Hill," while the Fort Tryon Park area specifically carried the name "Forest Hill.":2 None of the land was under private ownership until 1712, when it was parcelled out in lots to various landowners from the village of Harlem to the south.:745 For the greater part of the next two centuries, Washington Heights would remain a home to wealthy landowners seeking a quiet location for their suburban estates.:3,542
During the New York Campaign of the Revolutionary War, General George Washington's Continental Army secured a small but much-needed victory over the pursuing British Army at the Battle of Harlem Heights, after a series of defeats in Manhattan.:56:102 Not long after their victory, the Continental Army suffered one of its worst defeats at the Battle of Fort Washington, in which nearly 2,900 troops were captured.:165 Fort Washington was a group of fortifications on the high points of Washington Heights, with its central site at present-day Bennett Park (known then as Mount Washington):737 built a few months prior opposite Fort Lee, New Jersey to protect the Hudson River from enemy ships.:229:2:111
Now in their control, the British renamed the position Fort Knyphausen for the Hessian general Wilhelm von Knyphausen, who played a major part in the victory;:326 its lesser fortification at present-day Fort Tryon Park was renamed for Sir William Tryon, the last governor of New York before it was taken back by the Continental Army.:158 The park today holds a plaque dedicated in 1909 to Margaret Corbin, an American who took over at her husband's cannon after his death in the Battle of Fort Washington; she was also honored with the naming of Margaret Corbin Drive in 1977.
At the northwest corner of 181st Street and Broadway (then Kingsbridge Road) was the Blue Bell Tavern, built in the early-mid 18th century as an inn and site of social gatherings.:65:331 When New York's Provincial Congress assented to the Declaration of Independence on July 9, 1776, the head of the statue of George III ended up on a spike at the Blue Bell Tavern, broken off by a "rowdy" group of civilians and soldiers at Bowling Green.:232 Years later, during the British evacuation of New York, George Washington and his staff stood in front of the tavern as they watched the American troops march southward to retake the city.:17 After changing ownership several times, the tavern moved to a new building in 1885, following the original structure's destruction for the widening of Broadway.:65 In 1915, the tavern was demolished again to build the 3,500-seat Coliseum Theatre, which yet again faces demolition for conversion into a retail facility after the denial of its landmark status.
Before the apartment development of the 20th century, many wealthy citizens built grand mansions in Washington Heights. The most famous landowner in the southwest part of the neighborhood was ornithologist John James Audubon, whose estate encompassed the 20 acres from 155th to 158th Street west of Broadway.:7 A mystery surrounds his family home by Riverside Drive, which was deconstructed and moved to a city lot to make room for new development in 1931, only for its remnants to vanish without a trace. On the eastern side, by Edgecombe Avenue between 160th and 162nd streets, the Morris–Jumel Mansion has been successfully preserved to this day. The land of the estate had been owned by Jan Kiersen and her son-in-law Jacob Dyckman before it was bought by British colonel Roger Morris in 1765 and completed the same year.:120:1 In 1776, the house was commandeered as a headquarters by George Washington, and after changing hands a few times was purchased by Stephen and Eliza Jumel in 1810.:318 In 1903, the City bought the mansion and it became a museum, today the oldest surviving house in Manhattan.:11:1
With a picturesque view of the Palisades, the elevated ridge of northwest Washington Heights became the site of a few modern castles. The first of these was Libbey Castle, built by Augustus Richards after he purchased the land from Lucius Chittenden in 1855.:160 Located near Margaret Corbin Circle,:23 this estate was once owned by William "Boss" Tweed but got its current name from William Libbey, who purchased it in 1880. Even more extravagant, Paterno Castle was situated on the estate of real estate developer Charles Paterno by the Hudson River at 181st Street. Built in 1907, the mansion was demolished thirty years later for Paterno's Castle Village complex, where pieces of the original structure remain today.:12 The largest estate, however, was the property of industrial tycoon C. K. G. Billings, taking up 25 acres in the southern part of Fort Tryon Park.:20 Although the Louis XIV-style mansion at present-day Linden Terrace burned to the ground in 1925, Billings Terrace remains, supported by the elegant stone archway that originally lead to the Billings mansion.:10
Early and mid-20th century
Initial residential development in Washington Heights began in the late 19th century, with the construction of row and wood-frame houses in the southern part of the neighborhood, centered around Amsterdam Avenue.:2 In 1886, the Third Avenue Railway was extended from 125th Street to 155th Street along Amsterdam Avenue.:7 However, higher residential density would not be supported until the extension of the Interborough Rapid Transit Company (IRT)'s first subway line (now part of the Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line).:76 The IRT subway built stations at 157th Street, 168th Street, 181st Street, and Dyckman Street stations between 1904 and 1906 (the 191st Street station was constructed in 1911).:12:1026:60
Although skyrocketing land values sparked early predictions that upper-class apartment buildings would dominate the neighborhood, such development was limited in the pre-World War I period to the Audubon Park area west of Broadway and south of 158th Street.:14:75 Buildings such as the 13-story Riviera included elaborate decor and generous amenities to attract higher-paying tenants.:15
The southern and eastern parts of Washington Heights experienced a construction boom in the years leading up to World War I.:77 The downtown access provided by the IRT prompted a rapid increase in density through the proliferation of five- and six-story New Law Tenements, the vast majority of which remain today. Many of the new residents came from crowded immigrant neighborhoods such as the Lower East Side,:15 which saw its density halved between 1910 and 1930.:73 This new housing led the total population of Manhattan above 155th Street to grow from just 8,000 in 1900 to 110,000 by 1920.:53 The incoming residents of Washington Heights were a diverse group of people of European descent. In 1920, nearly half were Protestant, the majority of American-born parents, and the remainder split between Jews and Catholics, typically immigrants or born to immigrant parents.:292
The next wave of urbanization for Washington Heights came in the 1920s, coinciding with the construction boom occurring across the city.:79 The population increased significantly in the central area west of Broadway, and drastically in the area north of 181st Street, populating the last of the undeveloped areas just south and west of Fort Tryon Park.:93 Transit was improved for new residents with the construction of the Independent Subway System (IND)'s Eighth Avenue Line in 1932, with stops at 175th Street, 181st Street, and 190th Street along Fort Washington Avenue. Consequently, the population of the neighborhood north of 181st Street would double between 1925 and 1950, when it reached its peak.:275
Demographic changes and ethnic conflict
Meanwhile, the demographics of the neighborhood were undergoing significant change. While the Protestant population remained stagnant, first- and second-generation Irish and Eastern European Jews continued to move in (the Irish, however, were most concentrated in Inwood).:79 By 1930, nearly a quarter of Manhattan's Jews lived north of 155th Street.:152 The neighborhood also saw an influx of German Jews escaping Nazism in the 1930s and 40s, a history documented by Steven M. Lowenstein's book Frankfurt-on-the-Hudson (a nickname referencing the origin city of many in the diaspora).:25 One attractive aspect of Washington Heights for German Jews was likely its Eastern European Jewish presence, but an economic pull was its abundance of housing stock from the 1920s construction boom.:16 Although rents were higher than average, many landlords offered some free rent to draw new tenants, and apartments were nonetheless spacious for their cost.:45
In the first half of the twentieth century, Washington Heights was defined by its religious and ethnic tensions. Although Catholics and Jews were not very segregated residentially, their social organizations were often completely separate, creating conditions for conflict to arise.:439 Around the start of World War II Irish groups such as the Christian Front arose, drawing large crowds to their antisemitic rallies, coupled with the vandalism of synagogues and beating of Jewish youth by Irish youth in gangs such as the Amsterdams.:236:155 After continual charges of police negligence, a committee was created to combat the violence and many members of the Irish gangs were arrested. By 1944, the local Catholic Clergy were pressured to speak out against the prejudice, and Jews, Catholics, and Protestants began working together on solutions to ease the tensions.:157
Around this time, Washington Heights also gained its first substantial population of Black residents, by 1943 numbering around 3,000 and concentrated mainly in the southeastern part of the neighborhood. The Black population of Washington Heights was dwarfed, however, by that of Hamilton Heights, where Whites were only 63% of the population in 1943. It was in this period that the popular boundary of Washington Heights shifted from 135th Street to 155th Street, as many residents of European descent refused to include African Americans in their conception of the neighborhood.:4585 This attitude was expressed in a phrase heard in the time period: "Washington Heights begins where Harlem ends.":33:125 In fact, many of the neighborhood's new Jewish arrivals had left from Harlem as it became increasingly populated by Southern Blacks during the Great Migration.:152:1890
Segregation and racism
Despite the growth of the Black population, racial segregation remained very rigid. While in the vast majority of blocks less than 2% of housing units were occupied by non-White residents, nearly every block east of Amsterdam Avenue and south of 165th Street was over 90% non-White by 1950.:38
The process underlying this segregation is exemplified in the history of one of Washington Heights’ most famous apartment buildings: 555 Edgecombe Avenue. Built in 1914, the fourteen-story building rented to a variety of relatively affluent Whites until 1939, when the owner cancelled all the tenants’ leases and began renting exclusively to Blacks.:5 While organizations like the Neighborhood Protective Association of Washington Heights had kept the neighborhood virtually all-White throughout much of the twentieth century,:248 the overcrowded conditions of Harlem had built up a high demand for apartments outside the neighborhood.:35 Throughout the 1940s, the building had a number of notable Black residents, such as Paul Robeson, Kenneth Clark, and Count Basie.:6 The presence of middle-class Blacks in 555 Edgecombe and other higher-class buildings in southeast Washington Heights lead many to associate it with Sugar Hill, the Harlem subneighborhood spanning between Edgecombe Avenue and Amsterdam Avenue to its south.:4
In addition to segregation, racism also manifested itself in gang culture, where youth often defined themselves by race or ethnicity and violently defended their respective territories. These tensions were brought to a climax in 1957, with the assault of two teenagers of European ancestry, Michael Farmer and Roger McShane, members of the majority-Irish “Jesters” gang.:1043 The incident took place in the Highbridge Pool, a Works Progress Administration-funded pool built in 1936 which had no racial restrictions but was nonetheless an environment of racial hostility in the changing landscape of the neighborhood.:48 The assault, which ended in Michael Farmer's death, was perpetrated by an alliance of the African American Egyptian Kings and the Puerto Rican Dragons, both based in West Harlem just south of the Heights. The evident motive for the attack was revenge: Highbridge Pool was “owned” by the Jesters, and Black and Latino youths were often called racial slurs and chased away from the surrounding blocks.:79 As Eric Schneider analyzes in Vampires, Dragons, and Egyptian Kings: Youth Gangs in Postwar New York, the incident illustrated the paradoxical effects of the neighborhood's demographic shift: the Jesters defined themselves as fighting against Black and Latino occupancy of the neighborhood even as they included newly arrived Blacks in their ranks (similar diversity was seen in the membership of the Dragons and Egyptian Kings).:88
White flight and Latino immigration
While the signs were slowly appearing for the first half of the century that Washington Heights would not forever be a neighborhood of European Americans, by the 1960s the demographic shifts had entered in full force. Washington Heights’ White residents left in great numbers in a reflection of the White flight occurring across the city, while the neighborhood's Latino population saw great increases.:138 While Puerto Ricans had been the dominant Latino group in the 1950s, by 1965 Cubans and Dominicans had overtaken them in number, and by 1970 native Spanish speakers were the majority group in central-eastern census tracts.:215 Despite being a smaller group, Cuban immigrants in the Heights had an outsized role in business, according to a 1976 estimate owning the majority of Latino-owned stores. The neighborhood's Black population also increased, by 1980 numbering over 25,000 and residing in all areas of the neighborhood, in addition to remaining a plurality in the southeastern section.:215
While the overall trend was of exodus among White residents, the rate of this trend varied among different groups. One of the most pronounced changes occurred with Greek immigrants, who had reached their peak in the 1950s with the establishment of St. Spyridon Greek Orthodox Church and an accompanying school, only to see that in two decades nearly all of the congregation had left for the suburbs. On the other hand, the German Jewish exodus was characterized by a decrease in overall population but an increasing presence in the neighborhood's northwestern corner.:216 By the 1970s, evidence of the exodus of the broader Jewish community was present in the changing landscape of the neighborhood, where kosher stores and Jewish bakeries were gradually replaced by new small businesses with signs in Spanish.:218
While some Dominican immigrants had been arriving in Washington Heights throughout the 1950s and 60s, the pace increased drastically during the regime of Joaquín Balaguer, who took power in 1966 following the Dominican Civil War.:12 The combination of the recent passing of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, Balaguer's policy of freely granting passports, and the country's high unemployment rate created the conditions for a growing emigration from the Dominican Republic.:58 Many of the initial migrants were left-wing revolutionaries exiled by the Balaguer regime, theorized to have been granted visas through an unwritten agreement with the United States, but the majority of arrivals came for better economic opportunities.:58 In Quisqueya on the Hudson: The Transnational Identity of Dominicans in Washington Heights, Jorge Duany describes how Washington Heights developed as a “transnational community,” continually defined by its connection to the Dominican Republic. The majority of Dominican immigrants viewed their stay in the United States as purely economically motivated while they remained culturally attached to the D.R.; many also took advantage of an advantageous exchange rate to send remittances home, imagining an eventual retirement to the island.:823
During the 1970s, Washington Heights' School District 6 (including Inwood and Hamilton Heights) was the scene of numerous conflicts over de facto racial segregation and unequal resource distribution within the district's schools.:156 The School Decentralization Act, passed by the New York State Legislature in 1969, set up elected boards for New York City's school districts with limited hiring power and access to some federal funds. At the time, District 6's demographics were rapidly changing due to White students' withdrawal from the public school system and the broader trend of White flight, while the Black and Latino student population rapidly increased.:157 This resulted in a stark gap between the district's few racially integrated schools, which enjoyed better academic reputations and access to resources, and the remainder of schools with very few White students and serious overcrowding problems.:162:94 Fierce competition between different factions for educational funding and new schools was compounded by the disproportionate representation of the majority-White northwestern Heights on the board, creating an environment of hostility in which public meetings were plagued by incivility, disruption, and at times even violence.:153
George Washington High School, located on 193rd Street and Audubon Avenue near Highbridge Park, faced numerous issues representative of the changes and conflicts of the neighborhood's public schools, which intersected in 1970 to produce a situation of extreme chaos.:99 Located in a grand building with a Works Progress Administration mural by Lucienne Bloch, the school was relatively prestigious in the decades after its 1925 founding, graduating people such as Alan Greenspan, Henry Kissinger, and Murray Jarvik.:24:37 Although George Washington remained racially mixed through the early 1970s, the school had a tracking system that prepared White students much more effectively for college, and violence constantly broke out among gangs identifying by race.:100 Discontent with academics and school policy lead to a wave of student demonstrations, supported by a group of parents who pushed to set up an information table in the school's lobby in order to answer questions and hear complaints regarding the school.:102 However, the United Federation of Teachers – which had also clashed with students and parents over the 1964 school boycott and the 1968 teachers' strike:156 – perceived this as an attempt to subvert teachers' authority, leading them to strike after the administration reached a compromise with parents over the table.
By the end of 1970, the high school had seen the resignation of three principals and multiple serious incidents of violence amongst students as well as against teachers and security guards; while many safety improvements were made throughout the 1970s, its academic performance continued to decline.:109 In 1999, the school took its present form as the George Washington Educational Campus composed of four smaller schools, one of which was threatened with closure in 2018 for poor performance.
Late 20th and early 21st centuries
For the remainder of the 20th century the Dominican community of Washington Heights continued to increase considerably, most notably during the mid to late 1980s, when over 40,000 Dominicans settled in Washington Heights, Hamilton Heights, and Inwood.:30 Around the year 2000, the Dominican community reached its peak and became a slim majority of Washington Heights and Inwood,:10 propelling the neighborhoods' combined population to 208,000, the highest level since 1950.
Even as they arrived in great numbers, Dominicans who came to the neighborhood faced a difficult economic situation, with the manufacturing jobs they disproportionally occupied having largely vanished throughout the 1970s and 80s. This was clear by 1990, when the proportion of Dominican New Yorkers living in households below the poverty line was 36%, over half of the citywide rate.:19 A dark reflection of the high demand for low-skill employment was the presence of garment sweatshops in the neighborhood, many with unsafe conditions.:140 Some residents took advantage of their proximity to the George Washington Bridge to work at often-temporary factory jobs in New Jersey, commuting daily by bus.:37
During the late 20th century, other immigrant groups began to make their home in the neighborhood as well. In the late 1970s and early 80s a moderate influx of Soviet Jews occurred following a loosening of the country's emigration policy,:7 predominantly professionals and artists pushed out by antisemitism and drawn by economic opportunity.:138 The makeup of the neighborhood's Latino population also began to diversify beyond an exclusively Caribbean background, most prominently through the arrival of Mexicans and Ecuadorians, who together numbered over 6,000 by 2000 and over 10,000 a decade later.:70:49 Smaller communities of Central Americans, Colombians, and Chinese immigrants had also developed. The neighborhood's Black population began to decrease from its height in the 1970s, by 2010 making up less than one-tenth of the neighborhood.:138 In the present day Washington Heights also has a growing Orthodox Jewish community served by numerous synagogues, many of which have noticed more young Jewish families move into the neighborhood during the 2000s.
1980s crime and drug crisis
In the 1980s and early 1990s, Washington Heights was severely affected by the crack cocaine epidemic, as was the rest of New York City.:158 Washington Heights had become one of the largest drug distribution centers in the Northeastern United States, bringing a negative reputation to Dominican Americans as a group. Then-U.S. Attorney Rudy Giuliani and Senator Alphonse D'Amato chose the corner of 160th Street and Broadway for their widely publicized undercover crack purchase, and in 1989, The New York Times called the neighborhood "the crack capital of America." By 1990, crack's impact on crime was evident: 103 murders were committed in the 34th Precinct that year, along with 1,130 felony assaults, 1,919 robberies, and 2,647 burglaries.
The causes behind the severity of the crisis for Washington Heights, however, were more intricate. One was the neighborhood's location: the George Washington Bridge and its numerous highway connections made for easy access from the New Jersey suburbs.:162 Another contributing factor was that as Dominican dealers such as Santiago Luis Polanco Rodríguez brought the group higher status in cocaine operations, the heavily-Dominican Washington Heights became increasingly important as a strategic location. Washington Heights also had a high level of unemployment and poverty in the 1980s and 90s, providing ample economic motivation for young people to enter the drug trade.
As Robert W. Snyder describes in Crossing Broadway: Washington Heights and the Promise of New York City, the effects of the crack trade extended beyond physical danger to a breakdown in trust and widespread fear provoked by violence in public places as well as murders of people uninvolved in the drug business.:178 It was common for police and detectives to note unresponsiveness from residents during murder inquiries. Overall distrust of the police may have stemmed from the perception of corruption, which was alleged numerous times concerning the 34th Precinct overlooking drug crimes for bribes.
Tensions between residents and the NYPD came to a head on July 4, 1992, when José "Kiko" Garcia was shot by 34th Precinct Officer Michael O'Keefe on the corner of 162nd Street and Saint Nicholas Avenue. Although evidence later supported that the killing was a reaction to violence initiated by Garcia, many residents quickly suspected wanton police brutality.:180 The suspicion was not unfounded, as O'Keefe already had several civilian complaints of unnecessary aggression in arrests.:320 What began as a peaceful demonstration for Garcia's death turned into a violent riot, causing multiple fires, fifteen injuries, and one death.:181 Then-mayor David Dinkins, who had met with the Garcia family following the killing, pleaded for an end to the rioting: “There is much anger in the community about the death of José Garcia and other incidents, [but] you do not build a better city by destroying it."
Crime drop and community improvement
During the mid to late 1990s, Washington Heights experienced a drastic decrease in crime that continued through the 21st century. This is evidenced by the 2020 statistics, where the combined 33rd and 34th precinct crime rates showed dramatic reductions from the 1990 rates in motor vehicle theft (90.6% decrease), murder (89.3%), burglary (82.8%), and robbery (80.6%), while more modest reductions were made in felony assault (63.0%), rape (57.6%), and grand larceny (52.3%). The 30th and 32nd precincts to the south of Washington Heights, which cover most of Harlem above 133rd Street, experienced just as drastic crime drops during the decade.
The crime drop, which was felt across all major U.S. cities, owed itself largely to the decrease in new users and dealers of crack cocaine, and the move of existing dealers from dealing on the streets to dealing from inside apartments. In Washington Heights, this meant a move back to the established cocaine dealing culture that had existed before the introduction of crack. As Terry Williams notes in The Cocaine Kids: The Inside Story of a Teenage Drug Ring, many dealers from the pre-freebasing period put greater emphasis on knowing their customers and hid their operations more carefully from police, as opposed to dealers of the crack days who would deal openly and fight violently in the competition for the drug's high profits.
Nonetheless, many also credit actions taken on the neighborhood level in increasing safety in Washington Heights. After years of advocacy from residents, in 1994 the NYPD split the 34th Precinct to create the 33rd Precinct for Washington Heights south of 179th Street in order to devote more resources to crime prevention.:170 Another local policing strategy was the "model block" initiative, first attempted in 1997 on 163rd Street between Broadway and Amsterdam Avenue, a location notable for the dealers who set up a "fortified complex" complete with traps and electrified wires to prevent police raids on their apartment.:192 In an attempt to disrupt drug activity on the block, police officers set up barricades at both ends, demanded proof of residence from anyone coming through, patrolled building hallways, and pressured landlords to improve their buildings. The program was controversial, facing criticism from the New York Civil Liberties Union and resistance from residents for its invasion of privacy,:193 although crime was reduced on the block, and the initiative was later expanded throughout the city.
In an effort to improve police-community relations, the local precincts made efforts to connect with neighborhood families through Police Athletic League programs at the Fort Washington Avenue Armory and events such as the Night Out Against Crime. The city also chose the 33rd and 34th precincts, among two others, to start its neighborhood policing initiative in 2015, which involves assigning officers to specific neighborhood areas and allotting them time to build relationships with residents. However, the initiative received mixed responses, with some arguing that it does not go far enough in building mutual trust and cooperation, while others see it as a guise for the continuation of broken windows policing.
Following the end of the crime crisis of the 1980s and 90s, Washington Heights saw a recovery of many of its community institutions, including parks. Fort Tryon Park had fallen into a period of decline after the 1975 New York City fiscal crisis, when evaporated Parks Department funds left its walkways and playgrounds in a state of disrepair, and several corpses were found in the park. After work from the Fort Tryon Park Trust and the New York Restoration Project throughout the 1990s and 2000s, funded by the city with the help of generous private donations, the park was restored, leaving behind its reputation as a criminal area.:210
Highbridge Park, however, had the same problems as Fort Tryon Park but went without any major restoration funding for a while, likely due to its location in a lower-income area and lack of a frequently touristed landmark like The Cloisters. In 1997, the New York Restoration Project began to work on maintaining the park, but without the necessary funding much of the park's disrepair continued. In 2016, however, the park received $30 million in restoration funding through the city's Anchor Parks initiative, with the full restoration set to be finished by 2021. Despite existing problems, most residents feel much safer in the park they did in its worst days, when a thirteen-year-old girl was shot dead in broad daylight.:212
Additionally, throughout the 2000s Washington Heights residents have made modest economic gains. According to American Community Survey data the neighborhood's poverty rate went from 27% to 21% between 2010 and 2018. In the same period, the unemployment rate decreased from 14% to 10% and the proportion of residents with bachelor's degrees increased from 29% to 34%.
Washington Heights has faced gentrification throughout the 2000s, with the 2010 Census revealing that from 2000 the neighorhood's Hispanic / Latino population had decreased by nearly 17,000 and its Black population by over 3,000, while its White population increased by nearly 5,000. Data from the New York University Furman Center also found that Washington Heights and Inwood's average rent had increased by 29.3% between 1990 and 2014. Furthermore, there have been several businesses faced with drastic rent increases such as Coogan's, a well-known restaurant and bar which managed to renegotiate with its landlord NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital following outcry by many locals, including Lin-Manuel Miranda.
Washington Heights residents face a variety of housing issues, many of which are tied directly to increasing rents. As of 2014, Washington Heights and Inwood have the highest rate of severe crowding in Manhattan,:121 and as of 2018 one in six households have an average occupancy of more than one person per room. In addition, Washington Heights has the city's second-highest rate of serious housing code violations and its lowest rental vacancy rate.:174 The average household pays a third of its income toward rent, while nearly half of low-income households pay the majority of their income in rent.:121
Many have expressed opposition to the neighborhood's gentrification on both commercial and residential fronts. Luis Miranda and Robert Ramirez of the Manhattan Times wrote in 2005, "How sad and ironic that many of the same people who fought to save our neighborhoods in the face of thugs and drugs have ultimately been forced to surrender their communities to the almighty dollar.":206 Echoing this sentiment, Crossing Broadway author Robert W. Snyder said, "The people who saved Washington Heights in the days of crime and crack deserve more for their pains than a stiff rent increase.":237 Fears about displacement in Upper Manhattan have most recently manifest themselves in the controversy surrounding the 2018 Inwood rezoning plan, which despite its offers of community benefits and affordable housing has been accused of accelerating real estate speculation.
In a sign of luxury interests in the neighborhood, ground was broken in 2018 on Amsterdam Avenue and 180th Street by developer Youngwoo & Associates for the MVRDV-designed Radio Tower & Hotel. The tower, to be completed in 2021, will be a 22-story multi-use tower with office space, retail and a 221-room hotel, and is the first major mixed-use development to be built in Washington Heights in nearly five decades.
Washington Heights is located on the high ridge of Upper Manhattan that extends west of Edgecombe Avenue from around 133rd Street to just below Dyckman Street. On this elevated valley is the highest terrestrial point in Manhattan, an outcropping of schist 265 feet above sea level in Bennett Park.
The neighborhood was in the early 1900s considered to run as far south as 135th Street west of Central Harlem,:294 encompassing most of the elevated area of Upper Manhattan. In the modern day, Washington Heights is typically defined as the area between Hamilton Heights at 155th Street and Inwood at Dyckman Street.:139[a]
The Hudson Heights subneighborhood is generally considered to cover the area west of Broadway and north of 181st Street or 179th Street, although some extend its southern boundary as far as 173rd Street. The name was created by the Hudson Heights Owners' Coalition in 1992 to promote the sale of co-op apartments in the northwestern part of the neighborhood.
Hudson Heights' name has been adopted by numerous newspapers, typically setting it apart from the rest of Washington Heights for its Art Deco decor, residential character, and closeness to Fort Tryon Park and the Hudson River. However, some disparage the name; Manhattan Borough Historian Robert W. Snyder argued that the name's intention was to "conceptually separate the area from the rest of Washington Heights," diminishing the "shared interest on both sides of Broadway.":205
While the name "Hudson Heights" may be relatively new, a divide between northwestern Washington Heights and the rest of the neighborhood has existed in some form since the neighborhood since the early 1900s. Census data from 1950 shows that rents in the western areas of the neighborhood tended to be slightly higher compared to the eastern areas, but the highest rents were almost entirely in the northwestern area, with its high concentration of more modern elevator buildings, and the Audubon Park Historic District, which has most of the neighborhood's few buildings with more than six stories. This economic divide became racial as well during the 1970s and 80s, as the majority of White residents who did not leave the neighborhood lived in the northwestern area.:216 As of 2019[update], market rents remain significantly higher north of 181st Street and west of Broadway, although the most noticeable difference is the racial divide, with nearly every block in Hudson Heights being majority-White while most blocks east of Broadway are less than 10% White.
Named for the Revolutionary War's Fort George, the lesser-mentioned Fort George sub-neighborhood runs east of Broadway from 181st Street to Dyckman Street. Educational institutions include Yeshiva College, located east of Amsterdam Avenue near Highbridge Park, and George Washington High School, on the nearby site of the original Fort George.:155 Fort George also holds one of Manhattan's rare semi-private streets, Washington Terrace, which runs south of West 186th Street for a half-block between Audubon and Amsterdam avenues.
Because of its abrupt, hilly topography, pedestrian navigation in Upper Manhattan is facilitated by many step streets. The longest of these is a set of 130 stairs connecting Fort Washington Avenue and Overlook Terrace at 187th Street.
To help with eastward-westward transit in upper Washington Heights, elevators are available at the 181st Street IND station, with entrances on Overlook Terrace and Fort Washington Avenue at 184th Street, and the 190th Street station, with entrances on Fort Washington Avenue and Bennett Avenue. There is also a pedestrian tunnel and free elevator connection at the 191st Street IRT station.
For census purposes, the New York City government classifies Washington Heights as part of two neighborhood tabulation areas called Washington Heights North and Washington Heights South, split by 181st Street west of Broadway and 180th Street east of Broadway. Based on data from the 2010 United States Census, the population of Washington Heights was 151,574, a decrease of 15,554 (10.3%) from the 167,128 counted in 2000. Covering an area of 1,058.91 acres (428.53 ha), the neighborhood had a population density of 143.1 inhabitants per acre (91,600/sq mi; 35,400/km2). The racial makeup of the neighborhood was 17.7% (26,806) White, 7.6% (11,565) African American, 0.1% (180) Native American, 2.6% (4,004) Asian, 0% (15) Pacific Islander, 0.3% (517) from other races, and 1% (1,546) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 70.6% (106,941) of the population. While the White population is greater in Washington Heights North, the Black and Hispanic / Latino populations are greater in Washington Heights South.
The most significant shifts in the racial composition of Washington Heights between 2000 and 2010 were the White population's increase by 22% (4,808), the Black population's decrease by 21% (3,024), and the Hispanic / Latino population's decrease by 14% (16,777). Both the White population's increase and the Black population's decrease were largely concentrated in Washington Heights South, while the Hispanic / Latino population's decrease was similar in both census tabulation areas. Meanwhile, the Asian population grew by 12% (412) but remained a small minority, and the modest population of all other races decreased by 30% (974).
The entirety of Community District 12, which comprises Washington Heights and Inwood, had 195,830 inhabitants according to the NYC Health's 2018 Community Health Profile. The age distribution is very similar to the city as a whole: 19% of residents are ages 0 to 17, 10% ages 18 to 24, 33% ages 25 to 44, 25% ages 45 to 64, and 13% age 65 or older.:2
As of 2017, the median household income in Community District 12 was $53,507, with an average of 2.6 people per household. In 2018, an estimated 20% of Community District 12 residents lived in poverty, compared to 14% in all of Manhattan and 20% in all of New York City. One in eight residents (12%) were unemployed, compared to 7% in Manhattan and 9% in New York City. Rent burden, or the percentage of residents who have difficulty paying their rent, is 53% in Community District 12, compared to the boroughwide and citywide rates of 45% and 51% respectively. As of 2018[update], Community District 12 is considered to be gentrifying: according to the Community Health Profile, the district was low-income in 1990 and has seen above-median rent growth up to 2010.:7
Little Dominican Republic
Washington Heights was designated "Little Dominican Republic" along with Inwood and part of Hamilton Heights in 2018, and nearly half of Washington Heights, Inwood, and Marble Hill residents identify as Dominican as of 2015[update].:5 Another name sometimes given to the area is "Quisqueya Heights", in reference to a Taíno name for Hispaniola meaning "cradle of life.":30 As Roberto Suro describes in Strangers Among Us: Latino Lives in a Changing America, many Dominicans in Washington Heights lead double lives between the U.S. and the D.R., moving between countries and investing money back home.:183 Jorge Duany adds to this idea in Quisqueya on the Hudson, describing how first-generation immigrants feel a strong cultural connection with the D.R., reinforced by frequent flights back to the island.:56 A travel agency owner interviewed in The New York Times claimed, "For the Dominican to go to Santo Domingo during Christmas and summer is like the Muslims going to Mecca."
One of the most popular flights of the route between New York and the Dominican Republic was American Airlines Flight 587, which in November 2001 suffered an accidental crash in Belle Harbor, Queens shortly after takeoff from John F. Kennedy Airport, killing all 260 people aboard the plane as well as five Belle Harbor residents. The flight had a long history among Dominican residents of Washington Heights, even being referenced in Kinito Méndez and Johnny Ventura's song El Avión. A memorial to the crash was built in 2006 near Rockaway Beach and Boardwalk, inscribed with the victims' names and the Pedro Mir quote "Después no quiero más que paz" (which translates to "Afterwards I want nothing more than peace").
Along with the Bronx and other parts of the city, Washington Heights had a significant role in the early history of graffiti in New York City. In 1971, TAKI 183 (born on 183rd street) was the first graffiti tagger to be exposed to the broader public through a profile in The New York Times; 188th Street and Audubon Avenue has also been cited as a location where graffiti writers exchanged names and ideas in the 1970s.
The Northern Manhattan Arts Alliance, founded in 2007 to support local artists, organizes the annual Uptown Arts Stroll, which features artists from Upper Manhattan in public locations for several weeks each summer. The United Palace, a landmarked theater built in 1930, continues as a space for film and live performance in the present day, having featured musicians such as John Legend, Bob Dylan, Lenny Kravitz, and Lauryn Hill.
Five clubs in American professional sports have played in the Washington Heights area: the New York Giants, New York Mets, and New York Yankees baseball teams, and the New York Giants and New York Jets football teams. Situated on Coogan's Hollow where the present-day Polo Grounds Towers are located, the Polo Grounds have been the home field of the following teams: the baseball Giants (1911 to 1957), the Yankees (1912 to 1923), the Mets (1962 to 1963), the football Giants (1925 to 1955), and the New York Jets (1960 to 1963). The Mets and Jets both began play at the Polo Grounds while their future home, Shea Stadium in Queens, was under construction. The Polo Grounds were the site of two baseball-related deaths: the first of Ray Chapman in 1920 after being hit in the head by a pitch from Carl Mays, and the second of spectator Bernard Doyle in 1950, accidentally killed by a 14-year-old boy who had fired his .45 caliber pistol into the air from his apartment on Edgecombe Avenue.
Before the Yankees played at the Polo Grounds, they played at Hilltop Park on Broadway between 165th Street and 168th Street from 1903 to 1912; at the time they were known as the New York Highlanders. On May 15, 1912, after being heckled for several innings, then-Detroit Tigers player Ty Cobb leaped the fence and attacked his tormentor. He was suspended indefinitely by league president Ban Johnson, but his suspension was eventually reduced to 10 days and $50. A historically outstanding pitching performance took place at Hilltop Park, when on September 4, 1908, 20-year-old Washington Senators-player Walter Johnson shut out the Highlanders for three consecutive games. The park is now the Columbia University Medical Center, a major hospital complex, which opened in the location in 1928.
Washington Heights has been the childhood residence of many baseball stars, including former Yankee star Alex Rodriguez, who was born in the neighborhood to Dominican parents. Rod Carew and Manny Ramírez were two famous players who immigrated to the neighborhood as teenagers and attended George Washington High School (Carew during the 1960s and Ramírez during the 1980s). The New York Yankees' Lou Gehrig grew up in the neighborhood after moving out of Yorkville with his family, attending PS 132 during the 1910s.
The New Balance Track and Field Center, located in the Fort Washington Avenue Armory, maintains an Olympic-caliber track that is one of the fastest in the world. Starting in January 2012, the Millrose Games have been held there, after having been held at the second, third, and current Madison Square Gardens from 1914 to 2011. To encourage physical activity and healthy eating, a partnership of local politicians, schools, and community organizers have organized the annual "Uptown Games" for children grades 1 to 8 at the Armory. Also at the Armory is the National Track and Field Hall of Fame, along with the Charles B. Rangel Technology & Learning Center for middle and high school students; the facility is operated by the Armory Foundation, which was created in 1993. The Armory is the starting point for the annual Washington Heights Salsa, Blues, and Shamrocks 5K, founded in 1999 by Peter M. Walsh of Coogan's Restaurant but is now run by the New York Road Runners.
Points of interest
Fort Washington Park
Washington Heights' Fort Washington Park runs from 155th Street to Dyckman Street along the Hudson River, meeting the George Washington Bridge at Jeffrey's Hook (around 178th Street). The 184-acre park was originally designed in 1873 by Fredrick Law Olmsted along with Riverside Park and Morningside Park,:4 and most of the park was acquired via eminent domain between 1896 and 1927. Although it was initially contiguous with Fort Tryon Park (a condition for John D. Rockefeller Jr.'s donation of the Fort Tryon parkland), the 1937 construction of the Henry Hudson Parkway separated the two parks.
Sitting just underneath the George Washington Bridge is the Little Red Lighthouse, which was originally built in 1917 in Sandy Hook, New Jersey before being moved to aid with navigation in the Hudson River during the 1920s. After the George Washington Bridge opened in 1931, the lighthouse became obsolete, and the United States Coast Guard began planning to dismantle and auction it. After a public outcry, contributed to by Hildegarde Swift's popular children's book The Little Red Lighthouse and the Great Gray Bridge, the lighthouse was instead given to the city government in 1951. Having undergone renovation in 1986 and again in 2000, the lighthouse is today available for tours and is honored in the annual Little Red Lighthouse Festival.
Fort Tryon Park
Occupying a 67-acre area south of Inwood Hill Park between Broadway and the Henry Hudson Parkway, Fort Tryon Park's history began with John D. Rockefeller Jr.'s purchase of the Hays, Shaefer, Libbey, and Billings estates for $2 million in 1917.:777 Rockefeller hired Frederick Law Olmsted Jr. (the son of Fort Washington Park's planner) to design the park in 1927, and in 1931 Mayor James Walker accepted his donation of the parkland, to be developed primarily at Rockefeller's expense. Opening in 1935, the park's picturesque views of the the Palisades across the Hudson River were maintained by another Rockefeller purchase there with the aim of preventing construction, now preserved as part of Palisades Interstate Park.
As part of his Fort Tryon donation, Rockefeller reserved 4 acres in the center of the park for the Metropolitan Museum of Art to develop the Cloisters. The original Cloisters museum, a collection of medieval art owned by George Grey Barnard and located on upper Fort Washington Avenue, was purchased by the Metropolitan with Rockefeller funds in 1925.:18 After Fort Tryon Park's opening in 1935, construction began for the new Cloisters building using elements shipped from abbeys in southern France and Catalonia, based on designs by Charles Collens. Added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1978, the museum has a vast collection of Romanesque and Gothic art, including the Hunt of the Unicorn tapestries, purchased by Rockefeller for $1 million in 1922.:19:7
One of Fort Tryon Park's biggest annual events is the Medieval Festival, a collaboration between the Parks Department and the Washington Heights and Inwood Development Corporation that has taken place at the park since 1983. The event is free, relying on a mix of private and public sponsors as well as donations, and draws an average of 60,000 people for an afternoon of medieval-themed arts, activities, and food.
Highbridge Park, a 160-acre park with heavily wooded areas and views of the Harlem River, lies on Washington Heights' western cliffside from 155th Street to Dyckman Street, cut off from the waterfront by the Harlem River Drive. Unlike Washington Heights' other major parks, Highbridge had no prior design but was assembled piecemeal by the city through condemnation, the majority being acquired from 1895 to 1901. In the park's southern extreme lies Coogan's Bluff, which in the time of the Polo Grounds offered a vantage point for watching baseball games without paying for tickets. The park's northernmost Fort George Hill section was gained through the condemnation of Fort George Amusement Park, a trolley park built in 1895 that was burned twice by 1913. In 2007, the Parks Department collaborated with the New York City Mountain Bike Association to open a network of mountain bike trails in this section of the park.
Highbridge Park is home to three New York City landmarks: its namesake the High Bridge, the High Bridge Water Tower, and the Highbridge Play Center. The High Bridge, New York City's oldest remaining bridge, was built in 1848 as part of the Croton Aqueduct system connecting the Bronx to Manhattan at 174th Street, and is active today as a bridge for pedestrians and cyclists. The bridge's accompanying water tower was also an integral part of New York City's water system until 1949; it is currently undergoing repairs slated for completion by July 2021. Built on a former reservoir in front of the High Bridge Water Tower, the Highbridge Play Center is best known for its pool, one of many Works Progress Administration-funded outdoor pools opened in the summer of 1936.
Washington Heights is also home to the following smaller parks:
- Bennett Park – location of the highest natural point in Manhattan
- J. Hood Wright Park
- Mitchel Square Park – site of the Washington Heights and Inwood World War I memorial by Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney
- Amelia Gorman Park
- McKenna Square
Landmarks and attractions
Columbia–Presbyterian, one of the first academic medical centers in the United States, opened in 1928. Now known as NewYork–Presbyterian / Columbia University Irving Medical Center, the complex contains the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, the medical school of Columbia University. Located between 165th and 168th streets west of Broadway, it occupies the former site of Hilltop Park, the home of the New York Highlanders – now known as the New York Yankees – from 1903 to 1912. Across the street is the Fort Washington Avenue Armory's New Balance Track and Field Center, an indoor track home to the National Track & Field Hall of Fame.
Audubon Terrace, a cluster of eight distinguished Beaux Arts and Renaissance Revival buildings constructed between 1904 and 1930, is located on Broadway between 155th and 156th streets. Named for John James Audubon due to his land holdings in the Audubon Park Historic District, the complex was envisioned as a cultural center by its founder Archer Milton Huntington and almost entirely designed by his cousin Charles Pratt Huntington. A National Historic Landmark, the Audubon Terrace is currently home to the Hispanic Society of America, the American Academy of Arts and Letters, the Our Lady of Esperanza Church, and Boricua College. Despite their unique decor and expansive collections, its museums have long struggled with attracting visitors due to their non-central location; the American Geographical Society,:527 the Heye Collection of the National Museum of the American Indian, and the American Numismatic Society all previously occupied Audubon Terrace but have since moved their collections elsewhere.
Overlooking Coogan's Bluff between 160th and 162nd streets in the Jumel Terrace Historic District, the Morris–Jumel Mansion has the distinction of being Manhattan's oldest surviving house.:11 Headquartered by George Washington in 1776, the mansion was built in 1765 by British colonel Roger Morris and in 1810 became property of Eliza Jumel. Jumel became one of the wealthiest women in the city after the death of her husband Stephen in 1832, and was later wife of Aaron Burr until his death in 1836.:318 Designated a landmark by the National Register of Historic Places, today the house is owned and maintained as a museum by the Department of Parks and Recreation. Likely due to its historic nature, the Morris–Jumel Mansion is considered by some to be a haunted house. Hamilton playwright Lin-Manuel Miranda sat in Aaron Burr's room to write of many of the hit musical's songs.
The Paul Robeson Home, located on the corner of Edgecombe Avenue and 160th Street, is a National Historic Landmark building. Part of Washington Heights' historically Black southeastern area,:38 the building is known for its famous African American residents including actor Paul Robeson, musician Count Basie, and boxer Joe Louis.:6
The Audubon Ballroom was originally a vaudeville and movie theater, built by William Fox of the Fox Film Corporation on the corner of Broadway and 165th Street. Since the 1930s the theater had been used as a meeting space for unions and other organizations, and in the 1950s hosted the annual New York Mardi Gras festival. The building acquired its greatest historical significance on February 21, 1965, when Malcolm X was assassinated there during a rally of the Organization of Afro-American Unity. The theater was seized by the city for unpaid back taxes in 1967, and in the late 1980s was planned for demolition in order to build a medical research center for Columbia University;:109 after pushback by community members and Columbia students, however, the university reached a compromise in 1990 to restore part of the original facade and ballroom. Today the building houses Columbia’s Mary Woodard Lasker Biomedical Research Building in addition to the Malcolm X and Dr. Betty Shabazz Memorial and Educational Center, which houses documents related to the life and work of the two civil rights activists.
The United Palace was built in 1930 as the Loew's 175th Street Theater, designed primarily by Thomas W. Lamb (the same architect of the Audubon Ballroom) and featuring interior design work by Harold Rambusch. Originally a theater, it was bought in 1969 by televangelist Reverend Ike and became a church for the United Church Science of Living Institute. Made a New York City landmark in 2016, today the United Palace also acts as a cultural center, hosting films and live performances.
Designated a National Historic Landmark in 2010, the Fort Washington Presbyterian Church was built in 1914 in neo-Georgian style according to plans by Thomas Hastings, designer of the New York Public Library Main Branch. In 1982 the original congregation turned the church over to La Primera Iglesia Española de Washington Heights, a congregation organized in 1942 by Puerto Rican Presbyterians on 172nd Street and Audubon Avenue; the church is now known officially as Iglesia Presbiteriana Fort Washington Heights.
Manhattan Times is a free English / Spanish bilingual community newspaper serving Upper Manhattan, with a focus on Washington Heights and Inwood. Founded by Luís A. Miranda Jr., Roberto Ramírez Sr., and David Keisman in 2000,:205 the newspaper features stories about events and other developments of interest to residents on the city and neighborhood level, and is funded in part by private advertisements in addition to public service announcements. The print version is distributed on Wednesdays to 235 different street boxes and community organizations as of 2020[update], more than half of them in Washington Heights.
Police and crime
Washington Heights is served by two precincts of the NYPD. The area south of 179th Street is served by the 33rd Precinct, located at 2207 Amsterdam Avenue, while the 34th Precinct, located at 4295 Broadway, serves the north side of the neighborhood along with Inwood. The 34th Precinct ranked 23rd safest out of 69 patrol areas for per-capita crime in 2010, while the 33rd Precinct ranked 24th safest. The precinct was split in 1994 to increase police presence in Washington Heights at a time of very high crime rates, but crime has fallen drastically since then. As of 2018[update], the neighborhood has a non-fatal assault hospitalization rate of 43 per 100,000 people, lower than the citywide rate of 59 per 100,000; however, its incarceration rate of 482 per 100,000 adults is slightly higher than the citywide rate of 425 per 100,000.:8
In 2020, the 34th Precinct reported 7 murders, 16 rapes, 205 robberies, 213 felony assaults, 226 burglaries, 444 grand larcenies, and 166 grand larcenies auto. Crime in these categories fell by 42.1% between 1998 and 2020. In the same year, the 33rd Precinct reported 4 murders, 12 rapes, 167 robberies, 205 felony assaults, 228 burglaries, 256 grand larcenies, and 87 grand larcenies auto. Crime in these categories fell by 42.4% between 1998 and 2020.
- Engine Company 67 – 518 West 170th Street (a New York City landmark)
- Engine Company 84/Ladder Company 34 – 513 West 161st Street (a New York City landmark)
- Engine Company 93/Ladder Company 45/Battalion 13 – 515 West 181st Street
As of 2018[update], preterm births in Manhattan Community District 12 are lower than the city average, though births to teenage mothers are higher. In Community District 12, there are 73 preterm births per 1,000 live births (compared to 87 per 1,000 citywide), and 23.3 births to teenage mothers per 1,000 live births (compared to 19.3 per 1,000 citywide).:11 Community District 12 has a low population of residents who are uninsured. In 2018, this population of uninsured residents was estimated to be 14%, compared to the 12% of residents citywide.:14
The concentration of fine particulate matter, the deadliest type of air pollutant, in Community District 12 is 0.0078 milligrams per cubic metre (7.8×10−9 oz/cu ft), slightly greater than the city average of 0.0075.:9 Thirteen percent of Community District 12 residents are smokers, similar to the city average of 14%.:13 In Community District 12, 26% of residents are obese, 13% are diabetic, and 28% have high blood pressure—compared to the citywide averages of 24%, 11%, and 28% respectively.:16 Additionally, 24% of children are obese, more than the citywide average of 20%.:12
Eighty-one percent of residents eat some fruits and vegetables every day, less than the citywide average of 87%. In 2018, 68% of residents described their health as "good," "very good," or "excellent," also less than the citywide average of 78%.:13 For every supermarket in Community District 12, there are 13 bodegas.:10
The overall life expectancy of Community District 12 is 84, 2.8 years greater than the citywide average.:20 Its rates of premature death from cancer (39.1 per 100,000) and heart disease (26.1 per 100,000) are significantly lower than the citywide rates, although its drug-related death rate (9.6 per 100,000) is similar and its suicide death rate (7.2 per 100,000) is higher.:18
The NewYork–Presbyterian Hospital / Columbia University Irving Medical Center is located in Washington Heights at 168th Street between Broadway and Fort Washington Avenue. Built and opened in the 1920s, and known as the Columbia–Presbyterian Medical Center until 1998, the complex was one of the world's first academic medical centers. The campus contains the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, the medical school of Columbia University. The campus also contains Morgan Stanley Children's Hospital, New York City's only stand-alone children's hospital. In addition, NewYork–Presbyterian's Allen Hospital is located in Inwood.
Politically, Washington Heights is in New York's 13th congressional district, represented by Democrat Adriano Espaillat as of 2017[update]. It is also part of the 31st State Senate District, represented by Democrat Robert Jackson, and the 71st and 72nd State Assembly districts, represented respectively by Democrats Al Taylor and Carmen De La Rosa. In the City Council, the neighborhood is part of the 7th and 10th districts, represented respectively by Democrats Mark Levine and Ydanis Rodriguez.
Post offices and ZIP Codes
Washington Heights is located in three ZIP Codes. From south to north, they are 10032 (between 155th and 173rd streets), 10033 (between 173rd and 187th streets) and 10040 (between 187th and Dyckman streets).
The United States Postal Service operates four post offices in Washington Heights:
- Audubon Station – 511 West 165th Street
- Fort George Station – 4558 Broadway
- Fort Washington Station – 556 West 158th Street
- Washington Bridge Station – 518 West 181st Street
Community District 12 generally has fewer college graduates and more high school dropouts compared to the borough and city as a whole. Only 38% of residents age 25 and older have a college education or higher, compared to 64% boroughwide and 43% citywide; meanwhile, 29% of adults in Community District 12 did not finish high school, compared to 13% boroughwide and 19% citywide.:6 Elementary school absenteeism is similar to the rest of the city: as of 2018[update], 19% of elementary school students missed twenty or more days per school year, compared to 18% boroughwide and 20% citywide.:24 (PDF p. 55)
Washington Heights is part of District 6, along with Inwood and Hamilton Heights. Of the district's 19,939 students as of 2019[update], 85% are Hispanic / Latino, 7% are Black, 5% are White, and 3% are any other race; in addition, 29% are English Language Learners, and 22% are Students with Disabilities. Of all students in the cohort set to graduate in 2019, 74% in District 6 did so by August 2019, compared to 77% citywide. The district rate was significantly lower for males (69%), English Language Learners (52%), and Students with Disabilities (49%).
Public primary and secondary schools are provided to New York City students by the New York City Department of Education.
Zoned public elementary and elementary/middle schools include:
- PS 28 Wright Brothers (grades 3K-5)
- PS 189 (grades 3K-5)
- PS 48 PO Michael J Buczek (grades 3K-5)
- PS 128 Audubon (grades 3K-5)
- PS 173 (grades 3K-5)
- PS 4 Duke Ellington (grades 3K-5)
- PS 8 Luis Belliard (grades 3K-5)
- PS 115 Alexander Humboldt (grades PK-5)
- PS 152 Dyckman Valley (grades PK-5)
- Dos Puentes Elementary School (grades K-5)
- PS 132 Juan Pablo Duarte (grades K-5)
- PS/IS 187 Hudson Cliffs (grades PK-8)
Unzoned elementary and elementary/middle schools include:
Zoned middle schools include:
- JHS 143 Eleanor Roosevelt (grades 6–8)
- MS 319 Maria Teresa (grades 6–8)
- MS 322 (grades 6–8)
- MS 324 Patria Mirabal (grades 6–8)
Unzoned middle and middle/high schools include:
- Harbor Heights (grades 6–8)
- Community Math and Science Prep (grades 6–8)
- IS 528 Bea Fuller Rodgers (grades 6–8)
- City College Academy of the Arts (grades 6-12)
- Community Health Academy of the Heights (grades 6-12)
The former George Washington High School, built in 1923, is located between 192nd and 193rd streets directly west of Highbridge Park.:72 It became the George Washington Educational Campus in 1999 when it was split into four smaller schools:
- The College Academy (grades 9-12)
- High School for Media and Communications (grades 9-12)
- High School for Law and Public Service (grades 9-12)
- High School for Health Careers and Sciences (grades 9-12)
The Gregorio Luperón High School for Science and Mathematics was founded in 1994 and serves a student body of newly-arrived Spanish-speakers. Washington Heights also has the unzoned Washington Heights Expeditionary Learning School, serving grades PK to 12.
Charter and private schools
Success Academy Charter Schools has a location, serving grades K to 4, in the former Mother Cabrini High School building near Fort Tryon Park. KIPP also has a location in the Mirabal Sisters Campus between Jumel Place and Edgecombe Avenue, serving grades K to 8. The independent WHIN Community Charter School serves grades K to 3. School in the Square is another Washington Heights charter school, serving grades 6 to 8.
Catholic schools under the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New York include:
Other private schools include:
- Yeshiva Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch (grades 3K, PK, and 1-12)
- Marsha Stern Talmudical Academy (grades 9-12)
- Birch Family Services' Washington Heights Education Center (ages 3–8)
- Medical Center Nursery School (ages 2–5)
- Renaissance Village Montessori School (ages 1–6)
- Gardens Daycare (pre-PK)
- Bright Horizons at New York–Presbyterian Hospital (ages 1–5)
University education in Washington Heights includes Yeshiva University and Boricua College. Located between 184th and 186th streets east of Broadway, Yeshiva University's Wilf Campus was founded in 1928 and is currently the Jewish institution's main campus; it was originally envisioned with Moorish Revival aesthetic, although most of its buildings ended up with a modern design. Schools within the campus include Yeshiva College, the Syms School of Business, and the Marsha Stern Talmudical Academy high school. Boricua College, whose Manhattan campus is located on 156th and Broadway in the Audubon Terrace complex, is a small private college founded in 1975 to serve the city's Puerto Rican population.
The medical campus of Columbia University hosts the College of Physicians and Surgeons, the College of Dental Medicine, the Mailman School of Public Health, the School of Nursing, and the biomedical programs of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, which offer Masters and Doctorate degrees in several fields. These schools are among the departments that compose the Columbia University Irving Medical Center.
CUNY in the Heights, a higher education program of the Borough of Manhattan Community College of the City University of New York, is actually located in Inwood on the corner of 213th Street and Broadway, despite its name. In the same building, the CUNY XPress Immigration Center is a branch of their Citizenship Now! program, which offers immigrants free legal services to help in attaining citizenship.
The New York Public Library (NYPL) operates two branches in Washington Heights:
- The Fort Washington branch is located at 535 West 179th Street. The three-story Carnegie library opened in 1979.
- The Washington Heights branch is located at 1000 St. Nicholas Avenue. It was founded in 1868 as a subscription-based library and moved twice before it relocated to its current four-story structure in 1914, owing to generous donations from James Hood Wright.:189
Christian institutions include:
- Church of the Incarnation
- Holy Cross Armenian Apostolic Church
- Saint Rose Of Lima Church
- St. Spyridon Greek Orthodox Church
- Fort Washington Collegiate Church
- Our Saviour's Atonement Lutheran Church
- Holyrood Episcopal Church
- Our Lady Queen of Martyrs Church
- Fort Washington Presbyterian Church
- Our Lady of Esperanza Church
Jewish institutions include:
Bridges and highways
Washington Heights is connected to Fort Lee, New Jersey across the Hudson River via the Othmar Ammann-designed George Washington Bridge, the world's busiest motor vehicle bridge.:42 Upon completion in 1931, the George Washington Bridge was also the world's longest suspension bridge. The Pier Luigi Nervi-designed George Washington Bridge Bus Terminal is located at the Manhattan end of the bridge, at 179th Street and Fort Washington Avenue. In 1963, the year it was built, Nervi won an award for the terminal's unique use of concrete, exemplified by the huge ventilation ducts that look like butterflies from a distance.:570
The Trans-Manhattan Expressway, part of Interstate 95, runs for 0.8 miles (1.3 km) from the George Washington Bridge in a trench between 178th and 179th streets. The construction of the George Washington Bridge and the Trans-Manhattan Expressway required the demolition of all apartment buildings between 178th and 179th streets, in addition to many west of Cabrini Boulevard between 177th and 181st streets, evicting nearly 2,000 families. To the east, the highway leads to the Alexander Hamilton Bridge, completed in 1963, which crosses the Harlem River and connects to the Bronx via the Cross Bronx Expressway. The Washington Bridge, built in 1888, crosses the river just north of the Alexander Hamilton Bridge and connects to both the Trans-Manhattan and Cross Bronx expressways.:4
Crossing the river at 175th Street in Manhattan, the High Bridge is the oldest bridge in New York City still in existence. The bridge was completed in 1848 to carry the Croton Aqueduct as part of the city's water system; a promenade was added in 1864 that stayed in use up until the 1970s, although the aqueduct function was discontinued in 1949. In the late 1920s, several of its stone piers were replaced with a steel arch that spanned the river to allow ships to more easily navigate under the bridge. In June 2015, the High Bridge reopened as a pedestrian and bicycle bridge after a three-year rehabilitation project.
For transport northward and southward across Manhattan, Washington Heights is connected with two other significant highways: the Harlem River Drive by the Harlem River and the Henry Hudson Parkway (part of New York State Route 9A) by the Hudson River. The Harlem River Drive began as a horse carriage roadway in 1898 and was converted into a highway exclusively for cars during the 1950s. The road has since blocked access to the waterfront from Highbridge Park, although the Harlem River Greenway (which is currently planned for renovation) can still be accessed from 155th Street and Dyckman Street. The Henry Hudson Parkway, built in 1936, is also surrounded by parkland but leaves Fort Washington Park with a large amount of waterfront space on its western side, while the Hudson River Greenway lies on its eastern side. Running above-ground between the highway and the greenway is the Empire Service Amtrak line, whose closest stops are at Yonkers and Penn Station.
Washington Heights is well served by the New York City Subway. On the IND Eighth Avenue Line, service is available at the 155th Street and 163rd Street–Amsterdam Avenue stations (C train), the 168th Street station (1, A, and C trains), and the 175th Street, 181st Street, and 190th Street stations (A train). The IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line (1 train) has stops at 157th Street, 168th Street, 181st Street, and 191st Street.
Out of these stations, only 175th Street is fully accessible, while 168th Street is accessible only for the entrance to the A and C trains. To help residents navigate the steep hills of the neighborhood's northwestern area, the 181st Street and 190th Street IND stations provide free elevator service between Fort Washington Avenue and the Broadway valley below. On the northeastern side, the 191st Street station also has an elevator to St. Nicholas Avenue and a tunnel running to Broadway.
The 181st Street and 190th Street IND stations have several unique entrances and exits, many featuring a stone brick design inspired by the cliffside of Overlook Terrace. The 168th Street, 190th Street, and both 181st Street stations are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The 191st Street and 190th Street stations also have the distinction of being the deepest in the entire subway system by distance to ground level, at 180 and 140 feet respectively. In fact, in 1951 researchers from New York University declared that the 190th Street station would provide adequate protection from nuclear fallout.
Notable current and former residents of Washington Heights include:
- Pedro Alvarez (born 1987), baseball player who was drafted second overall by the Pittsburgh Pirates in the 2008 Major League Baseball Draft.
- Alex Arias (born 1967), Dominican-American former Major League Baseball player.
- George Grey Barnard (1863–1938), sculptor.
- Harry Belafonte (born 1927), calypso singer and Grammy winner.
- Ward Bennett (1917–2003), designer, artist and sculptor.
- Dellin Betances (born 1988), MLB pitcher for the New York Mets.
- Jocelyn Bioh, Ghanaian-American writer, playwright and actor.
- Carl Blaze (1976–2006), Hip-Hop/R&B DJ for Power 105.1.
- Stanley Bosworth (1927–2011), founding headmaster of Saint Ann's School in Brooklyn, which he headed from 1965 to 2004.
- Tally Brown (1934–1989), singer and actress in films by Andy Warhol and other underground filmmakers.
- Robert John Burke (born 1960), actor.
- Maria Callas (1923–1977), Greek-American opera singer.:57
- Cardi B (born 1992), rapper, songwriter, actress and television personality.
- Jerry Craft (born 1963), children's book author and illustrator / syndicated cartoonist and creator of the Mama's Boyz comic strip.
- Rod Carew (born 1945), former professional baseball player.
- Frances Conroy (born 1953), actress.
- Nelson Antonio Denis (born 1954), former member of the New York State Assembly.
- Morton Deutsch (1920–2017), social psychologist who was one of the founding fathers of the field of conflict resolution.
- David Dinkins (1927–2020), Mayor of New York City 1990–1994.
- Jim Dwyer (1957–2020), columnist and reporter at The New York Times.
- Laurence Fishburne (born 1961), Academy Award-nominated actor.
- Luis Flores (born 1981), former NBA point guard.
- Hillel Furstenberg (born 1935), mathematician known for his application of probability theory and ergodic theory methods to other areas of mathematics.
- Lou Gehrig (1903–1941), professional baseball player for the New York Yankees.
- Elias Goldberg (1886–1978), New York painter, most of his city paintings focus on the area of Washington Heights. Mr. Goldberg exhibited at the legendary Charles Egan Gallery.
- Leo Gorcey (1917–1969), member of the original cast of "Dead End", and memorably outspoken member of the Dead End Kids / East Side Kids / The Bowery Boys.
- Alan Greenspan (born 1926), 13th Chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve.
- Hex Hector (born 1965), Grammy Award-winning remixer and producer.
- Jacob K. Javits (1904–1986), United States Senator from 1957 to 1981.
- Henry Kissinger (born 1923), former National Security Advisor and United States Secretary of State.
- Paul Kolton (1923–2010), chairman of the American Stock Exchange.
- Joshua Lederberg (1925–2008), geneticist who received the 1958 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for work in bacterial genetics, was born in Montclair.
- Stan Lee (1922–2018), creator of Spider-Man, X-Men, The Incredible Hulk.
- Frankie Lymon (1942–1968), lead singer of The Teenagers, best known for their hit "Why Do Fools Fall in Love?"
- Lin-Manuel Miranda (born 1980), actor, and Tony Award-winning composer, and lyricist, best known for writing and acting in the Broadway musicals In the Heights and Hamilton.
- Theodore Edgar McCarrick (born 1930), Cardinal who served as Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Washington (2001–2006).
- Daniel D. McCracken (1930–2011), early computer pioneer and author.
- Knox Martin (born 1923), painter, sculptor and muralist.
- Mims (born 1981), Jamaican-American rapper.
- Andy Mineo (born 1988), rapper, singer, producer, director, and minister signed to Reach Records.
- Karina Pasian (born 1991), recording R&B singer from Def Jam Records.
- Manny Pérez (born 1969), Dominican actor, who has appeared in Third Watch.
- Jim Powers (born 1958), retired professional wrestler best known for his appearances with the World Wrestling Federation from 1987 to 1994.
- Freddie Prinze (1954–1977), Hungarian-Puerto Rican stand-up comedian, best known for his 1970s TV series Chico and the Man co-starring Jack Albertson.
- Manny Ramírez (born 1972), Dominican baseball player for the Los Angeles Dodgers.
- Kenny Rankin (1940–2009), musician, singer and songwriter.
- Alex Rodriguez (born 1975), Dominican-American baseball player for the New York Yankees.
- James R. Russell (born 1953), scholar and Harvard University professor.
- Merlin Santana (1976–2002), Dominican-American actor.
- Vin Scully (born 1927), sportscaster for the Los Angeles Dodgers.
- Scott Stringer (born 1960), New York City Comptroller and Borough President of Manhattan.
- TAKI 183, New York City graffitist.
- Tiny Tim (1932–1996), singer and ukulele player, a novelty act of the 1960s best known for his rendition of "Tiptoe Through the Tulips".
- Leslie Uggams, actress and singer best known for her appearances in Roots and Hallelujah, Baby!
- George Weinberg (1929–2017), psychologist and author, who coined the term "homophobia" in 1965.
- Ruth Westheimer (born 1928), "Dr. Ruth", sex educator and sex counselor.
- Jerry Wexler (1917–2008), music producer who coined the term "Rhythm and blues".
- Guy Williams (1924–1989), Italian American actor.
- Rafael Yglesias (born 1954), novelist and screenwriter.
In popular culture
- The musical In the Heights, which ran on Broadway from 2008 to 2011, is set in Washington Heights. Its upcoming film adaptation was shot in many Washington Heights locations, including the 191st Street station tunnel.
- The HBO series The Deuce chose Amsterdam Avenue between 163rd and 165th streets to recreate Times Square.
- The upcoming film remake of West Side Story was filmed in Washington Heights under the work title "San Juan Hill."
- The 2002 film Washington Heights starring Manny Pérez is the story of a young man trying to escape the cultural barriers of Washington Heights to make it as an illustrator.
- The 2005 documentary Mad Hot Ballroom features students from PS 115 in Washington Heights.
- The MTV series Washington Heights, which did not continue beyond 2013, is set in the neighborhood.
- The soap opera Ryan's Hope was set in Washington Heights and aired on ABC from 1975 to 1989.
- Parts of the 2010 film Salt were filmed in the neighborhood, in particular at the 13-story Riviera, a 1910 Beaux-Arts style co-op on 157th Street and Riverside Drive.:32
- The 2008 film Pride and Glory centers on police corruption in a fictional precinct of Washington Heights.
- The 1993 film The Saint of Fort Washington is not entirely geographically accurate, but is set in the neighborhood, with the Fort Washington Avenue Armory playing a large role in the plot.
- The 1968 film Coogan's Bluff features a scene in which Clint Eastwood chases the criminal he is to bring back to Arizona through the Cloisters.
- The 2007 film The Brave One was filmed in some sections of Washington Heights; she and her boyfriend are attacked in a scene filmed in Fort Tryon Park, and the final scene with Terrence Howard was filmed on Elwood Street between Broadway and Nagle Avenue.
- The 2013 film Frances Ha ends with the main character moving to Washington Heights.
- "George Washington Bridge". Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. Retrieved May 3, 2020.
- Woodruff, Bob; Zak, Lana & Wash, Stephanie (November 20, 2012). "GW Bridge Painters: Dangerous Job on Top of the World's Busiest Bridge". ABC News. Retrieved May 3, 2020.
- "NYC Planning | Community Profiles". communityprofiles.planning.nyc.gov. New York City Department of City Planning. Retrieved March 18, 2019.
- Table PL-P5 NTA: Total Population and Persons Per Acre - New York City Neighborhood Tabulation Areas*, 2010, Population Division - New York City Department of City Planning, February 2012. Retrieved June 16, 2016.
- Table PL-P3A NTA: Total Population by Mutually Exclusive Race and Hispanic Origin - New York City Neighborhood Tabulation Areas*, 2010, Population Division - New York City Department of City Planning, March 29, 2011. Retrieved June 14, 2016.
- "NYC Population FactFinder (Economic)". New York City Department of City Planning. Retrieved March 31, 2021.
- Fort Washington Presbyterian Church (PDF). New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. May 12, 2009. Retrieved March 28, 2021.
- Burrows, Edwin G.; Wallace, Mike (1999). Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199741205.
- "Fort Tryon Park Highlights". New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. Retrieved April 21, 2020.
- "Audubon Park Historic District" (PDF). New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. May 12, 2009. Retrieved April 21, 2020.
- Pelham Bolton, Reginald (1909). Indian Paths in the Great Metropolis. Museum of the American Indian. Retrieved April 21, 2020.
- Jackson, Kenneth T., ed. (2010). The Encyclopedia of New York City (2nd ed.). New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-11465-2.
- Bolton, Reginald Pelham (1924). Washington Heights, Manhattan: Its Eventful Past. Dyckman Institute. Retrieved April 22, 2020.
- "Jeffrey's Hook Lighthouse" (PDF). New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. May 14, 1991. Retrieved May 1, 2020.
- Homberger, Eric (2005). The Historical Atlas of New York City: A Visual Celebration of Nearly 400 Years of New York City's History. Henry Holt and Company. ISBN 9780805078428.
- "Fort Tryon Park" (PDF). New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. September 20, 1983. Retrieved April 21, 2020.
- Hall, Edward Hagaman (1917). Fort Tryon and Vicinity: A Landmark History. American Scenic and Historic Preservation Society. Retrieved April 22, 2020.
- Valentine, David Thomas; Hayward, George (1777). "Principal Map of the North Part of New – York Island, exhibiting the Plan of Fort Washington, now Fort Knyphausen". Museum of the City of New York. Retrieved April 22, 2020.
- Johnston, Henry P. (1897). The Battle of Harlem Heights, September 16, 1776: With a Review of the Events of the Campaign. Macmillan Publishers. Retrieved April 22, 2020.
- Fischer, David Hackett (2006). Washington's Crossing. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-518121-2.
- Lengel, Edward G. (2005). General George Washington. Random House. ISBN 9781588364807.
- Jenkins, Stephen (1911). The Greatest Street in the World: The Story of Broadway, Old and New, from Bowling Green to Albany. G. P. Putnam's Sons. Retrieved April 22, 2020.
- "Fort Tryon Park Monuments – Fort Tryon Memorial". New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. Retrieved April 22, 2020.
- Renner, James (2007). Images of America: Washington Heights, Inwood, and Marble Hill. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 9780738554785.
- Megraw, Jeremy (January 13, 2012). "Ghost Light: Illuminating Our City's Theatres: RKO Coliseum". New York Public Library. Retrieved April 11, 2020.
- Krisel, Brendan (August 9, 2018). "Washington Heights Theater Could Be Demolished Soon, Report Says". Patch. Retrieved April 11, 2020.
- Gray, Christopher (November 27, 2005). "Audubon's Home, and Columbus Circle's Past". The New York Times. Retrieved April 11, 2020.
- "History – Morris-Jumel Mansion". www.morrisjumel.org. Retrieved May 11, 2020.
- "Jumel Terrace Historic District" (PDF). New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. August 18, 1970. Retrieved May 11, 2020.
- Husband, Timothy (2013). Creating the Cloisters. Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 9781588394880.
- Oteri, Danielle (November 15, 2013). "A Neighborhood of Castles in the Sky: Washington Heights before The Cloisters". Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved May 12, 2020.
- "Postcards From the Edge of Town". Forgotten NY. December 22, 2000. Retrieved May 12, 2020.
- "Paterno Castle To Be Demolished – $6,000,000 Apartment Project Planned by Dr. Paterno Overlooking Hudson – Five Houses To Be Built – Occupy Seven-Acre Tract on Washington Heights South of Tryon Park Project to Cost $6,000,000 Large Landscape Area". The New York Times. August 7, 1938. Retrieved May 12, 2020.
- Robinson, E. (1885). "Atlas of the City of New York – Plate 30: Bounded by W. 166th Street, Croton Aqueduct, Edgecomb Road, W. 155th Street, Exterior Street (Harlem River), W. 147th Street and (Hudson River) Eleventh Avenue". New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox, and Tilden Foundations. Retrieved July 23, 2020.
- Ballard, Charles L. (2005). Metropolitan New York's Third Avenue Railway System. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 9780738538105.
- Katznelson, Ira (1981). City Trenches: Urban Politics and the Patterning of Class in the United states. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780307833402.
- Real Estate Record and Builders' Guide. F. W. Dodge Corporation. November 12, 1904. Retrieved May 16, 2020.
- 1910–1911 Annual Report of the Interborough Rapid Transit Company For The Year Ended June 30, 1911. Interborough Rapid Transit Company. 1911. Retrieved May 16, 2020.
- Snyder, Robert W. (2015). Crossing Broadway: Washington Heights and the Promise of New York City. Cornell University Press. ISBN 9780801449611.
- Lowenstein, Steven M. (1989). Frankfurt on the Hudson: The German-Jewish Community of Washington Heights, 1933-1983, Its Structure and Culture. Wayne State University Press. ISBN 978-0814323854.
- Laidlaw, Walter (1932). Population of the City of New York, 1890–1930. Cities Census Committee.
- Crowell, Paul (September 10, 1932). "Gay Midnight Crowd Rides First Trains in the Subway; Throngs at Stations an Hour Before Time, Rush Turnstiles When Chains Are Dropped. No Official Ceremonies But West Side Business Group Celebrates Midnight Event With Ride and Dinner. Last Rehearsals Smooth Delaney, Fullen and Aides Check First Hour of Pay Traffic From Big Times Square Station. New Subway Opens; Trains Crowded". The New York Times. Retrieved August 20, 2020.
- Bayor, Ronald H. (1978). Neighbors in Conflict: The Irish, Germans, Jews, and Italians of New York City, 1929–1941. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 9781421431024.
- Bayor, Ronald H.; Meager, Timothy, eds. (1997). The New York Irish. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 9780801857645.
- Norwood, Stephen H. (June 2003). "Marauding Youth and the Christian Front: Antisemitic Violence in Boston and New York During World War II". American Jewish History. Johns Hopkins University Press. 91 (2): 233–267. doi:10.1353/ajh.2004.0055. JSTOR 23887201. S2CID 162237834. Retrieved February 23, 2021.
- "1943 Profile of the Washington Heights, Manhattan area" (PDF). Graduate Center, CUNY. 1943. Retrieved August 20, 2020.
- "1943 Profile of the City College, Manhattan area" (PDF). Graduate Center, CUNY. 1943. Retrieved August 20, 2020.
- United States Census Bureau (1952). 1950 United States Census of Housing: Manhattan Borough Block Statistics (PDF). United States Government Publishing Office. Retrieved August 29, 2020.
- "555 Edgecombe Avenue Apartments" (PDF). New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. June 15, 1993. Retrieved August 30, 2020.
- Osofsky, Gilbert (1971). Harlem: The Making of a Ghetto. HarperCollins. ISBN 9781566631044.
- Schneider, Eric C. (1999). Vampires, Dragons, and Egyptian Kings: Youth Gangs in Postwar New York. Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691074542. Retrieved August 20, 2020.
- Hamlett Bremner, Robert (1970). Children and Youth in America: A Documentary History, Volumes 2-3. Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674116139.
- Bovsun, Mara (July 9, 2017). "Two victims of early gang violence pummeled, stabbed by warring factions at NYC pool". New York Daily News. Retrieved February 23, 2021.
- Severo, Richard (August 12, 1976). "Spanish Influx Felt in Washington Heights". The New York Times. Retrieved August 12, 2020.
- Mindlin, Alex (June 25, 2006). "Its Flock Dwindling, a Greek Parish Reaches Out and Spruces Up". The New York Times. Retrieved August 12, 2020.
- "History of Our Parish". St. Spyridon Greek Orthodox Church. Retrieved January 18, 2021.
- Hernández, Ramona; Rivera-Batiz, Francisco; Agodini, Roberto (1995). Dominican New Yorkers: A Socioeconomic Profile, 1990. CUNY Dominican Studies Institute.
- Hernández, Ramona (2002). The Mobility of Workers Under Advanced Capitalism: Dominican Migration to the United States. Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231505185.
- Reynoso, Julissa. Dominican Immigrants and Social Capital in New York City: A Case Study. Dartmouth College. Retrieved February 9, 2021.
- Duany, Jorge (2008). Quisqueya on the Hudson: The Transnational Identity of Dominicans in Washington Heights (2nd ed.). CUNY Dominican Studies Institute.
- Morrison, Thomas K.; Sinkin, Richard (1982). "International Migration in the Dominican Republic: Implications for Development Planning". The International Migration Review. 16 (4): 819–836. doi:10.2307/2546161. JSTOR 2546161. PMID 12265312. Retrieved February 2, 2021.
- "A History of Decentralization". The New York Times. December 11, 1971. Retrieved April 1, 2021.
- Aloff, Mindy (November 10, 1991). "Music and Art". The New Yorker. Retrieved April 1, 2021.
- Greenspan, Alan (2007). The Age of Turbulence: Adventures in a New World. Penguin Press. ISBN 978-1-59420-131-8. OCLC 122973403.
- Isaacson, Walter (1992). Kissinger: A Biography. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-671-66323-0.
- Weber, Bruce (May 13, 2008). "Murray Jarvik, 84, Whose Research Helped Lead to Nicotine Patch, Dies". The New York Times.
- "Boycott Cripples City Schools; Absences 360,000 Above Normal; Negroes and Puerto Ricans Unite; School Boycott Keeps Hundreds of Thousands of City Pupils Away; Picketing is Calm in Racial Protest; 2,600 Marchers Show Up at Buildings - Donovan Is Critical of Leaders". The New York Times. February 4, 1964. Retrieved April 1, 2021.
- Arnold, Martin (March 7, 1970). "Head of George Washington High School Resigns". The New York Times. Retrieved April 1, 2021.
- Frase, C. Gerald (December 3, 1970). "Washington High Gets Fourth Principal This Year". The New York Times. Retrieved April 1, 2021.
- Stevens, William K. (June 1, 1971). "Washington High: From riot to Hope". The New York Times. Retrieved April 1, 2021.
- Verhovek, Sam Howe (December 19, 1989). "Albany Issues List of Schools In Trouble". The New York Times. Retrieved April 1, 2021.
- Newcomer, Eric P. (June 25, 2012). "Education Dept. Retracts School Coach's Suspension". The New York Times. Retrieved April 1, 2021.
- Krisel, Brendan (March 1, 2018). "City Withdraws Proposal To Close Washington Heights High School". Patch. Retrieved April 2, 2021.
- Bergad, Laird (2008). Washington Heights/Inwood Demographic, Economic, and Social Transformations 1990 – 2005 with a Special Focus on the Dominican Population. Center for Latin American, Caribbean, and Latino Studies, CUNY Graduate Center. Retrieved February 3, 2021.
- "Table PL-P1 CD: Total Population New York City Community Districts 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000 and 2010" (PDF). New York City Department of City Planning. July 2011. Retrieved February 3, 2021.
- "1950 to 2010 Population Density by Census Tract" (PDF). New York City Department of City Planning. Retrieved February 3, 2021.
- Salmans, Sandra (February 26, 1981). "Resurgence of Sweatshops Reported in New York". The New York Times. Retrieved March 31, 2021.
- Kugel, Seth (September 5, 1999). "Neighborhood Report: Washington Heights - Buzz; For Dominicans, Minimum Wage, Maximum Uncertainty". The New York Times. Retrieved March 31, 2021.
- Gold, Steven J. (1994). "Soviet Jews in the United States" (PDF). American Jewish Year Book. American Jewish Committee. 94: 3–57. doi:10.2307/2547125. JSTOR 2547125. Retrieved February 3, 2021.
- "The Newest New Yorkers 2000" (PDF). New York City Department of City Planning. 2004. Retrieved February 3, 2021.
- "The Newest New Yorkers, 2013 Edition" (PDF). New York City Department of City Planning. 2013. Retrieved February 3, 2021.
- "NYC Population FactFinder (Census)". New York City Department of City Planning. Retrieved March 31, 2021.
- "NYC Population FactFinder (Demographic)". New York City Department of City Planning. Retrieved March 31, 2021.
- Armstrong, Lindsay (November 4, 2013). "Washington Heights' Jewish Population Thriving After Lean Years". DNAinfo. Retrieved March 30, 2021.
- Oppenheim, Rivka (August 11, 2010). "Washington Heights Jews Caught In A Growth Bind". New York Jewish Week. Retrieved March 30, 2021.
- Kerr, Peter (April 1, 1986). "WASHINGTON HEIGHTS: COCAINE TRADE THRIVES". The New York Times. Retrieved February 9, 2021.
- Halbfinger, David M. (May 18, 1998). "In Washington Heights, Drug War Survivors Reclaim Their Stoops". The New York Times. Retrieved February 9, 2021.
- Newman, Maria (June 22, 1992). "Talk in Washington Heights: Fear, Drugs, and Now Corruption". The New York Times. Retrieved February 11, 2021.
- Anderson, Susan; Dunlap, David (July 10, 1986). "NEW YORK DAY BY DAY; Answer". The New York Times. Retrieved March 31, 2020.
- Massing, Michael (October 1, 1989). "Crack's Destructive Sprint Across America". The New York Times. Retrieved March 31, 2020.
- "34th Precinct". New York City Police Department. Retrieved April 15, 2020.
- Williams, Terry (1990). Cocaine Kids: The Inside Story of a Teenage Drug Ring. Hachette Books. ISBN 9780306820861.
- Kennedy, Dana (January 9, 1994). "Hispaniola to New York Streets: Immigrant Dreams Gone Awry". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 1, 2020.
- Wolff, Craig (June 19, 1992). "U.S. is Investigating Reports of Corrupt New York Police". The New York Times. Retrieved April 1, 2020.
- Jackall, Robert (2005). Wild Cowboys: Urban Marauders & the Forces of Order. Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674018389.
- Dao, James (July 7, 1992). "Angered by Police Killing, a Neighborhood Erupts". The New York Times. Retrieved April 1, 2020.
- Goldman, John J. (July 8, 1992). "Dinkins Appeals for Calm After N.Y. Disturbances : Inner city: Police pour into neighborhood to quell violence. Democratic chairman predicts that tensions will ease before convention". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 9, 2021.
- "33rd Precinct CompStat Report" (PDF). New York City Police Department. Retrieved February 5, 2021.
- "34th Precinct CompStat Report" (PDF). New York City Police Department. Retrieved February 5, 2020.
- "NYC Crime Map". New York City Police Department. Retrieved February 5, 2021.
- "30th Precinct CompStat Report" (PDF). New York City Police Department. Retrieved February 5, 2021.
- "32nd Precinct CompStat Report" (PDF). New York City Police Department. Retrieved February 5, 2021.
- Rohde, David (August 17, 1997). "Where Has Your Neighborhood Drug Dealer Gone?". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 17, 2020.
- Egan, Timothy (September 19, 1999). "Crack's Legacy: A special report; A Drug Ran Its Course, Then Hid With Its Users". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 17, 2020.
- Kennedy, Randy (October 9, 1994). "Neighborhood Report: Washington Heights – Police Hit Streets In a New Precinct". The New York Times. Retrieved April 16, 2020.
- "Police Practices and Civil Rights in New York City – Chapter 3". United States Commission on Civil Rights. August 2000. Retrieved April 16, 2020.
- Harnett, Patrick J.; Andrews, William. "How New York is Winning the Drug War". City Journal. Manhattan Institute for Policy Research. Retrieved April 16, 2020.
- Gorner, Jeremy; Sweeney, Annie (September 18, 2018). "A tale of 3 cities: LA and NYC outpace Chicago in curbing violence". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved April 16, 2020.
- "Armory Center". Police Athletic League of New York City. Retrieved April 18, 2020.
- "34th Precinct National Night Out Against Crime – August 6, 2019". New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. Retrieved April 18, 2020.
- Goodman, J. David (August 23, 2015). "In New York, Testing Grounds for Community Policing". The New York Times. Retrieved April 18, 2020.
- "Neighborhood Policing Now in Every Neighborhood in New York City". www1.nyc.gov. October 22, 2015. Retrieved April 18, 2020.
- Mays, Jeff (August 8, 2016). "As Mayor Touts 'Neighborhood Policing', Questions Remain About What It Is". DNAinfo. Archived from the original on February 7, 2021. Retrieved April 18, 2020.
- Babin, Janet (August 6, 2015). "How Neighborhood Policing Is Working in Washington Heights". WNYC. Retrieved April 18, 2020.
- "Historical Timeline Listing". Fort Tryon Park Trust. October 12, 1935. Retrieved March 1, 2020.
- "Body of Young Woman Is Discovered in a Park". The New York Times. May 1, 1989. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved September 26, 2019.
- "Body of Girl, 9, Is Found". The New York Times. March 27, 1986. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved September 26, 2019.
- Anderson, Susan Heller; Rimer, Sara (October 14, 1985). "New York Day by Day; Fort Tryon Park Turns 50. . ". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 17, 2020.
- Martin, Douglas (May 1, 1994). "A Critical Tour of the Empire: Battery Park to High Bridge . . ". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 17, 2020.
- Kensinger, Nathan (June 25, 2015). "As High Bridge Reopens, a Neglected Park Remains in Its Shadow". Curbed. Retrieved March 31, 2021.
- Krisel, Brendan (July 15, 2019). "Work Begins On Second Phase Of $30M Highbridge Park Renovation". Washington Heights-Inwood, NY Patch. Retrieved August 20, 2019.
- Neuman, William (August 18, 2016). "5 Neglected New York City Parks to Get $150 Million for Upgrades". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 14, 2019.
- "Highbridge Anchor Park Reconstruction Phase I". New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. Retrieved February 6, 2021.
- Lorch, Donatella (August 7, 1989). "Tension and Violence at a Swimming Pool". The New York Times. Retrieved March 31, 2021.
- "NYC Population FactFinder (Social)". New York City Department of City Planning. Retrieved March 31, 2021.
- "Race / Ethnic Change by Neighborhood" (Excel file). Center for Urban Research, The Graduate Center, CUNY. May 23, 2011. Retrieved March 19, 2020.
- State of New York City's Housing and Neighborhoods in 2015 (PDF). Furman Center for Real Estate and Urban Policy. 2015. Retrieved February 11, 2021.
- "About Us". Coogan's. Retrieved April 18, 2020.
- Dwyer, Jim (January 12, 2018). "To New Yorkers' Delight, Coogan's Says It Isn't Closing After All". The New York Times. Retrieved February 11, 2021.
- "NYC Population FactFinder (Housing)". New York City Department of City Planning. Retrieved March 31, 2021.
- Mays, Jeffrey C.; Robertson, Aaron (August 7, 2018). "Fighting Over the Future of Inwood, Manhattan's Last Affordable Neighborhood". The New York Times. Retrieved April 19, 2020.
- Morris, Sebastian (December 2, 2020). "Radio Tower & Hotel Tops Out At 2420 Amsterdam Avenue In Washington Heights". New York YIMBY. Retrieved March 30, 2021.
- Warerkar, Tanay (November 15, 2018). "First look at MVRDV's colorful Washington Heights mixed-use development". Curbed. Retrieved April 16, 2020.
- Beers, F. W. (1874). "Topographical atlas of the city of New York, including the annexed territory showing original water courses and made land". The New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox, and Tilden Foundations. Retrieved February 12, 2021.
- "Bennett Park Highlights". New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. Retrieved April 21, 2020.
- Federal Writers' Project (1939). "New York City Guide". New York: Random House. ISBN 978-1-60354-055-1. (Reprinted by Scholarly Press, 1976; often referred to as WPA Guide to New York City.)CS1 maint: postscript (link)
- "Community Health Profiles 2018: Washington Heights and Inwood" (PDF). nyc.gov. New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. 2018. Retrieved March 2, 2019.
- "New York City: A City of Neighborhoods" (PDF). New York City Department of City Planning. 2014. Retrieved February 16, 2021.
- Garb, Maggie. "If You're Thinking of Living In Hudson Heights: High Above Hudson, a Crowd of Co-ops,", The New York Times, November 8, 1998. Retrieved April 28, 2016. "The neighborhood is called Hudson Heights by local real estate brokers and advocates for the area, to distinguish it from the sprawling blocks of Washington Heights to the south and east. It is situated west of Broadway between the George Washington Bridge and Fort Tryon Park and is set on rocky cliffs above the Hudson River."
- Helmreich, William B. (October 20, 2013). The New York Nobody Knows: Walking 6,000 Miles in the City. Princeton University Press. ISBN 9781400848317. Retrieved April 10, 2020.
- Home Page, Hudson Heights Owners Coalition. Retrieved April 27, 2016. "We are an association of owner occupied residential properties located in the Washington Heights neighborhood of Hudson Heights. Our boundaries are between J. Hood Wright Park (173rd Street) and Fort Tryon Park (Margaret Corbin Circle at 192nd Street), west of Broadway."
- Alex Luis Castex-Porter (August 16, 2012). "Alex Luis Castex-Porter" (PDF). nyc.gov. Retrieved April 10, 2020.
- "Board of Inquiry Report – Castle Village Retaining Wall Collapse" (PDF). New York City Department of Buildings. April 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 24, 2011. Retrieved April 2, 2010.
- Calabi, Marcella; and Ritter, Elizabeth Lorris. "How Hudson Heights Got Its Name" Hudson Heights Guide, October 29, 2010, backed up by the Internet Archive as if August 18, 2011. Retrieved April 28, 2016.
- Mokha, Kavita Mokha. "Hudson Heights Pumps More-for-Less Theme" Wall Street Journal (April 8, 2011). Retrieved April 13, 2011.
- Jacobson, Aileen (March 28, 2018). "Hudson Heights: A Hidden Gem, Gaining Popularity". The New York Times. Retrieved February 6, 2021.
- Hendrickson, Leslie (October 18, 2007). "Hudson Heights Climbing to the Next Level". The New York Sun. Retrieved February 6, 2021.
- Led Black (April 6, 2018). "Op-Led: Hudson Heights Doesn't Exist". Uptown Collective. Retrieved April 11, 2020.
- Nancy Wu (November 4, 2019). "Manhattan Rent Score: Every Building Ranked by Price Level". StreetEasy. Retrieved February 6, 2021.
- "Table PL-P3A CB: Total Population by Mutually Exclusive Race and Hispanic Origin – New York City Census Blocks, 2010" (PDF). Population Division – New York City Department of City Planning. November 2012. Retrieved February 4, 2021.
- "Highbridge Park Highlights - Fort George Playground". New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. Archived from the original on July 18, 2019. Retrieved May 1, 2020.
- Hughes, C. J. (April 19, 2017). "Fort George, Manhattan: Nosebleed Heights and Down-to-Earth Prices". The New York Times. Retrieved September 1, 2020.
- "Campuses". Yeshiva University. Retrieved April 15, 2020.
- "Washington Terrace, Washington Heights". Forgotten NY. December 28, 2013. Retrieved September 1, 2020.
- "These uptown step streets have all the cinematic drama of the 'Joker' stairs–and none of the crowds". The Curious Uptowner. April 15, 2020. Retrieved February 7, 2021.
- Feiden, Douglas (July 8, 2015). "Step by Step, Rebuilding New York City's Open-Air Staircases". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved February 7, 2021.
- "Replacing the elevators at uptown A and 1 stations". Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Retrieved January 6, 2021.
- "New York MPS 181st Street Subway Station (IND)". Records of the National Park Service, 1785 - 2006, Series: National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records, 2013 - 2017, Box: National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records: New York, ID: 75313903. National Archives.
- "191st Street Neighborhood Map" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. April 2018. Retrieved January 6, 2021.
- New York City Neighborhood Tabulation Areas*, 2010, Population Division - New York City Department of City Planning, February 2012. Retrieved June 16, 2016.
- "NYC-Manhattan Community District 12--Washington Heights, Inwood & Marble Hill PUMA, NY". Census Reporter. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
- Keogh, Elizabeth (February 22, 2020). "Thousands of protesters fill Washington Heights streets over bungled Dominican Republic elections". New York Daily News. Retrieved April 19, 2020.
- Krisel, Brendan (September 7, 2018). "Upper Manhattan Designated First 'Little Dominican Republic'". Patch. Retrieved April 19, 2020.
- "Hispanic or Latino by Specific Origin - 2011-2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved March 29, 2021.
- "Highbridge Park Highlights - Quisqueya Playground". New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. Retrieved March 29, 2021.
- Suro, Roberto (1999). Strangers Among Us: Latino Lives in a Changing America. Vintage Books. ISBN 9780679744566. Retrieved April 19, 2020.
- Kugel, Seth (November 18, 2001). "Now Boarding, Dreams". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 7, 2016. Retrieved March 29, 2021.
- Ranter, Harro (November 12, 2001). "ASN Aircraft accident Airbus A300B4-605R N14053 Belle Harbor, NY". aviation-safety.net. Aviation Safety Network. Archived from the original on April 20, 2014. Retrieved March 29, 2021.
- Boston Globe (November 18, 2001). "Plane crash changes meaning of a joyful song". Baltimore Sun. Retrieved April 1, 2021.
- Younge, Gary (November 10, 2006). "Flight to the death". The Guardian. Archived from the original on November 13, 2012. Retrieved March 29, 2021.
- "Families dedicate Flight 587 memorial on 5-year anniversary". The International Herald Tribune. IHT. The Associated Press. November 12, 2006. Archived from the original on February 1, 2009.
- Garcia, Sandra E. (May 31, 2015). "Bringing a Little Color to a Passage at the 191st Street Station". The New York Times. Retrieved March 30, 2021.
- Ehrlich, Dimitri; Ehrlich, Gregor (June 22, 2006). "Graffiti in Its Own Words". New York Magazine. Retrieved March 30, 2021.
- "'Taki 183' Spawns Pen Pals" (PDF). The New York Times. July 21, 1971. p. 37.
- Marsh, Julia. "Manhattan Times Profile: Sandra García Betancourt: Creating a Masterpiece". Manhattan Times, October 4, 2007, backed up by the Internet Archive as of July 14, 2011. Retrieved April 28, 2016.
- Welcome, Uptown Arts Stroll. Retrieved April 27, 2016.
- United Palace (Formerly Loew's 175th Street Theater (PDF). New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. December 13, 2016.
- "About". United Palace. Retrieved March 14, 2021.
- Isherwood, Charles. "The View From Uptown: American Dreaming to a Latin Beat", The New York Times, March 10, 2008. Retrieved April 28, 2016. "Mr. Miranda, as the owner of a corner bodega who dispenses good cheer along with café con leche by the gallon, is not just the brightly glowing star of In the Heights. He also wrote all the ebullient songs for this panoramic portrait of a New York neighborhood – Washington Heights – filled with Spanish-speaking dreamers of American dreams, nervously eyeing their futures from a city block on the cusp of change."
- "DOMINICANA". Kirkus Reviews. June 17, 2019. Retrieved March 30, 2021.
- "SOLEDAD". Kirkus Reviews. June 15, 2001. Retrieved March 30, 2021.
- "NYC Parks Cuts the Ribbon on Restored Historic John T. Brush Stairway, Last Remnant of the Old Polo Grounds", New York City Department of Parks and Recreation, July 10, 2015. Retrieved April 27, 2016. "Opened in 1890, five major New York sports teams called the Polo Grounds home – the (now) San Francisco Giants, the Yankees, the Mets, the football Giants and the Jets."
- "Polo Grounds Towers" (PDF). New York City Housing Authority. Retrieved February 15, 2021.
- "History of New York City: Polo Grounds". History of New York City. November 14, 2016. Retrieved February 11, 2021.
- Thornley, Stew. "Polo Grounds (New York)". Society for American Baseball Research. Retrieved February 11, 2021.
- Withers, Tom (March 29, 2007). "Indians uncover lost Chapman plaque". ESPN. Associated Press. Retrieved March 11, 2017.
- Dillon, Edward; Patterson, Neal (July 8, 1950). "Fatal Ball Park Shot Confessed by Boy, 14". New York Daily News. p. 3. Retrieved August 22, 2020 – via newspapers.com.
- "Mystery Bullet Kills Baseball Fan In Midst of Crowd at Polo Grounds". The New York Times. July 5, 1950. Retrieved October 30, 2011.
- Landlord to the New York Yankees Archived November 19, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, New York Institute for Special Education. Retrieved April 27, 2016.
- Reisler, Jim. "A Beating in the Stands, Followed by One on the Field", The New York Times, April 28, 2012. Retrieved April 27, 2016.
- Hogan, Lawrence. "Hilltop Park was Home to Great Pitching Feats" Archived August 5, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, The National Pastime Museum, October 29, 2013. Retrieved April 27, 2016. "In September of 1908, in one of his most brilliant accomplishments, 20-year-old Washington ace Walter Johnson shut out the New York Highlanders in three consecutive games."
- About Us, Columbia University Medical Center. Retrieved April 27, 2016. "In 1928, Columbia University created the country's first academic medical center (CUMC) at its current location in Washington Heights in an alliance with Presbyterian Hospital.... CUMC was built in the 1920s on the former site of Hilltop Park, the one-time home stadium of the New York Yankees."
- Kugel, Seth (January 29, 2004). "NEIGHBORHOOD REPORT: WASHINGTON HEIGHTS; Better Hide That Red Sox Cap Now That A-Rod Is Back in Town". The New York Times. Retrieved February 12, 2021.
- Wancho, Joseph. "Rod Carew". Society for American Baseball Research. Retrieved October 19, 2020.
- Robinson, Ray (July 3, 2005). "Gehrig Remains a Presence in His Former Neighborhood". The New York Times.
- "P.S. 132 Historical Perspective". New York City Department of Education. Archived from the original on January 7, 2009. Retrieved April 16, 2008.
- Baxter, Kevin. "Dodgers' Manny Ramirez always has home-field advantage here; The Dodgers' star is still beloved in New York's Washington Heights, the neighborhood where he grew up, and where today's residents forgive him his trespasses.", Los Angeles Times, July 7, 2009. Retrieved April 27, 2016. "This, after all, is where Alex Rodriguez was born, where Vin Scully grew up, where Rod Carew lived and where Lou Gehrig went to school. Three of those four are in the Hall of Fame. And Rodriguez could be, too, one day."
- About, The Armory Foundation. Retrieved April 27, 2016
- Coffey, Wayne. "Millrose Games, after almost 100 years at Madison Square Garden, will be held at The Armory in 2012", New York Daily News, May 12, 2011. Retrieved April 27, 2016. "After nearly a 100-year run at Madison Square Garden, the Millrose Games will be contested next year at The Armory on 168th St., according to a source close to the Armory Foundation Board of Directors."
- Walters, Jheanel. "500 students expected to take part in second Uptown Games at New Balance Track & Field Center at the Armory", New York Daily News, March 21, 2013. Retrieved April 27, 2016.
- "Uptown Games". The Armory Foundation. June 6, 2018. Retrieved February 11, 2021.
- "National Track & Field Hall of Fame". ny.milesplit.us. MileSplit US. Archived from the original on March 31, 2009. Retrieved April 1, 2009.
- "Charles Rangel Technology & Learning Center". Armory Track. Retrieved February 11, 2021.
- "Grooving in the Heights". New York Road Runners. March 5, 2019. Retrieved February 11, 2021.
- Feeney, Michael J. (February 28, 2014). "Annual Washington Heights 5K race goes on without Coogan's and picks up a new name". New York Daily News. Retrieved February 11, 2021.
- "Northern Manhattan Parks". New York City Department of Parks & Recreation. June 26, 1939. Retrieved June 10, 2019.
- Gray, Christopher (January 9, 2009). "Flickering Views of an Earlier Era". The New York Times. Retrieved February 15, 2021.
- Fort Washington Park, New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. Retrieved April 27, 2016.
- Grimm, E.; Schroeder, E.P. (2007). Riverside Park: The Splendid Sliver. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-51219-0.
- "Fort Washington Park Highlights". New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. Retrieved April 21, 2020.
- The Little Red Lighthouse, New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. Retrieved April 27, 2016.
- "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. March 13, 2009.
- "Little Red Lighthouse". Historic House Trust. Retrieved March 26, 2021.
- "Little Red Lighthouse Festival". Riverside Park Conservancy. March 3, 2019. Retrieved March 26, 2021.
- Fort Tryon Park, New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. Retrieved April 28, 2016.
- "John D., Jr., Offers City A River Park: Tenders Billings, Sheafer and Hay Properties, Worth $2,000,000 Asks New York to Buy Adjoining Property Natural Gateway to Palisades Would Be Formed; Mayor Urges Acceptance". New-York Tribune. June 16, 1917. p. 14. Retrieved March 28, 2021.
- Nomination Form - Fort Tryon Park and the Cloisters (PDF). National Register of Historic Places. October 12, 1978. Retrieved March 28, 2021.
- Torrey, Raymond H. (May 1936). "Fort Tryon Park". Scenic and Historic America. New York: American Scenic and Historic Preservation Society. Retrieved March 27, 2021.
- Rorimer, James J. (1942). "The Unicorn Tapestries Were Made for Anne of Brittany". The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin. Metropolitan Museum of Art. 1 (1): 7–20. doi:10.2307/3257087. JSTOR 3257087. Retrieved March 28, 2021.
- "The Medieval Festival at Fort Tryon Park". Washington Heights and Inwood Development Corporation. Retrieved March 28, 2021.
- Speers, Landon; Leland, John (October 5, 2018). "Taking the A Train to the Middle Ages". The New York Times. Retrieved September 29, 2019.
- Krisel, Brendan (August 16, 2018). "Medieval Festival Will Draw Tens of Thousands Uptown". Patch. Retrieved March 17, 2020.
- "Medieval Festival Program (2019)" (PDF). Washington Heights and Inwood Development Corporation. Retrieved March 28, 2021.
- Highbridge Park, New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. Retrieved April 28, 2016.
- Highbridge Play Center (PDF). New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. August 14, 2007. Retrieved March 28, 2021.
- Williams, Timothy (February 19, 2008). "A Stairway to Sports History From the Polo Grounds". The New York Times. Retrieved March 28, 2021.
- Martens, Victoria (August 1, 2019). "Fort George Amusement Park". Museum of the City of New York. Retrieved May 1, 2020.
- Chung, Jen (May 15, 2007). "Highbridge Trails, NYC's First Mountain Bike Trail". Gothamist. Archived from the original on June 12, 2009. Retrieved March 28, 2021.
- "First Mountain Bike Trail In NYC Opens At Highbridge Park". New York City Department of Parks & Recreation. May 24, 2007. Retrieved March 28, 2021.
- High Bridge Water Tower (PDF). New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. July 12, 1967. Retrieved March 28, 2021.
- High Bridge, Aqueduct and Pedestrian Walk (PDF). New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. November 10, 1970. Retrieved March 28, 2021.
- "History of the High Bridge: NYC Parks". New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. Retrieved April 15, 2020.
- "High Bridge Water Tower Reconstruction". New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. Retrieved March 28, 2021.
- J. Hood Wright Park, New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. Retrieved April 28, 2016.
- Dunlap, David W. (October 4, 1998). "A Medical Center Works on Its Health". The New York Times. Retrieved July 15, 2018.
- "Amelia Gorman Park Highlights". New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. Retrieved April 28, 2016.
- McKenna Square, New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. Retrieved April 28, 2016.
- Tanne, Janice Hopkins. Washington to New York: Drop Dead, New York (magazine), July 18, 1994. Retrieved November 16, 2017. "1928: Columbia-Presbyterian opens its doors as the nation's first academic medical center."
- Boland Jr., Ed. "F.Y.I.", The New York Times, December 8, 2002. Retrieved November 16, 2017. "On April 30, 1903, Hilltop Park opened in what is now Washington Heights on a hill over looking the Hudson River. It stretched from 165th Street to 168th Street between Broadway and Fort Washington Avenue.... Hilltop Park was demolished in 1914, and Columbia Presbyterian was built on the site in the 1920s."
- "What We Do". The Armory Foundation. Retrieved September 2, 2020.
- Audubon Terrace Historic District Designation Report (PDF). New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. 1979. Retrieved February 23, 2021.
- "National Register of Historic Places – NEW YORK (NY), New York County". National Register of Historic Places. Retrieved April 28, 2016.
- "Audubon Terrace". Hispanic Society of America. Retrieved February 23, 2021.
- Gray, Christopher (May 17, 1987). "Streetscapes: Audubon Terrace; Attrition Taking Its Toll At a Cultural Complex". The New York Times. Retrieved February 23, 2021.
- Flad, Harvey K. (October 2004). "Audubon Terrace, the American Geographical Society, and the Sense of Place". Geographical Review. Taylor & Francis. 94 (4): 519–529. doi:10.1111/j.1931-0846.2004.tb00186.x. JSTOR 30034294. S2CID 159698938. Retrieved February 23, 2021.
- "History of the Collections". National Museum of the American Indian. Smithsonian. Retrieved February 23, 2021.
- "History of the American Numismatic Society". American Numismatic Society. Retrieved February 23, 2021.
- Greenwood, Richard (August 11, 1975). "National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination: Morris-Jumel Mansion". National Park Service. Retrieved February 22, 2021.
- "Roger Morris Park Highlights". New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. Retrieved February 22, 2021.
- "Paranormal Investigations". www.morrisjumel.org. Retrieved March 29, 2021.
- Mead, Rebecca (February 2, 2015). "All About the Hamiltons". The New Yorker. Retrieved March 29, 2021.
- "Welcome". www.morrisjumel.org. Retrieved March 29, 2021.
- "New York: Paul Robeson Home". National Park Service. Retrieved February 28, 2021.
- Wolfe Scheffler, Robin (September 8, 2020). "Biotechnology, Race, And Memory In Washington Heights". Gotham Center for New York City History. Retrieved February 28, 2021.
- "Audubon Ballroom". New York Preservation Archive Project. Retrieved February 28, 2021.
- Kihss, Peter (February 22, 1965). "Malcolm X Shot to Death at Rally Here". The New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved June 19, 2018.
- Alanen, Arnold R.; Melnick, Robert (2000). Preserving Cultural Landscapes in America. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 9780801862632.
- "About the Shabazz Center". Malcolm X and Dr. Betty Shabazz Memorial and Educational Center. Retrieved March 14, 2021.
- Lehmann-Haupt, Christopher (July 30, 2009). "Reverend Ike, Who Preached Riches, Dies at 74". The New York Times. Retrieved May 20, 2019.
- Diamond, Bruce (May 11, 2012). "United Palace Cathedral may see new life as community arts center". New York Daily News. Retrieved March 14, 2021.
- "About Us – Manhattan Times News". Manhattan Times. Retrieved March 25, 2020.
- Miranda, Luís A.; Ramírez, Roberto (April 29, 2020). "Half a Million Deaths in the USA / Medio Millón de Muertes en Estados Unidos" (PDF). Manhattan Times. 22 (9). Retrieved February 24, 2021.
- "Get the Paper – Manhattan Times News". Manhattan Times. Retrieved March 25, 2020.
- "Find Your Precinct and Sector – NYPD". New York City Police Department. Retrieved April 15, 2020.
- "33rd Precinct". New York City Police Department. Retrieved April 15, 2020.
- "Inwood – DNAinfo.com Crime and Safety Report". www.dnainfo.com. Archived from the original on December 30, 2016. Retrieved October 6, 2016.
- "Washington Heights – DNAinfo.com Crime and Safety Report". www.dnainfo.com. Archived from the original on April 15, 2017. Retrieved October 6, 2016.
- "Reaching New Heights – Upper Manhattan Has Risen From the Depths". New York Post. July 28, 2004. Retrieved March 27, 2019.
- "FDNY Firehouse Listing – Location of Firehouses and companies". NYC Open Data; Socrata. New York City Fire Department. September 10, 2018. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
- "Engine Company 67". FDNYtrucks.com. Retrieved April 15, 2020.
- Fire Engine Company No. 67 (PDF). New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. February 27, 2001. Retrieved March 28, 2021.
- "Engine Company 84/Ladder Company 34". FDNYtrucks.com. Retrieved April 15, 2020.
- Fire Engine Company No. 84 and Hook & Ladder Company No. 34 (PDF). New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. June 17, 1997. Retrieved March 28, 2021.
- "Engine Company 93/Ladder Company 45/Battalion 13". FDNYtrucks.com. Retrieved April 15, 2020.
- "FDNY EMS Station 13 – New York, New York". Facebook. New York City Fire Department. Retrieved April 15, 2020.
- "New York-Presbyterian/Columbia University Irving Medical Center". New York–Presbyterian Hospital. Retrieved April 8, 2020.
- "The Hospitals: Overview". Columbia University Department of Surgery. Retrieved February 28, 2021.
- "Columbia University Irving Medical Center". Columbia University. Retrieved April 8, 2020.
- "Manhattan Hospital Listings". New York Hospitals. Retrieved March 20, 2019.
- "Best Hospitals in New York, N.Y." US News & World Report. July 26, 2011. Retrieved March 20, 2019.
- "U.S. House Election Results 2018". The New York Times. January 28, 2019. Retrieved February 21, 2019.
- Senate District 31, New York State Legislative Task Force on Demographic Research and Reapportionment. Retrieved May 5, 2017.
- 2012 Senate District Maps: New York City, New York State Legislative Task Force on Demographic Research and Reapportionment. Retrieved November 17, 2018.
- "NY Senate District 31". New York State Senate. Retrieved March 26, 2019.
- Assembly District 71, New York State Legislative Task Force on Demographic Research and Reapportionment. Retrieved May 5, 2017.
- Assembly District 72, New York State Legislative Task Force on Demographic Research and Reapportionment. Retrieved May 5, 2017.
- 2012 Assembly District Maps: New York City, New York State Legislative Task Force on Demographic Research and Reapportionment. Retrieved November 17, 2018.
- "New York State Assembly Member Directory". Assembly Member Directory. Retrieved March 4, 2019.
- Current City Council Districts for New York County, New York City. Retrieved May 5, 2017.
- "District 7 – New York City Council". New York City Council. Retrieved March 3, 2018.
- "District 10 – New York City Council". New York City Council. Retrieved March 3, 2018.
- "Washington Heights, New York City-Manhattan, New York Zip Code Boundary Map (NY)". United States Zip Code Boundary Map (USA). Retrieved March 26, 2019.
- "Location Details: Audubon". United States Postal Service. Retrieved March 7, 2019.
- "Location Details: Fort George". United States Postal Service. Retrieved March 7, 2019.
- "Location Details: Fort Washington". United States Postal Service. Retrieved March 7, 2019.
- "Location Details: Washington Bridge". United States Postal Service. Retrieved March 7, 2019.
- "2016–2018 Community Health Assessment and Community Health Improvement Plan: Take Care New York 2020" (PDF). nyc.gov. New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. 2016. Retrieved September 8, 2017.
- "School Districts". NYC Open Data; Socrata. New York City Department of City Planning. Retrieved May 1, 2020.
- "NYC Geog Dist #6 – Manhattan Enrollment (2018–19)". New York State Department of Education. Retrieved May 2, 2020.
- "2019-graduation_rates_public_citywide.xlsx". New York City Department of Education. Retrieved May 2, 2020.
- "NYC Geog Dist #6 – Manhattan Graduation Rate Data 4 Year Outcome As of August 2019". New York State Department of Education. Retrieved May 2, 2020.
- "P.S. 028 Wright Brothers". New York City Department of Education. Retrieved April 9, 2020.
- "P.S. 189". New York City Department of Education. Retrieved March 20, 2020.
- "P.S. 048 P.O. Michael J. Buczek". New York City Department of Education. Retrieved March 20, 2020.
- "P.S. 128 Audubon". New York City Department of Education. Retrieved March 20, 2020.
- "P.S. 173". New York City Department of Education. Retrieved March 20, 2020.
- "P.S. 004 Duke Ellington". New York City Department of Education. Retrieved April 9, 2020.
- "P.S. 008 Luis Belliard". New York City Department of Education. Retrieved April 9, 2020.
- "P.S. 115 Alexander Humboldt". New York City Department of Education. Retrieved March 20, 2020.
- "P.S. 152 Dyckman Valley". New York City Department of Education. Retrieved May 2, 2020.
- "Dos Puentes Elementary School". New York City Department of Education. Retrieved March 20, 2020.
- "P.S. 132 Juan Pablo Duarte". New York City Department of Education. Retrieved March 20, 2020.
- "P.S./I.S. 187 Hudson Cliffs". New York City Department of Education. Retrieved March 20, 2020.
- "Castle Bridge School". New York City Department of Education. Retrieved March 20, 2020.
- "Professor Juan Bosch Public School". New York City Department of Education. Retrieved March 20, 2020.
- "P.S. 143 Eleanor Roosevelt". New York City Department of Education. Retrieved March 20, 2020.
- "M.S. 319 Maria Teresa". New York City Department of Education. Retrieved March 20, 2020.
- "Middle School 322". New York City Department of Education. Retrieved May 2, 2020.
- "P.S. 324 Patria Mirabal". New York City Department of Education. Retrieved March 20, 2020.
- "Harbor Heights". New York City Department of Education. Retrieved April 9, 2020.
- "Community Math & Science Prep". New York City Department of Education. Retrieved April 9, 2020.
- "I.S. 528 Bea Fuller Rodgers". New York City Department of Education. Retrieved April 9, 2020.
- "City College Academy of the Arts". New York City Department of Education. Retrieved April 9, 2020.
- "Community Health Academy of the Heights". New York City Department of Education. Retrieved April 9, 2020.
- "George Washington Educational Complex – District 6". InsideSchools. Retrieved April 8, 2020.
- "The College Academy". New York City Department of Education. Retrieved April 8, 2020.
- "High School for Media and Communications". New York City Department of Education. Retrieved April 8, 2020.
- "High School for Law and Public Service". New York City Department of Education. Retrieved April 8, 2020.
- "High School for Health Careers and Sciences". New York City Department of Education. Retrieved April 8, 2020.
- "Gregorio Luperon High School for Science and Mathematics – District 6". InsideSchools. Retrieved April 8, 2020.
- "Gregorio Luperon High School for Science and Mathematics". New York City Department of Education. Retrieved April 8, 2020.
- Adams, Caralee J. (June 1, 2012). "For Many Latino Students, College Seems Out of Reach – Education Week". Education Week. Retrieved April 7, 2020.
- "Washington Heights Expeditionary Learning School". New York City Department of Education. Retrieved April 7, 2020.
- "Success Academy Charter School – Washington Heights – New York 1". New York City Department of Education. Retrieved April 8, 2020.
- "KIPP Washington Heights Middle School". New York City Department of Education. Retrieved April 8, 2020.
- "WHIN Music Community". New York City Department of Education. Retrieved April 8, 2020.
- "School in the Square Public Charter School". New York City Department of Education. Retrieved April 8, 2020.
- "Incarnation School – New York, NY". Incarnation School. Retrieved April 8, 2020.
- "St. Elizabeth School – Washington Heights, NY". St. Elizabeth School. Retrieved April 8, 2020.
- "Yeshiva Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch". Yeshiva Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch. Retrieved April 8, 2020.
- "Our Mission – Yeshiva University High School for Young Boys". Marsha Stern Talmudical Academy. Retrieved April 8, 2020.
- "Washington Heights Education Center". Birch Family Services. Retrieved April 8, 2020.
- "History". Medical Center Nursery School. Retrieved April 8, 2020.
- "Renaissance Village Montessori". Renaissance Village Montessori School. Retrieved April 8, 2020.
- "INFORMATION". Gardens Daycare. Retrieved April 8, 2020.
- "Curriculum". Bright Horizons at New York–Presbyterian Hospital. Retrieved April 8, 2020.
- "Visiting Us". Yeshiva University. Retrieved February 15, 2021.
- "Contact Us". Boricua College. Retrieved April 8, 2020.
- "Wilf Campus Map" (PDF). Yeshiva University. 2015. Retrieved February 23, 2021.
- "Mission and History". Yeshiva University. Retrieved February 23, 2021.
- "Building Bust – The Unbuilt Synagogues of the Great Depression". Tablet Magazine. August 20, 2009.
- "Wilf Campus". Yeshiva University. Retrieved February 23, 2021.
- "History and Aims". Boricua College. Retrieved February 23, 2021.
- "CUNY in the Heights". Borough of Manhattan Community College. Retrieved April 8, 2020.
- "CUNY Citizenship Now! - CUNY Xpress Immigration Center - National Immigration Legal Services Directory". Immigration Advocates Network. Retrieved April 8, 2020.
- "Contact – Citizenship Now!". City University of New York. Retrieved May 2, 2020.
- "About the Fort Washington Library". The New York Public Library. Retrieved March 23, 2019.
- "About the Washington Heights Library". The New York Public Library. Retrieved March 23, 2019.
- Lydenberg, Harry Miller (1923). History of the New York Public Library: Astor, Lenox, and Tilden Foundations. The New York Public Library. Retrieved May 2, 2020.
- "About – Incarnation – New York, NY". Church of the Incarnation. Retrieved April 15, 2020.
- "Holy Cross Church of Armenia". Holy Cross Armenian Apostolic Church. Retrieved May 6, 2020.
- "St. Rose of Lima | New York, NY". St. Rose of Lima Church. Retrieved April 15, 2020.
- "Our Parish". St. Spyridon Greek Orthodox Church. Retrieved April 15, 2020.
- "Fort Washington Collegiate Church". Fort Washington Collegiate Church. Retrieved April 15, 2020.
- "Home | OSA WS with Video". Our Saviour's Atonement Lutheran Church. Retrieved April 15, 2020.
- "About us". Holyrood Episcopal Church. Retrieved April 15, 2020.
- "Our Lady Queen of Martyrs – New York, NY". Our Lady Queen of Martyrs. Retrieved April 15, 2020.
- "Fort Washington Presbyterian Church – New York City". www.nycago.org. Retrieved April 15, 2020.
- "Our Lady of Esperanza – New York, NY". Our Lady of Esperanza Church. Retrieved April 16, 2020.
- "About". Fort Tryon Jewish Center. Retrieved April 15, 2020.
- "Contact Us". K'hal Adath Jeshurun. Retrieved April 15, 2020.
- About Us, Mount Sinai Jewish Center. Retrieved April 15, 2020.
- Rastorfer, Darl (2000). "Chapter 2: The George Washington Bridge". Six bridges: the legacy of Othmar H. Ammann. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-08047-6. OCLC 41977224.
- Fernandez, Manny (October 5, 2008). "Change and Outrage at the Bus Station That Time Forgot". The New York Times. Retrieved February 16, 2017.
- "George Washington Bridge Bus Station". Gothamist. October 16, 2008. Retrieved April 9, 2020.
- White, Norval; Willensky, Elliot & Leadon, Fran (2010). AIA Guide to New York City (5th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19538-386-7.
- Anderson, Susan Heller; Dunlap, David W. (August 25, 1986). "NEW YORK DAY BY DAY; Big Name And Short Road". The New York Times. Retrieved May 3, 2020.
- "1940s NYC – Street photos of every building in NYC in 1939/1940". New York Public Library, Lionel Pincus and Princess Firyal Map Division. Retrieved February 23, 2021.
- "To Raze 20 Flats in Path of Bridge; Wreckers Soon to Clear Three Washington Heights Blocks for Approach. 2 Churches Also Doomed Half of 3,000 Tenants Ousted for Hudson River Span Stay in the Vicinity, Realty Men Report". The New York Times. October 27, 1929. Retrieved February 23, 2021.
- Ingraham, Joseph C. (April 23, 1959). "Relocation Is Almost Completed Near George Washington Bridge". The New York Times. p. 33. Retrieved May 22, 2014.
- Cuomo, Andrew (July 28, 2014). "Governor Cuomo Announces Completion of Alexander Hamilton Bridge Rehabilitation". New York State. Retrieved May 3, 2020.
- "Washington Bridge" (PDF). New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. September 14, 1982. Retrieved May 3, 2020.
- "The High Bridge". New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. Retrieved May 3, 2020.
- Pierce, Morris A. "New York City Waterworks". Retrieved February 15, 2021.
- Gray, Christopher (April 25, 2013). "Streetscapes: The High Bridge – Beauty on the Comeback Trail". The New York Times. Retrieved May 3, 2020.
- List of State Routes in New York County (PDF). New York State Department of Transportation. 2003. Retrieved May 6, 2020.
- "HARLEM SPEEDWAY OPENED; Pronounced by Horsemen to be the Finest Driveway for Light Speeding in the Country. YESTERDAY THE FIRST DAY The Number Present at the Opening Hour Not Large, but Later in the Day Many Wrote Arrived -- Interesting Facts". The New York Times. July 3, 1898. Retrieved September 15, 2017.
- Gray, Christopher (July 13, 1997). "A Roadway Built for the Elite to Trot Out Their Rigs". The New York Times. Retrieved September 15, 2017.
- "NYCEDC and NYC Parks Release Public Proposal to Design Two New Waterfront Parks Along Harlem River". New York City Economic Development Corporation. February 11, 2019. Retrieved February 15, 2021.
- "Manhattan Waterfront Greenway Map" (PDF). New York City. Retrieved May 6, 2020.
- "Henry Hudson Parkway". New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. Retrieved February 15, 2021.
- "Empire Service Train". Amtrak. Retrieved February 23, 2021.
- "Subway Map" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. October 21, 2019. Retrieved January 18, 2018.
- "Accessible Stations Highlighted Map". Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Retrieved February 23, 2021.
- "2 IND ELEVATORS OPEN TO FREE USE; Washington Heights Alpinists Take Heart – Subway Lifts Are Free". The New York Times. September 6, 1957. p. 19. Retrieved April 15, 2020.
- Kurtz, Josh (August 12, 1991). "Washington Heights Journal; A Subway Passageway Just for the Courageous". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 30, 2016.
- "Subway Entrance Stylings". Forgotten NY. February 14, 2005. Retrieved May 6, 2020.
- Young, Michelle (June 26, 2013). "The Deepest and Highest Subway Stations in NYC: 191st St, 190th Street, Smith & 9th". untappedcities.com. Retrieved April 15, 2020.
- "190th St. Station Held Bomb-Proof". The New York Times. December 16, 1951. p. 65. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 30, 2016.
- "MTA – Arts & Design | NYCT Permanent Art". Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Retrieved April 15, 2020.
- "Manhattan Bus Map" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. July 2019. Retrieved December 1, 2020.
- "Bronx Bus Map" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. October 2018. Retrieved December 1, 2020.
- Nelson, Amy K. "Alvarez following in some famous footsteps", ESPN.com, June 3, 2008. Retrieved June 10, 2008. "In just a few days, Montas and the entire Washington Heights community anticipate that their native son, Pedro Alvarez, a star third baseman for Vanderbilt University, will be the highest player ever drafted from the upper Manhattan neighborhood of New York City."
- Mickle, Tripp. "At George Washington High School, Beisbol is a Hit" Archived September 28, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, New Media Workshop at the Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism. Retrieved May 21, 2007. "Since the mid-1980s, the school has produced two World Series winners in the Major Leagues: Manny Ramírez of the Boston Red Sox and former Florida Marlins shortstop Alex Arias."
- "George Grey Barnard Papers : Historical Note", Philadelphia Museum of Art. Retrieved April 16. 2020. "1894–1895: Moves to Washington Heights, New York; produces many pieces for patrons."
- Gates Jr., Henry Louis. "Belafonte's Balancing Act", The New Yorker, August 26, 1996. Retrieved July 20, 2016. "In 1953, enjoying his first real taste of affluence, Belafonte moved from Washington Heights into a white neighborhood in Elmhurst, Queens."
- Iovine, Julie V. "Ward Bennett, 85, Dies; Designed With American Style", The New York Times, August 16, 200. Retrieved April 16, 2020. "Mr. Bennett was born on Nov. 17, 1917, in Washington Heights in upper Manhattan."
- Rivera, Marly. "For Betances, repping the Yankees is an American dream", ESPN, April 17, 2017. Retrieved April 16, 2020. "Yankees setup man Dellin Betances was born in New York, but he says his parents' Dominican heritage has always been a huge part of his identity -- particularly growing up in Washington Heights, a majority-Latino neighborhood of the city."
- Soloski, Alexis. "For This Playwright, Africa With Laughter, Not Tears", The New York Times, November 1, 2017. Retrieved April 16, 2020. "Ms. Bioh, 34, grew up in the Washington Heights neighborhood of Manhattan, the youngest of three siblings in a tight-knit, tough-love family that often lived hand-to-mouth."
- Celona, Larry. "Radio DJ Shot – Power 105.1 Man Hit 13 Times", New York Post, December 8, 2006. Retrieved December 17, 2019. "DJ Carl Blaze, whose real name is Carlos Rivera, was shot 13 times while in the first-floor hallway of 578 Academy St. in Manhattan’s Inwood section at about 4:30 a.m., cops said.... He said it wasn’t surprising Rivera was on Academy Street because he grew up in Washington Heights."
- Levy, Ariel. "The Devil & Saint Ann’s", New York, April 30, 2004. Retrieved April 16, 2020. "Stanley is Jewish himself, raised in Washington Heights, by parents he calls 'the greatest bumblers in the world.'"
- Diane Arbus 1923-1971 'Waitress, Nudist Camp, N. J.', Sotheby's. Retrieved April 16, 2020. "In her later years, Brown lived in Washington Heights, New York City, and was the focus of German director Rosa von Praunheim's award-winning documentary, Tally Brown, N. Y. (1979)."
- "Robert John Burke", The New York Times, backed up by the Internet Archive as of March 7, 2016. Retrieved April 16, 2020. "Birthplace: Washington Heights, New York, USA"
- Edwards, Anne (August 18, 2001). Maria Callas: An Intimate Biography. ISBN 9780312269869.
- Haskell, Rob. "Cardi B: Unfiltered, Unapologetic, Unbowed", Vogue (magazine), December 9, 2019. Retrieved December 17, 2019. "It’s the middle of an early-autumn afternoon, and Cardi is stretched out on the green modular sofa in the living room of her grandmother’s apartment in Washington Heights.... Cardi was born at NewYork-Presbyterian, not far from this walkup whose hallways are saturated with the warm smells of Dominican cooking."
- Author / Illustrator Archived April 12, 2018, at the Wayback Machine, Jerry Craft. Retrieved July 23, 2013.
- "This Week In Baseball History – Week ending 10/5"[permanent dead link], Sporting News, October 8, 2007. Retrieved June 10, 2008. "In 1958, the Carew family migrated to America and settled in the Washington Heights section of New York City."
- Monell, Ray. "Nelson A. Denis’ book War Against All Puerto Ricans is escalating", New York Daily News, June 11, 2015. Retrieved December 17, 2019. "'It's been psychologically and intellectually stimulating, because it's been interesting to see some of these changes after I talk to people and after they read the book. It's an interesting process,' says Denis, an ex-New York assemblyman from Washington Heights of Puerto Rican and Cuban heritage."
- Roberts, Sam. "Morton Deutsch, Expert on Conflict Resolution, Dies at 97", The New York Times, March 21, 2017. Retrieved March 23, 2017. "Raised in the Washington Heights section of Manhattan, he read Freud and Marx when he was 10, graduated from Townsend Harris Hall and entered City College when he was 15 planning to become a psychiatrist."
- Armstrong, Lindsay. "Proposal To Rename Street for David Dinkins Dropped by Councilman" Archived June 3, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, DNAinfo.com, August 10, 2015. Retrieved April 28, 2016. "WASHINGTON HEIGHTS – A proposal to rename an Uptown street in honor of David Dinkins has been dropped, after a politician supporting the plan said the former mayor's family was not on board with the idea."
- Times Topics: People – Jim Dwyer, The New York Times. Retrieved June 28, 2007. "Born and raised in the city, Jim is the son of Irish immigrants. For the last 30 years, he has lived in Washington Heights with his family."
- Staff. "Hudson Heights delivers", New York Daily News, March 7, 2008. Retrieved March 20, 2008. "Hudson Heights continues to deliver on big space, river views and affordable apartments. And celebrities. Actor Laurence Fishburne lives in historic Castle Village overlooking the Hudson."
- Weiss, Dick. "Flores, from Dominican Republic, takes unusual journey."[dead link], New York Daily News, March 20, 2004. Retrieved June 7, 2007. "Luis Flores never figured his future would be in basketball when he was growing up in San Pedro de Marcos, a Dominican Republic hotbed for major league baseball prospects.... But all that changed when his parents sent him from that sun-drenched Caribbean island to live with his grandparents Basilio and Juanita Flores in Washington Heights when he was just 8 years old. "
- Chang, Kenneth. "Abel Prize in Mathematics Shared by 2 Trailblazers of Probability and Dynamics Hillel Furstenberg, 84, and Gregory Margulis, 74, both retired professors, share the mathematics equivalent of a Nobel Prize.", The New York Times, March 18, 2020. Retrieved March 18, 2020. "Dr. Furstenberg was born in Berlin in 1935. His family, which was Jewish, was able to leave Germany just before the start of World War II and made its way to the United States, settling in New York City in the Washington Heights neighborhood in Manhattan."
- Robinson, Ray. "Gehrig Remains a Presence in His Former Neighborhood", The New York Times, July 3, 2005. Retrieved April 25, 2016. "By World War I, the Gehrig family had moved to Washington Heights. It was there that Gehrig was taunted as 'a dirty Hun,' a result of the anti-German sentiment in the country."
- "Bruce Hooton 1965 Interview of Elias Goldberg at the Smithsonian Archives of American Art".
- Lamparski, Richard. "Whatever Happened to Leo Gorcey?", Detroit Free Press, April 27, 1969. Retrieved January 18, 2021, via Newspapers.com. "The leader of the Dead End Kids, East Side Kids and Bowery Boys was born in New York City in 1917. Leo Gorcey came by the accent that was to make him over a million dollars quite naturally during his boyhood in the Washington Heights section of New York City."
- Martin, Justin. "Greenspan: The Man Behind the Money", Perseus Publishing. Retrieved June 7, 2007. "A few years prior to the great stock market crash of 1929, Alan Greenspan's parents moved into an apartment in the Washington Heights section of Manhattan."
- Michael, Dj John (July 17, 2008). "Half The Song! Half The Dance And OUT!: Hex Hector".
- Jacon K. Javits Playground. Retrieved December 27, 2006. "Jacob Javits was born on the Lower East Side to Russian Jewish parents. He lived variously in Brooklyn and Manhattan, including this neighborhood, on West 192nd Street, when he was 15."
- Cold War Files: Henry Kissinger Archived July 12, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved December 27, 2006. "He spent his high-school years in the Washington Heights section of upper Manhattan but never lost his pronounced German accent. Kissinger attended George Washington High School at night and worked in a shaving-brush factory during the day."
- Kaplan, Thomas. "Paul Kolton, Who Led the American Stock Exchange, Dies at 87", The New York Times, October 29, 2010. Retrieved April 28, 2016. "Mr. Kolton was born Paul Komisaruk on June 1, 1923, in the Washington Heights section of Manhattan."
- Morse, Stephen S. "Joshua Lederberg (1925–2008)", Science (magazine), March 7, 2008, vol 319, p. 1351.
- Broad, William J. "Joshua Lederberg, 82, a Nobel Winner, Dies", The New York Times, February 5, 2008. Retrieved April 28, 2016. "Dr. Lederberg was born May 23, 1925, in Montclair, N.J., to Zvi Hirsch Lederberg, a rabbi, and the former Esther Goldenbaum, who had emigrated from what is now Israel two years earlier. His family moved to the Washington Heights section of Manhattan when he was 6 months old."
- Sinclair, Tom. "Still a Marvel! Meet Stan Lee: The mind behind Spider-Man and Hulk. EW talks with the legend who rewrote the book on comics in the '60s, and planted seeds for today's biggest summer movies", Entertainment Weekly, June 20, 2003. Retrieved June 7, 2007. "To fully understand how Lee, a poor Jewish kid from New York's Washington Heights, came to be the Munificent Monarch of the Mighty Marvel Universe, we must journey back through the mists of time, all the way to the first quarter of the last century, to reveal...the Origin of Stan Lee!"
- MacGregor, Jeff (January 2018). "Teen Idol Frankie Lymon's Tragic Rise and Fall Tells the Truth About 1950s America". Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved February 10, 2021.
- Perez-Pena, Richard (November 19, 1992). "Here's Who First Asked Rock's Big Question". The New York Times.
- MacGregor, Jeff. "Meet Lin-Manuel Miranda, the Genius Behind "Hamilton," Broadway's Newest Hit".
- Dewan, Shaila K. "New Princes Of The Church: The Washington Prelate; Global View Of a Pastor For the Poor", The New York Times, January 22, 2001. Retrieved April 25, 2016. "Archbishop McCarrick grew up in Washington Heights, in Manhattan."
- Swalec, Andrea. "Washington Heights Computer Science Expert Dies" Archived June 1, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, DNAinfo.com New York, August 1, 2011. Retrieved April 25, 2016. "Computer science expert, City College professor and Washington Heights resident Daniel McCracken died Saturday of cancer, his wife, Helen Blumenthal, said in a statement Monday."
- Staff. "Festival Brings Month of Performances Uptown", Columbia University New York Stories, June 13, 2008. Retrieved April 25, 2016. "During this year’s stroll, artist Knox Martin will be honored. Martin, born in Barranquilla, Colombia, has been a resident of Washington Heights for more than 75 years."
- Sanneh, Kelefa. "In Search of New York at a Hip-Hop Summit", The New York Times, June 5, 2007.Retrieved June 7, 2007. "Sometime around 6:30 the Washington Heights-raised rapper Mims ? better known as the 'This Is Why I'm Hot? guy' hit the stage to tell the crowd why he is hot. (It's related somehow to his flyness.)"
- Andy Mineo, Reach Records. Retrieved April 28, 2016. "A Syracuse native, Mineo is now more known as the kid from Washington Heights, New York City who is selling out major performance venues all over America and across the pond in Europe."
- Feeney, Michael J. "Washington Heights singer Karina Pasian set to perform love song to city for 9/11 anniversary", New York Daily News, September 9, 2011. Retrieved April 28, 2016.
- Guzman, Sandra. "'Manny' Of The Year: Dominican Actor Perez Is Set To Star In A Dozen (!) New Movies" Archived December 18, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, The New York Post, August 8, 2007. Retrieved September 23, 2007. "Perez, who was raised in Providence, Rhode Island, where most of his family still lives, decided long ago that he was not moving to Los Angeles to make it. He lives in and loves Washington Heights."
- Herzog, Kenny. "Don't Call Me a Jobber: Former Stallion Jim Powers Remains Forever Young; Meet another of pro wrestling's preeminent "enhancement talents", a man who rode with Paul Roma (and was almost managed by Mr. T)", Rolling Stone (magazine), February 4, 2015. Retrieved December 15, 2017. "James Manley, a.k.a. former WWE/WCW mainstay Jim Powers, is the first to admit that when he makes plans, they usually don't happen.... Manley was born in the Washington Heights neighborhood of Manhattan in 1958, and was raised there by his aunt, uncle and grandmother.'"
- Biography of Freddie Prinze Archived August 15, 2002, at the Wayback Machine, Museum of Broadcast Communications. Retrieved January 3, 2007.
- "Head of Production – Manny Ramírez, baseball player for the Red Sox – Statistical Data Included", Baseball Digest, August 2001 by Gordon Edes. "For a Dominican kid who grew up in the non-trendy side of Manhattan—that upper end of the island known as Washington Heights—Manny Ramírez tends to have his name dropped in the same sentence as the game's biggest stars, past and present, and isn't out of place in their company."
- Rankin website bio Archived December 4, 2000, at the Wayback Machine, Retrieved August 4, 2011. "Growing up in the multicultural hotbed of New York's Washington Heights neighborhood, he absorbed a broad array of musical influences, from AfroCuban to Top 40 to Jazz to Brazilian."
- "Alex Rodriguez: he arrived in New York to cries of both 'Hallelujah!' and 'Is he worth it?' but after his bumpy, bruised beginnings in the Bronx, baseball's heavy-hitting superstar has hit his stride", Interview (magazine), July 2004. "The kid who was born in Washington Heights, New York City, and grew up in Miami had no doubts about handling the pressure in a town where movie stars are second-class citizens to top-tier ballplayers."
- Russell, James R. "Notes of a Rebel Professor", Middle East Forum, March 22, 2006. Retrieved March 17, 2020. "Among the 'little Eichmanns' working at the WTC when "the chickens came home to roost" were men and women from my old neighborhood, Washington Heights: Dominican immigrants who worked as janitors, as cooks at Windows on the World."
- Renata-Christine. "", Medium (website), August 16, 2019. Retrieved December 17, 2019. "26-year-old Merlin Santana was born and raised in Washington Heights in which is located on the upper west side of New York City. The neighborhood in which he resided as a child was poverty-stricken and overrun with crime."
- Sandomir, Richard. "Daffy Days of Brooklyn Return for Vin Scully", The New York Times, October 5, 2006. Retrieved April 28, 2016. "Scully’s lyrical voice has belonged to Los Angeles for so long that only older fans can recall Scully’s time with the Dodgers in Brooklyn from 1950 to 1957 after growing up in the Bronx and in Washington Heights. His last known address in New York was 869 West 180th Street; he took the subway to Ebbets Field during his first Dodgers season."
- Cooper, Michael. "Scott Stringer Wins a Crowded Primary and a Likely Election as Borough President", The New York Times, September 14, 2005. Retrieved January 29, 2020. "Mr. Stringer pledged last night to make the office meaningful, and to give Manhattan residents a bigger say in the planning of their borough. 'I'm going to work in every neighborhood, from Lower Manhattan to Harlem to Washington Heights, where I grew up,' he said in a telephone interview as he prepared to make a victory speech."
- Boland Jr., Ed. "F.Y.I.", The New York Times, June 15, 2003. Retrieved April 28, 2016. "An article about TAKI 183, which appeared in The New York Times on July 21, 1971, revealed that he was a 17-year-old who lived on 183rd Street in Washington Heights."
- Grimes, William. "Tiny Tim, Singer, Dies at 64; Flirted, Chastely, With Fame", The New York Times, December 2, 1996. Retrieved April 28, 2016. "Tiny Tim, whose real name was Herbert Khaury, was born in New York City and grew up in Washington Heights."
- Trescott, Jacqueline (August 26, 1977). "From 'Singalong' to 'Roots,' Leslie Uggams Has Arrived". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 10, 2021.
- Grimes, William. "George Weinberg Dies at 87; Coined 'Homophobia' After Seeing Fear of Gays", The New York Times, March 22, 2017. Retrieved March 23, 2017. "George Henry Weinberg was born on May 17, 1929, in Manhattan, where he grew up in Washington Heights."
- Dr. Ruth: The Private Parts. Retrieved December 27, 2006. "Dr. Ruth and her husband, Fred Westheimer, still reside in the same three-bedroom apartment in Washington Heights where they raised their two children."
- Kahn, Ashley. "Jerry Wexler: The Man Who Invented Rhythm & Blues: Aretha Franklin producer, Atlantic Records co-chief and music business pioneer dies at age 91", Rolling Stone, August 15, 2008. Retrieved August 17, 2008. "He was born Gerald Wexler in 1917 to a working class family, and grew up during the Depression in the upper Manhattan neighborhood of Washington Heights."
- A Brief Biography of Guy Williams Archived March 11, 2018, at the Wayback Machine, The Guy Williams Webshrine. Retrieved April 30, 2016. "Guy was born Armando Catalano to Italian immigrant parents on 14 January 1924 in the Bronx, New York, USA. He grew up in the Washington Heights area of Manhattan."
- An Evening with Screenwriter/Novelist Rafael Yglesias Archived May 7, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, Emerson College. Retrieved April 30, 2016. "Rafael Yglesias is an American novelist and screenwriter. He was born (May 12, 1954) and raised in Manhattan’s Washington Heights neighborhood."
- Vanasco, Jennifer (July 23, 2019). "The Film 'In the Heights' is Shooting ... in (Washington) Heights". WNYC. Retrieved April 14, 2020.
- Rorke, Robert (September 10, 2017). "How 'The Deuce' turned a quiet NYC neighborhood into porn-tastic Times Square". New York Post. Retrieved April 14, 2020.
- "'West Side Story' – Blog – The Film Experience". thefilmexperience.net. July 19, 2019. Retrieved April 14, 2020.
- Anderton, Ethan (March 16, 2020). "West Side Story Remake Photos Reveal Steven Speilberg's Musical / Film Remake". www.slashfilm.com. Retrieved April 14, 2020.
- Rivera, Zayda. "Manny Perez takes on new type of role as gay cop in Love is Strange", New York Daily News, August 14, 2014. Retrieved April 14, 2020. "But Perez has made a name for himself in the indie Latino market, starring in such films as the Hector Lavoe biopic El Cantante and 2002's Washington Heights, in which he plays a frustrated artist trying to get out of the Upper Manhattan neighborhood with a large Dominican population."
- Armstrong, Lindsay. "'Mad Hot Ballroom' Screening in Uptown Park for Film's 10th Anniversary" Archived November 18, 2017, at the Wayback Machine DNAinfo.com, August 18, 2015. Retrieved March 14, 2020. "The award-winning film follows a group of fifth-graders from three different public schools, including P.S. 115 in Washington Heights, as they learn to ballroom dance and compete in a citywide competition."
- "Heights – MTV – Watch on CBS All Access". CBS. Retrieved February 7, 2021.
- Lawless, Wendy. Heart of Glass: A Memoir, p. 98. Simon & Schuster, 2016. ISBN 9781476749846. Retrieved April 25, 2016. "A few days later, I read for the producers of Ryan's Hope, an ABC daytime show about a large Catholic, Irish American family who run a bar and live in Washington Heights."
- Zanzoni, Carla. "Angelina Jolie's Film 'Salt' Also Stars Washington Heights" Archived June 10, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, DNAinfo.com, July 23, 2010. Retrieved April 30, 2016. "Washington Heights – The neighborhood is now officially a Hollywood star. In anticipation of the opening of Angelina Jolie's spy flick "Salt" on Friday, Sony Pictures released outtakes of the superstar scaling the wall of the 12-story Riviera, a 1910 Beaux-Arts style co-op on 157th Street and Riverside."
- Scott, A. O. (October 23, 2008). "A Band of Loyal Brothers, Not All of Them Honorable". The New York Times. Retrieved February 7, 2021.
- Maslin, Janet (November 17, 1993). "Review/Film: The Saint of Fort Washington; Homeless, Helpless and Holy, in One Kind of Hell". The New York Times. Retrieved February 7, 2021.
- Carter, Michael. "The Cloisters in Popular Culture: 'Time in This Place Does Not Obey an Order'", Metropolitan Museum of Art, July 22, 2013. Retrieved April 25, 2016. "At the film's end, however, Coogan returns to the Museum, where the fugitive has (inexplicably) managed to find a safe hideout. The movie's climax consists of a prolonged motorcycle chase through the Heather Garden in Fort Tryon Park."
- Story Notes for The Brave One, AMC. Retrieved April 14, 2020. "Some scenes in The Brave One were filmed on Ellwood Avenue in the Washington Heights section of Manhattan."
- Inoa, Christopher (March 28, 2014). ""Ahoy Sexy!": NYC Film Locations for Noah Baumbach's Frances Ha - Untapped New York". untappedcities.com. Retrieved April 14, 2020.
The film ends with Francis moving into a new apartment, located on 97 Audubon Avenue in Washington Heights.
- Bolton, Reginald Pelham (1924). Washington Heights, Manhattan: Its Eventful Past. Dyckman Institute.
- Duany, Jorge (2008). Quisqueya on the Hudson: The Transnational Identity of Dominicans in Washington Heights (2nd ed.). CUNY Dominican Studies Institute.
- Katznelson, Ira (1981). City Trenches: Urban Politics and the Patterning of Class in the United States. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780307833402.
- Lowenstein, Steven M. (1989). Frankfurt on the Hudson: The German-Jewish Community of Washington Heights, 1933-1983, Its Structure and Culture. Wayne State University Press. ISBN 9780814323854.
- Renner, James (2007). Images of America: Washington Heights, Inwood, and Marble Hill. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 9780738554785.
- Snyder, Robert W. (2015). Crossing Broadway: Washington Heights and the Promise of New York City. Cornell University Press. ISBN 9780801449611.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Washington Heights, Manhattan.|
- Washington Heights & Inwood - The Official Guide to New York City
- Manhattan Community District 12 Profile
- Manhattan Times News