|Part of a series on|
Water pollution (or aquatic pollution) is the contamination of water bodies, usually as a result of human activities, in such a manner that negatively affects its legitimate uses.: 6 Water pollution reduces the ability of the body of water to provide the ecosystem services that it would otherwise provide. Water bodies include for example lakes, rivers, oceans, aquifers, reservoirs and groundwater. Water pollution results when contaminants are introduced into these water bodies. For example, releasing inadequately treated wastewater into natural waters can lead to degradation of these aquatic ecosystems. All plants and organisms living in or being exposed to polluted water bodies can be impacted. The effects can damage individual species and impact the natural biological communities they are part of. Water pollution can also lead to water-borne diseases for people using polluted water for drinking, bathing, washing or irrigation.
Water pollution can be classified as surface water pollution (for example lakes, streams, estuaries, and parts of the ocean in marine pollution) or groundwater pollution. Sources of water pollution are either point sources or non-point sources. Point sources have one identifiable cause, such as a storm drain or a wastewater treatment plant. Non-point sources are more diffuse, such as agricultural runoff. Pollution is the result of the cumulative effect over time. Supplying clean drinking water is an important ecosystem service provided by some freshwater systems, but approximately 785 million people in the world do not have access to clean drinking water because of pollution.
Pollution may take the form of toxic substances (e.g., oil, metals, plastics, pesticides, persistent organic pollutants, industrial waste products), stressful conditions (e.g., changes of pH, hypoxia or anoxia, stressful temperatures, excessive turbidity, unpleasant taste or odor, and changes of salinity), or pathogenic organisms. Contaminants may include organic and inorganic substances. Heat can also be a pollutant, and this is called thermal pollution. A common cause of thermal pollution is the use of water as a coolant by power plants and industrial manufacturers.
Water pollution is measured by analyzing water samples and testing for a range of physical, chemical and biological parameters. Control of water pollution requires appropriate infrastructure and management plans as well as legislation. Technology solutions can include improving sanitation, sewage treatment, industrial wastewater treatment, agricultural wastewater treatment, erosion control, sediment control and control of urban runoff (including stormwater management). Effective control of urban runoff includes reducing speed and quantity of flow.
A practical definition of water pollution is: "Water pollution is the addition of substances or energy forms that directly or indirectly alter the nature of the water body in such a manner that negatively affects its legitimate uses".: 6 Therefore, pollution is associated with concepts attributed to humans, namely the negative alterations and the uses of the water body. Water is typically referred to as polluted when it is impaired by anthropogenic contaminants. Due to these contaminants it either does not support a human use, such as drinking water, or undergoes a marked shift in its ability to support its biotic communities, such as fish.
Water pollution is a major global environmental problem because it can result in the degradation of aquatic ecosystems. The specific contaminants leading to pollution in water include a wide spectrum of chemicals, pathogens, and physical changes such as elevated temperature. While many of the chemicals and substances that are regulated may be naturally occurring (calcium, sodium, iron, manganese, etc.) the concentration usually determines what is a natural component of water and what is a contaminant. High concentrations of naturally occurring substances can have negative impacts on aquatic flora and fauna. Oxygen-depleting substances may be natural materials such as plant matter (e.g. leaves and grass) as well as man-made chemicals. Other natural and anthropogenic substances may cause turbidity (cloudiness) which blocks light and disrupts plant growth, and clogs the gills of some fish species.
Public health and waterborne diseases
Eutrophication from nitrogen pollution
Nitrogen pollution (a form of water pollution where excessive amounts of nutrients are added to a water body), can cause eutrophication, especially in lakes. Eutrophication is an increase in the concentration of chemical nutrients in an ecosystem to an extent that increases the primary productivity of the ecosystem. Depending on the degree of eutrophication, subsequent negative environmental effects such as anoxia (oxygen depletion) and severe reductions in water quality may occur, affecting fish and other animal populations.: 131
Eutrophication (from Greek eutrophos, "well-nourished") is the process by which an entire body of water, or parts of it, becomes progressively enriched with minerals and nutrients. It has also been defined as "nutrient-induced increase in phytoplankton productivity".: 459 Water bodies with very low nutrient levels are termed oligotrophic and those with moderate nutrient levels are termed mesotrophic. Advanced eutrophication may also be referred to as dystrophic and hypertrophic conditions. Eutrophication in freshwater ecosystems is almost always caused by excess phosphorus.Prior to human interference, this was, and continues to be, a very slow natural process in which nutrients, especially phosphorus compounds and organic matter, accumulate in water bodies. These nutrients derive from degradation and solution of minerals in rocks and by the effect of lichens, mosses and fungi actively scavenging nutrients from rocks. Anthropogenic or cultural eutrophication is often a much more rapid process in which nutrients are added to a water body from any of a wide variety of polluting inputs including untreated or partially treated sewage, industrial wastewater and fertilizer from farming practices. Nutrient pollution, a form of water pollution, is a primary cause of eutrophication of surface waters, in which excess nutrients, usually nitrogen or phosphorus, stimulate algal and aquatic plant growth.
Ocean acidification is another impact of water pollution.
2) from the atmosphere. The main cause of ocean acidification is the burning of fossil fuels. Ocean acidification is one of several effects of climate change on oceans. Seawater is slightly basic (meaning pH > 7), and ocean acidification involves a shift towards pH-neutral conditions rather than a transition to acidic conditions (pH < 7). The concern with ocean acidification is that it can lead to the decreased production of the shells of shellfish and other aquatic life with calcium carbonate shells, as well as some other physiological challenges for marine organisms. The calcium carbonate shelled organisms can not reproduce under high saturated acidotic waters. An estimated 30–40% of the carbon dioxide from human activity released into the atmosphere dissolves into oceans, rivers and lakes. Some of it reacts with the water to form carbonic acid. Some of the resulting carbonic acid molecules dissociate into a bicarbonate ion and a hydrogen ion, thus increasing ocean acidity (H+ ion concentration).
Contaminants and their sources
If the water pollution stems from sewage (municipal wastewater), the main pollutants are: suspended solids, biodegradable organic matter, nutrients and pathogenic organisms.: 6
|Pollutant||Main representative parameter||Possible effect of the pollutant|
|Suspended solids||Total suspended solids|
|Biodegradable organic matter||Biological oxygen demand||
|Non-biodegradable organic matter||
|Inorganic dissolved solids|
Pathogens from sewage and agriculture
Disease-causing microorganisms are referred to as pathogens. The major groups of pathogenic organisms are: (a) bacteria, (b) viruses, (c) protozoans and (d) helminths. : 47 In practice, indicator organisms are used to investigate pathogenic pollution of water because the detection of pathogenic organisms in water sample is difficult and costly, because of their low concentrations. The indicators (bacterial indicator) of fecal contamination of water samples most commonly used are: total coliforms (TC), fecal coliforms (FC) or thermotolerant coliforms, escherichia coli (EC).: 47
Pathogens can produce waterborne diseases in either human or animal hosts. Some microorganisms sometimes found in contaminated surface waters that have caused human health problems include: Burkholderia pseudomallei, Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, Salmonella, norovirus and other viruses, parasitic worms including the Schistosoma type.
The source of high levels of pathogens in water bodies can be from human feces (due to open defecation), sewage, blackwater, manure that has found its way into the water body. The cause for this can be lack of sanitation or poorly functioning on-site sanitation systems (septic tanks, pit latrines), sewage treatment plants without disinfection steps, sanitary sewer overflows and combined sewer overflows (CSOs) during storm events and intensive agriculture (poorly managed livestock operations).
Non-biodegradable organic compounds
- Creosote - a chemical used for wood preservation, can be released into the ocean over time
- Chemicals from insecticides and herbicides.
- Petroleum hydrocarbons, including fuels (gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuels, and fuel oil) and lubricants (motor oil), and fuel combustion byproducts, from oil spills or storm water runoff
- Volatile organic compounds, such as industrial solvents, from improper storage.
- Persistent organic pollutants, for example per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), organochlorides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs), trichloroethylene, perchlorate (these are currently or were in the past used as pesticides, solvents, pharmaceuticals, and industrial chemicals).
The following compounds can all reach water bodies via raw sewage or even treated sewage discharges (this is because removal of these "micropollutants" is complex and costly (see also below under Control and Reduction)):
- Various chemical compounds found in personal hygiene and cosmetic products.
- Environmental persistent pharmaceutical pollutants, which can include various pharmaceutical drugs and their metabolites (see also drug pollution), such as antidepressant drugs, antibiotics or the contraceptive pill.
- Metabolites of illicit drugs (see also wastewater epidemiology), for example methamphetamine and ecstasy.
- Disinfection by-products found in chemically disinfected drinking water (whilst these chemicals can be a pollutant in the water distribution network, they are fairly volatile and therefore not usually found in environmental waters).
Persistent organic pollutant
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), sometimes known as "forever chemicals" are organic compounds that are resistant to environmental degradation through chemical, biological, and photolytic processes. It is a toxic chemical that adversely affect human health and the environment around the world. Because they can be transported by wind and water, most POPs generated in one country can and do affect people and wildlife far from where they are used and released. The effect of POPs on human and environmental health was discussed, with intention to eliminate or severely restrict their production, by the international community at the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants in 2001. The United States has taken strong domestic action to reduce emissions of POPs. For example, none of the original POPs pesticides listed in the Stockholm Convention is registered for sale and distribution in the United States today and in 1978, Congress prohibited the manufacture of PCBs and severely restricted the use of remaining PCB stocks. In addition, since 1987, EPA and the states have effectively reduced environmental releases of dioxins and furans to land, air, and water from U.S. sources.Many POPs are currently or were in the past used as pesticides, solvents, pharmaceuticals, and industrial chemicals. Although some POPs arise naturally (e.g. from volcanoes), most are man-made.
Environmental persistent pharmaceutical pollutants
Water pollution due to environmental persistent pharmaceutical pollutants can have wide-ranging consequences:
The environmental effect of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) is being investigated since at least the 1990s. PPCPs include substances used by individuals for personal health or cosmetic reasons and the products used by agribusiness to boost growth or health of livestock. More than twenty million tons of PPCPs are produced every year. The European Union has declared pharmaceutical residues with the potential of contamination of water and soil to be "priority substances".PPCPs have been detected in water bodies throughout the world. More research is needed to evaluate the risks of toxicity, persistence, and bioaccumulation, but the current state of research shows that personal care products impact over the environment and other species, such as coral reefs and fish. PPCPs encompass environmental persistent pharmaceutical pollutants (EPPPs) and are one type of persistent organic pollutants. They are not removed in conventional sewage treatment plants but require a fourth treatment stage which not many plants have.
Inorganic water pollutants include for example:
- Acidity caused by industrial discharges (especially sulfur dioxide from power plants) or by increased carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere (see also ocean acidification). In industrialized areas, acid rain has in the past resulted in pollution of lakes and rivers due to air pollution with dissolved oxides of sulfur and nitrogen.
- Ammonia from food processing waste
- Heavy metals from motor vehicles (via urban storm water runoff) and acid mine drainage
- Nitrates and phosphates, from sewage and agriculture (see nutrient pollution)
- Silt (sediment) in runoff from construction sites or sewage, logging, slash and burn practices or land clearing sites.
Contaminants from industrial wastewater
If the pollution stems from industrial wastewater, then pollutants may include:
This section may contain content that is repetitive or redundant of text elsewhere in the article. Please help improve it by merging similar text or removing repeated statements. (September 2021)
The composition of industrial wastewater varies widely. This is a partial list of chemical or physical pollutants that may be contained in industrial wastewater:
- Heavy metals, including mercury, lead, and chromium
- Organic matter such as food waste, slaughterhouse waste, paper fibers, plant material, etc.;
- Inorganic particles such as sand, grit, metal particles, rubber residues from tires, ceramics, etc.;
- Toxins such as pesticides, poisons, herbicides, etc.
- Pharmaceuticals, endocrine disrupting compounds, hormones, perfluorinated compounds, siloxanes, drugs of abuse and other hazardous substances 
- Microplastics such as polyethylene and polypropylene beads, polyester and polyamide 
- Thermal pollution from power stations and industrial manufacturers
- Radionuclides from uranium mining, processing nuclear fuel, operating nuclear reactors, or disposal of radioactive waste.
Solid waste and plastics
Solid waste can enter water bodies through untreated sewage, combined sewer overflows, urban runoff, people discarding garbage into the environment, wind carrying municipal solid waste from landfills and so forth. This results in macroscopic pollution– large visible items polluting the water– but also microplastics pollution that is not directly visible. The term marine debris is used in the context of pollution of oceans.
Marine debris, also known as marine litter, is human-created waste that has deliberately or accidentally been released in a sea or ocean. Floating oceanic debris tends to accumulate at the center of gyres and on coastlines, frequently washing aground, when it is known as beach litter or tidewrack. Deliberate disposal of wastes at sea is called ocean dumping. Naturally occurring debris, such as driftwood and drift seeds, are also present.With the increasing use of plastic, human influence has become an issue as many types of (petrochemical) plastics do not biodegrade quickly, as would natural or organic materials. The largest single type of plastic pollution (~10 %) and majority of large plastic in the oceans is discarded and lost nets from the fishing industry. Waterborne plastic poses a serious threat to fish, seabirds, marine reptiles, and marine mammals, as well as to boats and coasts. Dumping, container spillages, litter washed into storm drains and waterways and wind-blown landfill waste all contribute to this problem. This increased water pollution has caused serious negative effects such as ghost nets capturing animals, concentration of plastic debris in massive marine garbage patches, and increasing concentrations of contaminants in the food chain.
A growing concern regarding plastic pollution in the marine ecosystem is the use of microplastics. Microplastics are little beads of plastic less than 5 millimeters wide, and they are commonly found in hand soaps, face cleansers, and other exfoliators. When these products are used, the microplastics go through the water filtration system and into the ocean, but because of their small size they are likely to escape capture by the preliminary treatment screens on wastewater plants. These beads are harmful to the organisms in the ocean, especially filter feeders, because they can easily ingest the plastic and become sick. The microplastics are such a concern because it is difficult to clean them up due to their size, so humans can try to avoid using these harmful plastics by purchasing products that use environmentally safe exfoliates.Because plastic is so widely used across the planet, microplastics have become widespread in the marine environment. For example, microplastics can be found on sandy beaches and surface waters as well as in the water column and deep sea sediment. Microplastics are also found within the many other types of marine particles such as dead biological material (tissue and shells) and some soil particles (blown in by wind and carried to the ocean by rivers). Upon reaching marine environments, the fate of microplastics is subject to naturally occurring drivers, such as winds and surface oceanic currents. Numerical models are able to trace small plastic debris (micro- and meso-plastics) drifting in the ocean, thus predicting their fate.
Types of surface water pollution
Pollution of rivers, lakes and oceans
Surface water pollution includes pollution of rivers, lakes and oceans. A subset of surface water pollution is marine pollution which affects the oceans. Nutrient pollution refers to contamination by excessive inputs of nutrients.
Globally, about 4.5 billion people do not have safely managed sanitation as of 2017, according to an estimate by the Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation. Lack of access to sanitation is concerning and often leads to water pollution, e.g. via the practice of open defecation: during rain events or floods, the human feces are moved from the ground where they were deposited into surface waters. Simple pit latrines may also get flooded during rain events.
Marine pollution occurs when substances used or spread by humans, such as industrial, agricultural and residential waste, particles, noise, excess carbon dioxide or invasive organisms enter the ocean and cause harmful effects there. The majority of this waste (80%) comes from land-based activity, although marine transportation significantly contributes as well. Since most inputs come from land, either via the rivers, sewage or the atmosphere, it means that continental shelves are more vulnerable to pollution. Air pollution is also a contributing factor by carrying off iron, carbonic acid, nitrogen, silicon, sulfur, pesticides or dust particles into the ocean. The pollution often comes from nonpoint sources such as agricultural runoff, wind-blown debris, and dust. These nonpoint sources are largely due to runoff that enters the ocean through rivers, but wind-blown debris and dust can also play a role, as these pollutants can settle into waterways and oceans. Pathways of pollution include direct discharge, land runoff, ship pollution, atmospheric pollution and, potentially, deep sea mining.The types of marine pollution can be grouped as pollution from marine debris, plastic pollution, including microplastics, ocean acidification, nutrient pollution, toxins and underwater noise. Plastic pollution in the ocean is a type of marine pollution by plastics, ranging in size from large original material such as bottles and bags, down to microplastics formed from the fragmentation of plastic material. Marine debris is mainly discarded human rubbish which floats on, or is suspended in the ocean. Plastic pollution is harmful to marine life.
Nutrient pollution, a form of water pollution, refers to contamination by excessive inputs of nutrients. It is a primary cause of eutrophication of surface waters, in which excess nutrients, usually nitrogen or phosphorus, stimulate algal growth. Sources of nutrient pollution include surface runoff from farm fields and pastures, discharges from septic tanks and feedlots, and emissions from combustion. Raw sewage is a large contributor to cultural eutrophication since sewage is high in nutrients. Releasing raw sewage into a large water body is referred to as sewage dumping, and still occurs all over the world. Excess reactive nitrogen compounds in the environment are associated with many large-scale environmental concerns. These include eutrophication of surface waters, harmful algal blooms, hypoxia, acid rain, nitrogen saturation in forests, and climate change.Since the agricultural boom in the 1910s and again in the 1940s to match the increase in food demand, agricultural production relies heavily on the use of fertilizers. Fertilizer is a natural or chemically modified substance that helps soil become more fertile. These fertilizers contain high amounts of phosphorus and nitrogen, which results in excess amounts of nutrients entering the soil. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium are the "Big 3" primary nutrients in commercial fertilizers, each of these fundamental nutrients play a key role in plant nutrition. When nitrogen and phosphorus are not fully utilized by the growing plants, they can be lost from the farm fields and negatively impact air and downstream water quality. These nutrients can eventually end up in aquatic ecosystems and are a contributor to increased eutrophication. When farmers spread their fertilizer whether it is organic or synthetically made most of the fertilizer will turn into runoff that collects downstream generating cultural eutrophication.
Elevated water temperatures decrease oxygen levels (due to lower levels of dissolved oxygen, as gases are less soluble in warmer liquids), which can kill fish (which may then rot) and alter food chain composition, reduce species biodiversity, and foster invasion by new thermophilic species.: 179 : 375
Groundwater pollution (also called groundwater contamination) occurs when pollutants are released to the ground and make their way into groundwater. This type of water pollution can also occur naturally due to the presence of a minor and unwanted constituent, contaminant, or impurity in the groundwater, in which case it is more likely referred to as contamination rather than pollution. Pollution can occur from on-site sanitation systems, landfills, effluent from wastewater treatment plants, leaking sewers, petrol filling stations or from over application of fertilizers in agriculture. Pollution (or contamination) can also occur from naturally occurring contaminants, such as arsenic or fluoride. Using polluted groundwater causes hazards to public health through poisoning or the spread of disease (water-borne diseases).The pollutant often creates a contaminant plume within an aquifer. Movement of water and dispersion within the aquifer spreads the pollutant over a wider area. Its advancing boundary, often called a plume edge, can intersect with groundwater wells and surface water, such as seeps and springs, making the water supplies unsafe for humans and wildlife. The movement of the plume, called a plume front, may be analyzed through a hydrological transport model or groundwater model. Analysis of groundwater pollution may focus on soil characteristics and site geology, hydrogeology, hydrology, and the nature of the contaminants. Different mechanisms have influence on the transport of pollutants, e.g. diffusion, adsorption, precipitation, decay, in the groundwater.
By type of source
Sources of surface water pollution can be grouped into two categories based on their origin: point sources and nonpoint sources.
Point source water pollution refers to contaminants that enter a waterway from a single, identifiable source, such as a pipe or ditch. Examples of sources in this category include discharges from a sewage treatment plant, a factory, or a city storm drain.
The U.S. Clean Water Act (CWA) defines point source for regulatory enforcement purposes (see United States regulation of point source water pollution). The CWA definition of point source was amended in 1987 to include municipal storm sewer systems, as well as industrial storm water, such as from construction sites.
Water pollution may be analyzed through several broad categories of methods: physical, chemical and biological. Some methods may be conducted in situ, without sampling, such as temperature. Others involve collection of samples, followed by specialized analytical tests in the laboratory. Standardized, validated analytical test methods, for water and wastewater samples have been published.
Common physical tests of water include temperature, Specific conductance or electrical conductance (EC) or conductivity, solids concentrations (e.g., total suspended solids (TSS)) and turbidity. Water samples may be examined using analytical chemistry methods. Many published test methods are available for both organic and inorganic compounds. Frequently used parameters that are quantified are pH, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD),: 102 chemical oxygen demand (COD),: 104 dissolved oxygen (DO), total hardness, nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus compounds, e.g. nitrate and orthophosphates), metals (including copper, zinc, cadmium, lead and mercury), oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), surfactants and pesticides.
The complexity of water quality as a subject is reflected in the many types of measurements of water quality indicators. Some measurements of water quality are most accurately made on-site, because water exists in equilibrium with its surroundings. Measurements commonly made on-site and in direct contact with the water source in question include temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, oxygen reduction potential (ORP), turbidity, and Secchi disk depth.
Sampling of water for physical or chemical testing can be done by several methods, depending on the accuracy needed and the characteristics of the contaminant. Sampling methods include for example simple random sampling, stratified sampling, systematic and grid sampling, adaptive cluster sampling, grab samples, semi-continuous monitoring and continuous, passive sampling, remote surveillance, remote sensing, and biomonitoring. The use of passive samplers greatly reduces the cost and the need of infrastructure on the sampling location.Many contamination events are sharply restricted in time, most commonly in association with rain events. For this reason "grab" samples are often inadequate for fully quantifying contaminant levels. Scientists gathering this type of data often employ auto-sampler devices that pump increments of water at either time or discharge intervals.
The use of a biomonitor is described as biological monitoring. This refers to the measurement of specific properties of an organism to obtain information on the surrounding physical and chemical environment. Biological testing involves the use of plant, animal or microbial indicators to monitor the health of an aquatic ecosystem. They are any biological species or group of species whose function, population, or status can reveal what degree of ecosystem or environmental integrity is present. One example of a group of bio-indicators are the copepods and other small water crustaceans that are present in many water bodies. Such organisms can be monitored for changes (biochemical, physiological, or behavioral) that may indicate a problem within their ecosystem.
Control and reduction
Pollution control philosophy
One aspect of environmental protection are mandatory regulations but they are only part of the solution. Other important tools in pollution control include environmental education, economic instruments, market forces and stricter enforcements. Standards can be "precise" (for a defined quantifiable minimum or maximum value for a pollutant), or "imprecise" which would require the use of Best Available Technology (BAT) or Best Practicable Environmental Option (BPEO). Market-based economic instruments for pollution control can include: charges, subsidies, deposit or refund schemes, the creation of a market in pollution credits, and enforcement incentives.
Moving towards a holistic approach in chemical pollution control combines the following approaches: Integrated control measures, trans-boundary considerations, complementary and supplementary control measures, life-cycle considerations, the impacts of chemical mixtures.
Control of water pollution requires appropriate infrastructure and management plans. The infrastructure may include wastewater treatment plants, for example sewage treatment plants and industrial wastewater treatment plants. Agricultural wastewater treatment for farms, and erosion control at construction sites can also help prevent water pollution. Effective control of urban runoff includes reducing speed and quantity of flow.
Sanitation and sewage treatment
Municipal wastewater (or sewage) can be treated by centralized sewage treatment plants, decentralized wastewater systems, nature-based solutions or in onsite sewage facilities and septic tanks. For example, waste stabilization ponds are a low cost treatment option for sewage, particularly for regions with warm climates.: 182 UV light (sunlight) can be used to degrade some pollutants in waste stabilization ponds (sewage lagoons). The use of safely managed sanitation services would prevent water pollution caused by lack of access to sanitation.
Well-designed and operated systems (i.e., with secondary treatment stages or more advanced tertiary treatment) can remove 90 percent or more of the pollutant load in sewage. Some plants have additional systems to remove nutrients and pathogens. While such advanced treatment techniques will undoubtedly reduce the discharges of micropollutants, they can also result in large financial costs, as well as environmentally undesirable increases in energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.
Sewer overflows during storm events can be addressed by timely maintenance and upgrades of the sewerage system. In the US, cities with large combined systems have not pursued system-wide separation projects due to the high cost, but have implemented partial separation projects and green infrastructure approaches. In some cases municipalities have installed additional CSO storage facilities or expanded sewage treatment capacity.
Industrial wastewater treatment
Agricultural wastewater treatment
Agricultural wastewater treatment is a farm management agenda for controlling pollution from confined animal operations and from surface runoff that may be contaminated by chemicals in fertilizer, pesticides, animal slurry, crop residues or irrigation water. Agricultural wastewater treatment is required for continuous confined animal operations like milk and egg production. It may be performed in plants using mechanized treatment units similar to those used for industrial wastewater. Where land is available for ponds, settling basins and facultative lagoons may have lower operational costs for seasonal use conditions from breeding or harvest cycles.: 6–8 Animal slurries are usually treated by containment in anaerobic lagoons before disposal by spray or trickle application to grassland. Constructed wetlands are sometimes used to facilitate treatment of animal wastes.
Nonpoint source pollution includes sediment runoff, nutrient runoff and pesticides. Point source pollution includes animal wastes, silage liquor, milking parlour (dairy farming) wastes, slaughtering waste, vegetable washing water and firewater. Many farms generate nonpoint source pollution from surface runoff which is not controlled through a treatment plant.Farmers can install erosion controls to reduce runoff flows and retain soil on their fields.: pp. 4-95–4-96 Common techniques include contour plowing, crop mulching, crop rotation, planting perennial crops and installing riparian buffers.: pp. 4-95–4-96 Farmers can also develop and implement nutrient management plans to reduce excess application of nutrients: pp. 4-37–4-38 and reduce the potential for nutrient pollution. To minimize pesticide impacts, farmers may use Integrated Pest Management (IPM) techniques (which can include biological pest control) to maintain control over pests, reduce reliance on chemical pesticides, and protect water quality.
Management of erosion and sediment control
Sediment from construction sites can be managed by installation of erosion controls, such as mulching and hydroseeding, and sediment controls, such as sediment basins and silt fences. Discharge of toxic chemicals such as motor fuels and concrete washout can be prevented by use of spill prevention and control plans, and specially designed containers (e.g. for concrete washout) and structures such as overflow controls and diversion berms.
Control of urban runoff (storm water)
Effective control of urban runoff involves reducing the velocity and flow of storm water, as well as reducing pollutant discharges. Local governments use a variety of storm water management techniques to reduce the effects of urban runoff. These techniques, called best management practices for water pollution (BMPs) in some countries, may focus on water quantity control, while others focus on improving water quality, and some perform both functions.Pollution prevention practices include low impact development (LID) or green infrastructure techniques - known as Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS) in the UK, and Water-Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) in Australia and the Middle East - such as the installation of green roofs and improved chemical handling (e.g. management of motor fuels & oil, fertilizers and pesticides). Runoff mitigation systems include infiltration basins, bioretention systems, constructed wetlands, retention basins and similar devices.
Some examples for legislation to control water pollution are listed below:
- In the Philippines, Republic Act 9275, otherwise known as the Philippine Clean Water Act of 2004, is the governing law on wastewater management. It states that it is the country's policy to protect, preserve and revive the quality of its fresh, brackish and marine waters, for which wastewater management plays a particular role.
- The Clean Water Act is the primary federal law in the United States governing water pollution in surface waters. It is implemented by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in collaboration with states, territories, and tribes. Groundwater protection provisions are included in the Safe Drinking Water Act, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and the Superfund act.
- Aquatic toxicology
- Environmental impact of pesticides § Water
- Trophic state index (water quality indicator for lakes)
- Water treatment
- Water resources management
- Von Sperling, M. (2015). "Wastewater Characteristics, Treatment and Disposal". IWA Publishing. 6. doi:10.2166/9781780402086. ISBN 9781780402086.
- "Water Pollution". Environmental Health Education Program. Cambridge, MA: Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. July 23, 2013. Retrieved September 18, 2021.
- Moss, Brian (2008). "Water Pollution by Agriculture". Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. 363 (1491): 659–666. doi:10.1098/rstb.2007.2176. PMC 2610176. PMID 17666391.
- "Global WASH Fast Facts | Global Water, Sanitation and Hygiene | Healthy Water | CDC". www.cdc.gov. April 2, 2021. Retrieved September 19, 2021.
- "How Man is Destroying His Own Life Support System - The Oceans". stopkillingwhales.com. Retrieved August 5, 2021.
- Kelland, Kate (October 19, 2017). "Study links pollution to millions of deaths worldwide". Reuters.
- "eutrophia", American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (Fifth ed.), Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company, 2016, retrieved March 10, 2018
- Chapin, F. Stuart, III (2011). "Glossary". Principles of terrestrial ecosystem ecology. P. A. Matson, Peter Morrison Vitousek, Melissa C. Chapin (2nd ed.). New York: Springer. ISBN 978-1-4419-9504-9. OCLC 755081405.
- Wetzel, Robert (1975). Limnology. Philadelphia-London-Toronto: W.B. Saunders. p. 743. ISBN 0-7216-9240-0.
- Schindler, David W., Vallentyne, John R. (2008). The Algal Bowl: Overfertilization of the World's Freshwaters and Estuaries, University of Alberta Press, ISBN 0-88864-484-1.
- Addy, Kelly (1996). "Phosphorus and Lake Aging" (PDF). Natural Resources Facts - University of Rhode Island. Retrieved June 16, 2021.
- Clair N. Sawyer (May 1966). "Basic Concepts of Eutrophication". Journal (Water Pollution Control Federation). Wiley. 38 (5): 737–744. JSTOR 25035549.
- Caldeira, K.; Wickett, M. E. (2003). "Anthropogenic carbon and ocean pH". Nature. 425 (6956): 365. Bibcode:2001AGUFMOS11C0385C. doi:10.1038/425365a. PMID 14508477. S2CID 4417880.
- "Ocean Acidification". https://www.whoi.edu/. Retrieved September 13, 2021. External link in
- Millero, Frank J. (1995). "Thermodynamics of the carbon dioxide system in the oceans". Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 59 (4): 661–677. Bibcode:1995GeCoA..59..661M. doi:10.1016/0016-7037(94)00354-O.
- Feely, R. A.; Sabine, C. L.; Lee, K.; Berelson, W.; Kleypas, J.; Fabry, V. J.; Millero, F. J. (July 2004). "Impact of Anthropogenic CO2 on the CaCO3 System in the Oceans". Science. 305 (5682): 362–366. Bibcode:2004Sci...305..362F. doi:10.1126/science.1097329. PMID 15256664. S2CID 31054160. Retrieved January 25, 2014 – via Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL).
- WHO (2006). Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater, Volume 4 Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture (third ed.). Geneva: World Health Organization. ISBN 9241546859.
- Pollution: Causes, effects, and control. Roy M. Harrison (5th ed.). Cambridge, UK: Royal Society of Chemistry. 2013. ISBN 978-1-78262-560-5. OCLC 1007100256.CS1 maint: others (link)
- Schueler, Thomas R. "Microbes and Urban Watersheds: Concentrations, Sources, & Pathways." Reprinted in The Practice of Watershed Protection. Archived January 8, 2013, at the Wayback Machine 2000. Center for Watershed Protection. Ellicott City, MD.
- Report to Congress: Impacts and Control of CSOs and SSOs (Report). EPA. August 2004. EPA 833-R-04-001.
- Laws, Edward A. (2018). Aquatic Pollution: An Introductory Text (4th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781119304500.
- Stephen T. Smith (2002) ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES RELATED TO THE USE OF CREOSOTE WOOD PRESERVATIVE, AquAeTer, Helena, Montana, United States
- G. Allen Burton, Jr., Robert Pitt (2001). Stormwater Effects Handbook: A Toolbox for Watershed Managers, Scientists, and Engineers. New York: CRC/Lewis Publishers. ISBN 0-87371-924-7.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link) Chapter 2.
- Johnson, Mark S.; Buck, Robert C.; Cousins, Ian T.; Weis, Christopher P.; Fenton, Suzanne E. (2021). "Estimating Environmental Hazard and Risks from Exposure to Per‐ and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs): Outcome of a SETAC Focused Topic Meeting". Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 40 (3): 543–549. doi:10.1002/etc.4784. ISSN 0730-7268. PMC 8387100. PMID 32452041.
- Sinclair, Georgia M.; Long, Sara M.; Jones, Oliver A.H. (2020). "What are the effects of PFAS exposure at environmentally relevant concentrations?". Chemosphere. 258: 127340. Bibcode:2020Chmsp.258l7340S. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.127340. PMID 32563917. S2CID 219974801.
- Knight, Kathryn (2021). "Freshwater methamphetamine pollution turns brown trout into addicts". Journal of Experimental Biology. 224 (13): jeb242971. doi:10.1242/jeb.242971. ISSN 0022-0949.
- "MDMA Gangs Are Literally Polluting Europe". www.vice.com. Retrieved August 5, 2021.
- Alexandrou, Lydon; Meehan, Barry J.; Jones, Oliver A.H. (2018). "Regulated and emerging disinfection by-products in recycled waters". Science of the Total Environment. 637–638: 1607–1616. Bibcode:2018ScTEn.637.1607A. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.04.391. PMID 29925195.
- Ritter L; Solomon KR; Forget J; Stemeroff M; O'Leary C. "Persistent organic pollutants" (PDF). United Nations Environment Programme. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 26, 2007. Retrieved September 16, 2007.
- El-Shahawi M.S., Hamza A., Bashammakhb A.S., Al-Saggaf W.T. (2010). "An overview on the accumulation, distribution, transformations, toxicity and analytical methods for the monitoring of persistent organic pollutants". Talanta. 80 (5): 1587–1597. doi:10.1016/j.talanta.2009.09.055. PMID 20152382.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Wang J, Wang S (November 2016). "Removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) from wastewater: A review". Journal of Environmental Management. 182: 620–640. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.07.049. PMID 27552641.
- Shinn H (2019). "The Effects of Ultraviolet Filters and Sunscreen on Corals and Aquatic Ecosystems: Bibliography". NOAA Central Library. doi:10.25923/hhrp-xq11. Cite journal requires
- Downs CA, Kramarsky-Winter E, Segal R, Fauth J, Knutson S, Bronstein O, et al. (February 2016). "Toxicopathological Effects of the Sunscreen UV Filter, Oxybenzone (Benzophenone-3), on Coral Planulae and Cultured Primary Cells and Its Environmental Contamination in Hawaii and the U.S. Virgin Islands". Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 70 (2): 265–88. doi:10.1007/s00244-015-0227-7. PMID 26487337. S2CID 4243494.
- Downs CA, Kramarsky-Winter E, Fauth JE, Segal R, Bronstein O, Jeger R, et al. (March 2014). "Toxicological effects of the sunscreen UV filter, benzophenone-2, on planulae and in vitro cells of the coral, Stylophora pistillata". Ecotoxicology. 23 (2): 175–91. doi:10.1007/s10646-013-1161-y. PMID 24352829. S2CID 1505199.
- Niemuth NJ, Klaper RD (September 2015). "Emerging wastewater contaminant metformin causes intersex and reduced fecundity in fish". Chemosphere. 135: 38–45. Bibcode:2015Chmsp.135...38N. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.03.060. PMID 25898388.
- Larsson DG, Adolfsson-Erici M, Parkkonen J, Pettersson M, Berg AH, Olsson PE, Förlin L (April 1, 1999). "Ethinyloestradiol — an undesired fish contraceptive?". Aquatic Toxicology. 45 (2): 91–97. doi:10.1016/S0166-445X(98)00112-X. ISSN 0166-445X.
- Schueler, Thomas R. "Cars Are Leading Source of Metal Loads in California." Reprinted in The Practice of Watershed Protection. Archived March 12, 2012, at the Wayback Machine 2000. Center for Watershed Protection. Ellicott City, MD.
- Arvaniti and Stasinakis, 2015. Review on the occurrence, fate and removal of perfluorinated compounds during wastewater treatment. Science of the Total Environment vol. 524-525, August 2015, p. 81-92. Arvaniti and Stasinakis, 2015
- Bletsou et al., 2013. Mass loading and fate of linear and cyclic siloxanes in a wastewater treatment plant in Greece. Environmental Science and Technology vol. 47, January 2015, p. 1824-1832. Bletsou et al., 2013
- Gatidou et al., 2016. Drugs of abuse and alcohol consumption among different groups of population on the Greek island of Lesvos through sewage-based epidemiology. Science of the Total Environment vol. 563-564, September 2016, p. 633-640. Gatidou et al., 2016
- Gatidou et al. 2019. Review on the occurrence and fate of microplastics in Sewage Treatment Plants. Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 367, April 2019, p. 504-512. Gatidou et al., 2019
- Graham, Rachel (July 10, 2019). "Euronews Living | Watch: Italy's answer to the problem with plastic". living.
- "Dumped fishing gear is biggest plastic polluter in ocean, finds report". The Guardian. November 6, 2019. Retrieved April 9, 2021.
- "Facts about marine debris". US NOAA. Archived from the original on 13 February 2009. Retrieved 10 April 2008.
- "Protecting Water Quality from Urban Runoff". Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). February 2003. Fact Sheet. EPA 841-F-03-003.
- "Validation and application of cost and time effective methods for the detection of 3–500 μm sized microplastics in the urban marine and estuarine environments surrounding Long Beach, California". Marine Pollution Bulletin. 143: 152–162. June 1, 2019. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2019.03.060. ISSN 0025-326X.
- Fendall, Lisa S.; Sewell, Mary A. (2009). "Contributing to marine pollution by washing your face: Microplastics in facial cleansers". Marine Pollution Bulletin. 58 (8): 1225–8. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2009.04.025. PMID 19481226.
- De-la-Torre, Gabriel E.; Dioses-Salinas, Diana C.; Castro, Jasmin M.; Antay, Rosabel; Fernández, Naomy Y.; Espinoza-Morriberón, D; Saldaña-Serrano, Miguel (2020). "Abundance and distribution of microplastics on sandy beaches of Lima, Peru". Marine Pollution Bulletin. 151: 110877. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2019.110877. PMID 32056653.
- Karlsson, Therese M.; Kärrman, Anna; Rotander, Anna; Hassellöv, Martin (2020). "Comparison between manta trawl and in situ pump filtration methods, and guidance for visual identification of microplastics in surface waters". Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 27 (5): 5559–71. doi:10.1007/s11356-019-07274-5. PMC 7028838. PMID 31853844.
- Iwasaki, Shinsuke; Isobe, Atsuhiko; Kako, Shin'ichiro; Uchida, Keiichi; Tokai, Tadashi (2017). "Fate of microplastics and mesoplastics carried by surface currents and wind waves: A numerical model approach in the Sea of Japan". Marine Pollution Bulletin. 112 (1–2): 85–96. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2017.05.057. PMID 28559056.
- Helcoski, Ryan; Yonkos, Lance T.; Sanchez, Alterra; Baldwin, Andrew H. (2020). "Wetland soil microplastics are negatively related to vegetation cover and stem density". Environmental Pollution. 256: 113391. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113391. PMID 31662247.
- Anderson, Julie C.; Park, Bradley J.; Palace, Vince P. (2016). "Microplastics in aquatic environments: Implications for Canadian ecosystems". Environmental Pollution. 218: 269–80. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2016.06.074. PMID 27431693.
- Ivleva, Natalia P.; Wiesheu, Alexandra C.; Niessner, Reinhard (2017). "Microplastic in Aquatic Ecosystems". Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 56 (7): 1720–39. doi:10.1002/anie.201606957. PMID 27618688.
- Anderson, Philip J.; Warrack, Sarah; Langen, Victoria; Challis, Jonathan K.; Hanson, Mark L.; Rennie, Michael D. (June 2017). "Microplastic contamination in Lake Winnipeg, Canada". Environmental Pollution. 225: 223–31. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2017.02.072. PMID 28376390.
- Redondo-Hasselerharm, Paula E.; Falahudin, Dede; Peeters, Edwin T. H. M.; Koelmans, Albert A. (2018). "Microplastic Effect Thresholds for Freshwater Benthic Macroinvertebrates". Environmental Science & Technology. 52 (4): 2278–86. Bibcode:2018EnST...52.2278R. doi:10.1021/acs.est.7b05367. PMC 5822217. PMID 29337537.
- WHO and UNICEF (2017) Progress on Drinking Water, Sanitation and Hygiene: 2017 Update and SDG Baselines. Geneva: World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), 2017
- Charles Sheppard, ed. (2019). World seas : an Environmental Evaluation. III, Ecological Issues and Environmental Impacts (Second ed.). London, United Kingdom. ISBN 978-0-12-805204-4. OCLC 1052566532.
- Duce, Robert, Galloway, J. and Liss, P. (2009). "The Impacts of Atmospheric Deposition to the Ocean on Marine Ecosystems and Climate WMO Bulletin Vol 58 (1)". Retrieved September 22, 2020.
- US Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. "What is the biggest source of pollution in the ocean?". oceanservice.noaa.gov. Retrieved November 22, 2015.
- Arlene., Walters (2016). Nutrient Pollution From Agricultural Production. Nova Science Publishers, Inc. ISBN 978-1-63485-188-6. OCLC 960163923.
- EPA. "Reactive Nitrogen in the United States: An Analysis of Inputs, Flows, Consequences, and Management Options, A Report of the Science Advisory Board EPA-SAB-11-013" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on February 19, 2013.
- Seo Seongwon; Aramaki Toshiya; Hwang Yongwoo; Hanaki Keisuke (January 1, 2004). "Environmental Impact of Solid Waste Treatment Methods in Korea". Journal of Environmental Engineering. 130 (1): 81–89. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9372(2004)130:1(81).
- "Fertilizer 101: The Big Three - Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium". May 7, 2014.
- "The Sources and Solutions: Agriculture". United States EPA. March 12, 2013.
- Huang, Jing; Xu, Chang-chun; Ridoutt, Bradley; Wang, Xue-chun; Ren, Pin-an (August 2017). "Nitrogen and phosphorus losses and eutrophication potential associated with fertilizer application to cropland in China". Journal of Cleaner Production. 159: 171–179. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.05.008.
- Carpenter, S. R.; Caraco, N. F.; Correll, D. L.; Howarth, R. W.; Sharpley, A. N.; Smith, V. H. (August 1998). "Nonpoint Pollution of Surface Waters with Phosphorus and Nitrogen". Ecological Applications. 8 (3): 559. doi:10.2307/2641247. hdl:1813/60811. JSTOR 2641247.
- "Protecting Water Quality from Urban Runoff". Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). February 2003. Fact Sheet. EPA 841-F-03-003.
- Goel, P. K. (2006). Water pollution : causes, effects and control (Rev. 2nd ed.). New Delhi: New Age International. ISBN 81-224-1839-2. OCLC 85857626.
- Olenin, Sergej; Minchin, Dan; Daunys, Darius (2007). "Assessment of biopollution in aquatic ecosystems". Marine Pollution Bulletin. 55 (7–9): 379–394. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2007.01.010. PMID 17335857.
- Michael, Adelana, Segun (2014). Groundwater : Hydrogeochemistry, Environmental Impacts and Management Practices. Nova Science Publishers, Inc. ISBN 978-1-63321-791-1. OCLC 915416488.
- United States. Clean Water Act (CWA), section 502(14), 33 U.S.C. § 1362 (14).
- U.S. CWA section 402(p), 33 U.S.C. § 1342(p)
- "Basic Information about Nonpoint Source Pollution". Washington, DC: US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). October 7, 2020.
- For example, see Baird, Rodger B.; Clesceri, Leonore S.; Eaton, Andrew D.; et al., eds. (2012). Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (22nd ed.). Washington, DC: American Public Health Association. ISBN 978-0875530130.
- Newton, David (2008). Chemistry of the Environment. Checkmark Books. ISBN 978-0-8160-7747-2.
- "Sampling - KFUPM School , nature is us - Forums - Tunza Eco Generation". tunza.eco-generation.org. Retrieved September 19, 2021.
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Water and Office of Research and Development. (March 2016). "National Rivers and Streams Assessment 2008-2009: A Collaborative Study" (PDF). Washington D.C.
- Karr, James R. (1981). "Assessment of biotic integrity using fish communities". Fisheries. 6 (6): 21–27. doi:10.1577/1548-8446(1981)006<0021:AOBIUF>2.0.CO;2. ISSN 1548-8446.
- "China says water pollution so severe that cities could lack safe supplies". Chinadaily.com.cn. June 7, 2005.
- Jones, Oliver A. H.; Gomes, Rachel L. (2013). "Chapter 1: Chemical Pollution of the Aquatic Environment by Priority Pollutants and its Control". Pollution: Causes, Effects and Control (5th ed.). Royal Society of Chemistry. ISBN 978-1-84973-648-0.
- UN-Water (2018) World Water Development Report 2018: Nature-based Solutions for Water, Geneva, Switzerland
- Wang, Yufei; Fan, Linhua; Jones, Oliver A.H.; Roddick, Felicity (2021). "Quantification of seasonal photo-induced formation of reactive intermediates in a municipal sewage lagoon upon sunlight exposure". Science of the Total Environment. 765: 142733. Bibcode:2021ScTEn.765n2733W. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.142733. PMID 33572041. S2CID 225156609.
- Primer for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Systems (Report). EPA. 2004. p. 11. EPA 832-R-04-001.
- Jones, Oliver A. H.; Green, Pat G .; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos; Lester, John N. (2007). "Questioning the Excessive Use of Advanced Treatment to Remove Organic Micropollutants from Wastewater". Environmental Science & Technology. 41 (14): 5085–5089. Bibcode:2007EnST...41.5085J. doi:10.1021/es0628248. PMID 17711227.
- Renn, Aaron M. (February 25, 2016). "Wasted: How to Fix America's Sewers" (PDF). New York, NY: Manhattan Institute. p. 7.
- Greening CSO Plans: Planning and Modeling Green Infrastructure for Combined Sewer Overflow Control (PDF) (Report). EPA. March 2014. 832-R-14-001.
- "Clean Rivers Project". District of Columbia Water and Sewer Authority. Retrieved September 21, 2021.
- "United States and Ohio Reach Clean Water Act Settlement with City of Toledo, Ohio". EPA. August 28, 2002. Press release. Archived from the original on January 13, 2016.
- Tchobanoglous, G., Burton, F.L., and Stensel, H.D. (2003). Wastewater Engineering (Treatment Disposal Reuse) / Metcalf & Eddy, Inc (4th ed.). McGraw-Hill Book Company. ISBN 0-07-041878-0.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- "Chapter 3: Analysis and Selection of Wastewater Flowrates and Constituent Loadings". Wastewater engineering : treatment and reuse. George Tchobanoglous, Franklin L. Burton, H. David Stensel, Metcalf & Eddy (4th ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill. 2003. ISBN 0-07-041878-0. OCLC 48053912.CS1 maint: others (link)
- Von Sperling, M. (2015). "Wastewater Characteristics, Treatment and Disposal". Water Intelligence Online. 6: 9781780402086. doi:10.2166/9781780402086. ISSN 1476-1777.
- Reed, Sherwood C. (1988). Natural systems for waste management and treatment. E. Joe Middlebrooks, Ronald W. Crites. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-051521-2. OCLC 16087827.
- "Erosion". Washington, DC: US Natural Resources Conservation Service. Retrieved November 19, 2020.
- National Management Measures to Control Nonpoint Source Pollution from Agriculture (Report). EPA. July 2003. EPA 841-B-03-004.
- U.S. Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). Washington, DC. "National Conservation Practice Standards." National Handbook of Conservation Practices. Accessed 2015-10-02.
- "Integrated Pest Management Principles". Pest Control and Pesticide Safety for Consumers. EPA. June 27, 2017.
- Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. Nashville, TN (2012). "Tennessee Erosion and Sediment Control Handbook."
- Concrete Washout (Report). Stormwater Best Management Practice. EPA. February 2012. BMP fact sheet. EPA 833-F-11-006.
- Mapulanga, Annie Mwayi; Naito, Hisahiro (2019). "Effect of deforestation on access to clean drinking water". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 116 (17): 8249–8254. Bibcode:2019PNAS..116.8249M. doi:10.1073/pnas.1814970116. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 6486726. PMID 30910966.
- "Climate change and land use are accelerating soil erosion by water". www.preventionweb.net. Retrieved August 4, 2021.
- "Ch. 5: Description and Performance of Storm Water Best Management Practices". Preliminary Data Summary of Urban Storm Water Best Management Practices (Report). Washington, DC: United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). August 1999. EPA-821-R-99-012.
- Protecting Water Quality from Urban Runoff (Report). EPA. February 2003. EPA 841-F-03-003.
- "Low Impact Development and Other Green Design Strategies". National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System. EPA. 2014. Archived from the original on February 19, 2015.
- Yang, J. James; Cheng, Wen-Chieh; Wang, Shuying, eds. (2021). "Advanced Tunneling Techniques and Information Modeling of Underground Infrastructure". Sustainable Civil Infrastructures. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-79672-3. ISSN 2366-3405.
- California Stormwater Quality Association. Menlo Park, CA. "Stormwater Best Management Practice (BMP) Handbooks." 2003.
- New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. Trenton, NJ. "New Jersey Stormwater Best Management Practices Manual." April 2004.
- "An Act Providing For A Comprehensive Water Quality Management And For Other Purposes". The LawPhil Project. Archived from the original on 21 September 2016. Retrieved 30 September 2016.
- United States. Clean Water Act. 33 U.S.C. § 1251 et seq. Pub.L. 92–500. Approved October 18, 1972.
- Jim Hanlon, Mike Cook, Mike Quigley, Bob Wayland (March 2016). "Water Quality: A Half Century of Progress" (PDF). EPA Alumni Association.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Water pollution.|
|Library resources about |