Water pinch analysis
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Water pinch analysis (WPA) originates from the concept of heat pinch analysis. WPA is a systematic technique for reducing water consumption and wastewater generation through integration of water-using activities or processes. WPA was first introduced by Wang and Smith. Since then, it has been widely used as a tool for water conservation in industrial process plants. Water Pinch Analysis has recently been applied for urban/domestic buildings. It was extended in 1998 by Nick Hallale at the University of Cape Town, who developed it as a special case of mass exchange networks for capital cost targeting.
Techniques for setting targets for maximum water recovery capable of handling any type of water-using operation including mass-transfer-based and non-mass-transfer based systems include the source and sink composite curves (Nick Hallale (2002). A New Graphical Targeting Method for Water Minimisation. Advances in Environmental Research. 6(3): 377–390) and water cascade analysis (WCA). The source and sink composite curves is a graphical tool for setting water recovery targets as well as for design of water recovery networks.
- Wang, Y. P. and Smith, R. (1994). Wastewater Minimisation. Chem. Eng. Sci. 49, 981–1006.
- Manan, Z. A., Wan Alwi, S. R. and Ujang Z. (2006). Water pinch analysis for urban system: a case study on the Sultan Ismail Mosque at Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) . Desalination. 194: 52–68.
- Manan, Z. A., Foo, C. Y. and Tan, Y. L. (2004). Targeting the Minimum Water Flowrate Using Water Cascade Analysis Technique, AIChE Journal, Volume 50, No. 12, 2004.
- Wan Alwi, S. R. and Manan, Z. A. (2008). Generic Graphical Technique for Simultaneous Targeting and Design of Water Networks . Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 47 (8): 2762–2777. doi:10.1021/ie071487o.
5. Hallale, Nick. (2002). A New Graphical Targeting Method for Water Minimisation. Advances in Environmental Research. 6(3): 377–390