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Water pollution

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Raw sewage and industrial waste in the New River as it passes from Mexicali (Mexico) to Calexico, California

Water pollution (or aquatic pollution) is the contamination of water bodies, usually as a result of human activities, in such a manner that negatively affects its legitimate uses.[1]: 6  Water pollution reduces the ability of the body of water to provide the ecosystem services that it would otherwise provide. Water bodies include for example lakes, rivers, oceans, aquifers, reservoirs and groundwater. Water pollution results when contaminants are introduced into these water bodies. In addition to damage to many species, water pollution can also lead to water-borne diseases for people.[2] Water pollution traditionally is attributed to four sources, which provide the organization of this article:[3]

  • sewage
  • industry
  • agriculture
  • urban runoff including stormwater.

Water pollution can also be classified as surface water pollution (for example lakes, streams, estuaries, and parts of the ocean in marine pollution) or groundwater pollution. Sources of water pollution are either point sources or non-point sources. Point sources have one identifiable cause, such as a storm drain or a wastewater treatment plant. Non-point sources are more diffuse, such as agricultural runoff.[4] Pollution is the result of the cumulative effect over time. Supplying clean drinking water is an important ecosystem service provided by some freshwater systems, but approximately 785 million people in the world do not have access to clean drinking water because of pollution.[5]

Definition

A practical definition of water pollution is: "Water pollution is the addition of substances or energy forms that directly or indirectly alter the nature of the water body in such a manner that negatively affects its legitimate uses".[1]: 6  Therefore, pollution is associated with concepts attributed to humans, namely the negative alterations and the uses of the water body. Water is typically referred to as polluted when it is impaired by anthropogenic contaminants. Due to these contaminants it either does not support a human use, such as drinking water, or undergoes a marked shift in its ability to support its biotic communities, such as fish.

Agriculture

Oxygen depletion, resulting from eutrophication is a common cause of fish kills.

Agriculture is a major contributor to water pollution. The use of fertilizers leads to Nutrient pollution, in which excess nutrients, usually caused by nitrogen- or phosphorus-containing compounds that are the main components.[6] Sources of nutrient pollution include surface runoff from farm fields and pastures, discharges from septic tanks and feedlots (sewage - see below - is also high in nutrients). In addition to plant-focused agriculture, fish-farming is also a source of pollution.

Additionally, ag runoff often contains high levels of pesticides.[3]

Industrial wastewater

Red mud stored in large ponds in (Stade, Germany). The waste is a byproduct of aluminum manufacturing, is dangerously alkaline and does not biodegrade. An estimated 175 million tonnes are produced annually.[7]

Using the US as an example, the main industrial consumers of water (using over 60% of the total consumption) are power plants, petroleum refineries, iron and steel mills, pulp and paper mills, and food processing industries.[3]

Some industries discharge chemical wastes, including solvents and heavy metals (which are toxic) and other harmful pollutants such as nutrients. Certain industries (e.g. food processing) discharge high concentrations of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and oil and grease.[8]: 180  [9] Some industrial discharges include persistent organic pollutants such as per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS).[10][11]

Sewage

Sewage typically consists of 99.9% water and 0.1% solids.[12] Globally, about 4.5 billion people do not have safely managed sanitation as of 2017, according to an estimate by the Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation.[13] Lack of access to sanitation often leads to water pollution, e.g. via the practice of open defecation. Simple pit latrines may also get flooded during rain events. When sewers overflow during storm events this can lead to water pollution from untreated sewage. Such events are called sanitary sewer overflows or combined sewer overflows.

Sewage contributes many classes of nutrients that lead to eutrophication. It is a major source of phosphate for example.[14]

Sewage is often contaminated with diverse compounds found in personal hygiene, cosmetics, pharmaceutical drugs] (see also drug pollution), and their metabolites[15][16] Even at very low concentrations, hormones (from animal husbandry and residue from human hormonal contraception methods) and synthetic materials such as phthalates that mimic hormones in their action, can have an adverse impacts.[17][18][19] Water pollution due to environmental persistent pharmaceutical pollutants can have wide-ranging consequences:

The environmental effect of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) is being investigated since at least the 1990s. PPCPs include substances used by individuals for personal health or cosmetic reasons and the products used by agribusiness to boost growth or health of livestock. More than twenty million tons of PPCPs are produced every year.[20] The European Union has declared pharmaceutical residues with the potential of contamination of water and soil to be "priority substances".[3]

PPCPs have been detected in water bodies throughout the world. More research is needed to evaluate the risks of toxicity, persistence, and bioaccumulation, but the current state of research shows that personal care products impact over the environment and other species, such as coral reefs[21][22][23] and fish.[24][25] PPCPs encompass environmental persistent pharmaceutical pollutants (EPPPs) and are one type of persistent organic pollutants. They are not removed in conventional sewage treatment plants but require a fourth treatment stage which not many plants have.[20]

Pathogens from sewage

Muddy river polluted by sediment.

The source of high levels of pathogens in water bodies can be from human feces (due to open defecation), sewage, blackwater, manure that has found its way into the water body. The cause for this can be lack of sanitation or poorly functioning on-site sanitation systems (septic tanks, pit latrines), sewage treatment plants without disinfection steps, sanitary sewer overflows and combined sewer overflows (CSOs)[26] during storm events and intensive agriculture (poorly managed livestock operations). Pathogens can produce waterborne diseases in either human or animal hosts.[27] Some microorganisms sometimes found in contaminated surface waters that have caused human health problems include: Burkholderia pseudomallei, Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, Salmonella, norovirus and other viruses, parasitic worms including the Schistosoma type.[28]

A study published in 2017 stated that "polluted water spread gastrointestinal diseases and parasitic infections and killed 1.8 million people" (these are also referred to as waterborne diseases).[29]

Urban runoff

Urban runoff is stormwater discharged to surface waters from rooftops, roads and parking lots, and reservoirs. Often it is captured in large retaining ponds. It is subject to high suspended solids as well and elevated nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations.[3]

Other forms of water pollution

A polluted river draining an abandoned copper mine on Anglesey

Thermal pollution

The Brayton Point Power Station in Massachusetts discharges heated water to Mount Hope Bay.

Thermal pollution, sometimes called "thermal enrichment," is the degradation of water quality by any process that changes ambient water temperature. Thermal pollution is the rise or fall in the temperature of a natural body of water caused by human influence. Thermal pollution, unlike chemical pollution, results in a change in the physical properties of water. A common cause of thermal pollution is the use of water as a coolant by power plants and industrial manufacturers.[9]: 375 

Biological pollution

The introduction of aquatic invasive organisms is a form of water pollution as well. It causes biological pollution.[30]

By type of source

Sources of surface water pollution can be grouped into two categories based on their origin: point sources and nonpoint sources.

Point sources

Point source water pollution refers to contaminants that enter a waterway from a single, identifiable source, such as a pipe or ditch. Examples of sources in this category include discharges from a sewage treatment plant, a factory, or a city storm drain.

The U.S. Clean Water Act (CWA) defines point source for regulatory enforcement purposes (see United States regulation of point source water pollution).[31] The CWA definition of point source was amended in 1987 to include municipal storm sewer systems, as well as industrial storm water, such as from construction sites.[32]

Nonpoint sources

Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution refers to diffuse contamination (or pollution) of water or air that does not originate from a single discrete source. This type of pollution is often the cumulative effect of small amounts of contaminants gathered from a large area. It is in contrast to point source pollution which results from a single source. Nonpoint source pollution generally results from land runoff, precipitation, atmospheric deposition, drainage, seepage, or hydrological modification (rainfall and snowmelt) where tracing pollution back to a single source is difficult.[33] Nonpoint source water pollution affects a water body from sources such as polluted runoff from agricultural areas draining into a river, or wind-borne debris blowing out to sea. Nonpoint source air pollution affects air quality, from sources such as smokestacks or car tailpipes. Although these pollutants have originated from a point source, the long-range transport ability and multiple sources of the pollutant make it a nonpoint source of pollution; if the discharges were to occur to a body of water or into the atmosphere at a single location, the pollution would be single-point.

Groundwater pollution (also called groundwater contamination) occurs when pollutants are released to the ground and make their way into groundwater. This type of water pollution can also occur naturally due to the presence of a minor and unwanted constituent, contaminant, or impurity in the groundwater, in which case it is more likely referred to as contamination rather than pollution. Pollution can occur from on-site sanitation systems, landfills, effluent from wastewater treatment plants, leaking sewers, petrol filling stations or from over application of fertilizers in agriculture. Pollution (or contamination) can also occur from naturally occurring contaminants, such as arsenic or fluoride.[34] Using polluted groundwater causes hazards to public health through poisoning or the spread of disease (water-borne diseases).

The pollutant often creates a contaminant plume within an aquifer. Movement of water and dispersion within the aquifer spreads the pollutant over a wider area. Its advancing boundary, often called a plume edge, can intersect with groundwater wells and surface water, such as seeps and springs, making the water supplies unsafe for humans and wildlife. The movement of the plume, called a plume front, may be analyzed through a hydrological transport model or groundwater model. Analysis of groundwater pollution may focus on soil characteristics and site geology, hydrogeology, hydrology, and the nature of the contaminants. Different mechanisms have influence on the transport of pollutants, e.g. diffusion, adsorption, precipitation, decay, in the groundwater.

Measurement

Environmental scientists preparing water autosamplers.

Water pollution may be analyzed through several broad categories of methods: physical, chemical and biological. Some methods may be conducted in situ, without sampling, such as temperature. Others involve collection of samples, followed by specialized analytical tests in the laboratory. Standardized, validated analytical test methods, for water and wastewater samples have been published.[35]

Common physical tests of water include temperature, Specific conductance or electrical conductance (EC) or conductivity, solids concentrations (e.g., total suspended solids (TSS)) and turbidity. Water samples may be examined using analytical chemistry methods. Many published test methods are available for both organic and inorganic compounds. Frequently used parameters that are quantified are pH, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD),[36]: 102  chemical oxygen demand (COD),[36]: 104  dissolved oxygen (DO), total hardness, nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus compounds, e.g. nitrate and orthophosphates), metals (including copper, zinc, cadmium, lead and mercury), oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), surfactants and pesticides.

Sampling

The complexity of water quality as a subject is reflected in the many types of measurements of water quality indicators. Some measurements of water quality are most accurately made on-site, because water exists in equilibrium with its surroundings. Measurements commonly made on-site and in direct contact with the water source in question include temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, oxygen reduction potential (ORP), turbidity, and Secchi disk depth.

Sampling of water for physical or chemical testing can be done by several methods, depending on the accuracy needed and the characteristics of the contaminant. Sampling methods include for example simple random sampling, stratified sampling, systematic and grid sampling, adaptive cluster sampling, grab samples, semi-continuous monitoring and continuous, passive sampling, remote surveillance, remote sensing, and biomonitoring. The use of passive samplers greatly reduces the cost and the need of infrastructure on the sampling location.

Many contamination events are sharply restricted in time, most commonly in association with rain events. For this reason "grab" samples are often inadequate for fully quantifying contaminant levels.[37] Scientists gathering this type of data often employ auto-sampler devices that pump increments of water at either time or discharge intervals.

Biological testing

The use of a biomonitor is described as biological monitoring. This refers to the measurement of specific properties of an organism to obtain information on the surrounding physical and chemical environment.[38] Biological testing involves the use of plant, animal or microbial indicators to monitor the health of an aquatic ecosystem. They are any biological species or group of species whose function, population, or status can reveal what degree of ecosystem or environmental integrity is present.[39] One example of a group of bio-indicators are the copepods and other small water crustaceans that are present in many water bodies. Such organisms can be monitored for changes (biochemical, physiological, or behavioral) that may indicate a problem within their ecosystem.

Prevalence

Share of water bodies with good water quality in 2020 (a water body is classified as "good" quality if at least 80% of monitoring values meet target quality levels, see also SDG 6, Indicator 6.3.2)

Water pollution is a problem in developing countries as well as in developed countries.

By country

For example, water pollution in India and China is wide spread. About 90 percent of the water in the cities of China is polluted.[40][unreliable source?]

Control and reduction

View of secondary treatment reactors (activated sludge process) at the Blue Plains Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant, Washington, D.C., United States. Seen in the distance are the sludge digester building and thermal hydrolysis reactors.

Pollution control philosophy

One aspect of environmental protection are mandatory regulations but they are only part of the solution. Other important tools in pollution control include environmental education, economic instruments, market forces and stricter enforcements.[41] Standards can be "precise" (for a defined quantifiable minimum or maximum value for a pollutant), or "imprecise" which would require the use of Best Available Technology (BAT) or Best Practicable Environmental Option (BPEO).[41] Market-based economic instruments for pollution control can include: charges, subsidies, deposit or refund schemes, the creation of a market in pollution credits, and enforcement incentives.[41]

Moving towards a holistic approach in chemical pollution control combines the following approaches: Integrated control measures, trans-boundary considerations, complementary and supplementary control measures, life-cycle considerations, the impacts of chemical mixtures.[41]

Control of water pollution requires appropriate infrastructure and management plans. The infrastructure may include wastewater treatment plants, for example sewage treatment plants and industrial wastewater treatment plants. Agricultural wastewater treatment for farms, and erosion control at construction sites can also help prevent water pollution. Effective control of urban runoff includes reducing speed and quantity of flow.

Water pollution requires ongoing evaluation and revision of water resource policy at all levels (international down to individual aquifers and wells).

Sanitation and sewage treatment

Fecal sludge collected from pit latrines is dumped into a river at the Korogocho slum in Nairobi, Kenya.

Municipal wastewater (or sewage) can be treated by centralized sewage treatment plants, decentralized wastewater systems, nature-based solutions[42] or in onsite sewage facilities and septic tanks. For example, waste stabilization ponds are a low cost treatment option for sewage, particularly for regions with warm climates.[1]: 182  UV light (sunlight) can be used to degrade some pollutants in waste stabilization ponds (sewage lagoons).[43] The use of safely managed sanitation services would prevent water pollution caused by lack of access to sanitation.[13]

Well-designed and operated systems (i.e., with secondary treatment stages or more advanced tertiary treatment) can remove 90 percent or more of the pollutant load in sewage.[44] Some plants have additional systems to remove nutrients and pathogens. While such advanced treatment techniques will undoubtedly reduce the discharges of micropollutants, they can also result in large financial costs, as well as environmentally undesirable increases in energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.[45]

Sewer overflows during storm events can be addressed by timely maintenance and upgrades of the sewerage system. In the US, cities with large combined systems have not pursued system-wide separation projects due to the high cost,[46] but have implemented partial separation projects and green infrastructure approaches.[47] In some cases municipalities have installed additional CSO storage facilities[48] or expanded sewage treatment capacity.[49]

Industrial wastewater treatment

Industrial wastewater treatment describes the processes used for treating wastewater that is produced by industries as an undesirable by-product. After treatment, the treated industrial wastewater (or effluent) may be reused or released to a sanitary sewer or to a surface water in the environment. Some industrial facilities generate wastewater that can be treated in sewage treatment plants. Most industrial processes, such as petroleum refineries, chemical and petrochemical plants have their own specialized facilities to treat their wastewaters so that the pollutant concentrations in the treated wastewater comply with the regulations regarding disposal of wastewaters into sewers or into rivers, lakes or oceans.[50]: 1412  This applies to industries that generate wastewater with high concentrations of organic matter (e.g. oil and grease), toxic pollutants (e.g. heavy metals, volatile organic compounds) or nutrients such as ammonia.[51]: 180  Some industries install a pre-treatment system to remove some pollutants (e.g., toxic compounds), and then discharge the partially treated wastewater to the municipal sewer system.[52]: 60 

Agricultural wastewater treatment

Anaerobic lagoon for treatment of dairy wastes

Agricultural wastewater treatment is a farm management agenda for controlling pollution from confined animal operations and from surface runoff that may be contaminated by chemicals in fertilizer, pesticides, animal slurry, crop residues or irrigation water. Agricultural wastewater treatment is required for continuous confined animal operations like milk and egg production. It may be performed in plants using mechanized treatment units similar to those used for industrial wastewater. Where land is available for ponds, settling basins and facultative lagoons may have lower operational costs for seasonal use conditions from breeding or harvest cycles.[53]: 6–8  Animal slurries are usually treated by containment in anaerobic lagoons before disposal by spray or trickle application to grassland. Constructed wetlands are sometimes used to facilitate treatment of animal wastes.

Nonpoint source pollution includes sediment runoff, nutrient runoff and pesticides. Point source pollution includes animal wastes, silage liquor, milking parlour (dairy farming) wastes, slaughtering waste, vegetable washing water and firewater. Many farms generate nonpoint source pollution from surface runoff which is not controlled through a treatment plant.

Farmers can install erosion controls to reduce runoff flows and retain soil on their fields.[54][55]: pp. 4-95–4-96  Common techniques include contour plowing, crop mulching, crop rotation, planting perennial crops and installing riparian buffers.[56][55]: pp. 4-95–4-96  Farmers can also develop and implement nutrient management plans to reduce excess application of nutrients[56][55]: pp. 4-37–4-38  and reduce the potential for nutrient pollution. To minimize pesticide impacts, farmers may use Integrated Pest Management (IPM) techniques (which can include biological pest control) to maintain control over pests, reduce reliance on chemical pesticides, and protect water quality.[57]

Management of erosion and sediment control

Silt fence installed on a construction site.

Sediment from construction sites can be managed by installation of erosion controls, such as mulching and hydroseeding, and sediment controls, such as sediment basins and silt fences.[58] Discharge of toxic chemicals such as motor fuels and concrete washout can be prevented by use of spill prevention and control plans, and specially designed containers (e.g. for concrete washout) and structures such as overflow controls and diversion berms.[59]

Erosion caused by deforestation and changes in hydrology (soil loss due to water runoff) also results in loss of sediment and, potentially, water pollution.[60][61]

Control of urban runoff (storm water)

Effective control of urban runoff involves reducing the velocity and flow of storm water, as well as reducing pollutant discharges. Local governments use a variety of storm water management techniques to reduce the effects of urban runoff. These techniques, called best management practices for water pollution (BMPs) in some countries, may focus on water quantity control, while others focus on improving water quality, and some perform both functions.[62]

Pollution prevention practices include low impact development (LID) or green infrastructure techniques - known as Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS) in the UK, and Water-Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) in Australia and the Middle East - such as the installation of green roofs and improved chemical handling (e.g. management of motor fuels & oil, fertilizers and pesticides).[63][64] Runoff mitigation systems include infiltration basins, bioretention systems, constructed wetlands, retention basins and similar devices.[65][66]

Legislation

Some examples for legislation to control water pollution are listed below:

See also

References

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