Water resources of China

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The average annual precipitation in different regions of China and Taiwan.

The water resources of China are affected by both severe water quantity shortages and severe water quality pollution. A growing population and rapid economic development as well as lax environmental oversight have increased water demand and pollution. China has responded by measures such as rapidly building out the water infrastructure and increasing regulation as well as exploring a number of further technological solutions.

Water quantity[edit]

Supply[edit]

China's water resources include 2,711.5 cubic kilometers of mean annual run-off in its rivers and 828.8 cubic kilometers of groundwater recharge. As pumping water draws water from nearby rivers, the total available resource is less than the sum of surface and groundwater, and thus is only 2,821.4 cubic kilometers. 80% of these resources are in the South of China.[1]

Demand[edit]

Total water withdrawals were estimated at 554 cubic kilometers in 2005, or about 20% of renewable resources. Demand is from the following sectors:

  • 65% agriculture
  • 23% industry
  • 12% domestic

In 2006 626,000 square kilometers were irrigated.[1]

Water balance[edit]

A farmer's cabbage patch being watered in Linxia County, Gansu

Over-extraction of groundwater and falling water tables are big problems in China, particularly in the north. According to the Ministry of Construction, preliminary statistics show that there are more than 160 areas nationwide where groundwater has been over-exploited with an average annual groundwater depletion of more than 10 billion cubic meters. As a result, more than 60,000 square kilometers of ground surface have sunk with more than 50 cities suffering from serious land subsidence.[2] Flooding also still is a major problem.

In a Xinhua article from 2002, Chinese experts warned of future or current water shortages. Water resource usage was expected to peak in 2030 when the population peaks. Areas north of the Yangtze river were particularly affected with 80.9% of Chinese water resources being south of the river. Northern China had used 10,000-year-old aquifers which had resulted in ground cracking and subsidence in some regions.[3]

A 2005 article in China Daily stated that out of 514 rivers surveyed in 2000, 60 were dry. Water volume in lakes had decreased by 14%. Many wetlands had decreased in size.[4]

Jared Diamond stated in his 2005 book Collapse that, in the past 50 years, exploitation in the form of dams and other irrigation infrastructure have all but halted the Yellow River's natural course, threatening to dry up the entire river valley. The cessation of river flows, or flow stoppages, has surged since the 1980s because of increased water usage and waste. In 1997, the lower Yellow River did not flow 230 days out of the year, an increase of over 2000% since 1988. Increased erosion and sedimentation, especially on the Loess Plateau, has made the river much less navigable by ship.[5]

For the 2008 Summer Olympics, China diverted water from Hebei and Shanxi provinces, areas already beset by drought and dramatic water shortages, to Beijing.[6] In July 2008, the head of the Beijing Water Authority Bi Xiaogang denied that the Olympics would increase water consumption by a large amount. However, previously he and other local officials said that Beijing would divert up to 400 million cubic meters of water from Hebei for the Games with water-diversion facilities and pipes being built to pump water from four reservoirs in Hebei.[7] Around Baoding city alone, a mostly rural area, 31,000 residents lost land and their homes due to a water transfer project; many more have been displaced throughout Hebei.[8][9] According to an August 24, 2008 report by the UK’s Times, much of the infrastructure intended for the water diversion scheme was left half-constructed or unused when Beijing officials realized that water demand estimates had been far too high. The number of tourists attending the Beijing games was lower than expected, and many migrant workers, ethnic minorities, and political dissidents had left the city as a result of intimidation or official requests. Nevertheless, the Hebei area had already been sucked dry to fill a number of large reservoirs, leading to drought and agricultural losses.[10]

Water transfers[edit]

Large-scale water transfers have long been advocated by Chinese planners as a solution to the country's water woes. The South-North Water Transfer Project is being developed primarily to divert water from the Yangtze River to the Yellow River and Beijing.

The development or diversion of major transboundary rivers originating in China, such as the Brahmaputra River and the Mekong River, could be a source on tension with China's neighbors. For example, after building two dams upstream, China is building at least three more on the Mekong, inflaming passions in Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia and Thailand. In a book titled "Tibet's Waters Will Save China" a group of Chinese ex-officials have championed the northward rerouting of the waters of the Brahmaputra as an important lifeline for China in a future phase of South-North Water Transfer Project. Such a diversion could fuel tension with India and Bangladesh, if no prior agreement would be reached on sharing the river's water.[11]

On a smaller scale, some of the waters of the Irtysh River, which would otherwise flow into Kazakhstan, Russia, and the Arctic Ocean, have been diverted into the arid areas of north-central Xinjiang via the Irtysh–Karamay–Ürümqi Canal.

Sea water desalination[edit]

Due to the water problems, as well as for future exports, China is building up its desalination technological abilities and plans to create an indigenous industry. Some cities have introduced extensive water conservation and recycling programs and technologies.[12]

Water quality[edit]

The quality of groundwater or surface water is a major problem in China, be it because of man-made water pollution or natural contamination.

Pollution and Water Shortage[edit]

Industrial and domestic development along the Yellow River at Liujiaxia Dam.
A dry river near Beijing, China. July 2007

Deterioration of drinking water quality continues to be a major problem in China. Continuous emissions from manufacturing is the largest contributor to lowered drinking quality across the People’s Republic,[13] but introduction of poorly treated sewage, industrial spills, and extensive use of agricultural fertilizers and pesticides have proven to be major contributors as well. Furthermore, these water quality issues couple with seasonal scarcity of water to spark endemic water shortages, which frequently affect millions of people to some extent.[14]

According to China's State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA) in 2006, 60% of the country's rivers suffer from pollution to such an extent that they cannot be safely used as drinking water sources.[15] According to the 2008 State of the Environment Report by the Ministry of Environmental Protection, the successor agency of SEPA, pollution of specific rivers is as follows:

A 2006 article by the Chinese Embassy in the UK stated that approximately 300 million nationwide have no access to clean water. Almost 90% of underground water in cities are affected by pollution and as well as 70% of China’s rivers and lakes.[17]

A 2007 article in China Daily stated that large scale use of pesticides and fertilizers from agriculture also contribute to water pollution.[18]

A 2008 report about the Yellow River argued that severe pollution caused by factory discharges and sewage from fast-expanding cities has made one-third of the river unusable even for agricultural or industrial use. The report, based on data taken last year, covered more than 8,384 miles of the river, one of the longest waterways in the world, and its tributaries. The Yellow River Conservancy Committee, which surveyed more than 8,384 miles of the river in 2007, said 33.8% of the river system registered worse than level five. According to criteria used by the UN Environment Program, level five is unfit for drinking, aquaculture, industrial use and even agriculture. The report said waste and sewage discharged into the system last year totaled 4.29bn tonnes. Industry and manufacturing provided 70% of the discharge into the river, with households accounting for 23% and just over 6% coming from other sources.[13]

There have been a high number of river pollution incidents in recent years in China, such as drinking water source pollution by algae in the Tai Lake, Wuxi in May 2007. There was a "bloom of blue-green algae that gave off a rotten smell" shutting off the main source of drinking water supply to 5.8 million people. By September 2007, the city had closed or given notice to close more than 1,340 polluting factories. The city ordered the rest to clean up by June or be permanently shut down. The closing of the factories resulted in a 15% reduction of local GDP.[19] The severe pollution had been known for many years, but factories had been allowed to continue to operate until the crisis erupted.

The 2005 Jilin chemical plant explosions in Jilin City caused a large discharge of nitrobenzene into the Songhua River. Levels of the carcinogen were so high that the entire water supply to Harbin city (pop 3.8M) was cut off for five days between November 21, 2005 and November 26, 2005, though it was only on November 23 that officials admitted that a severe pollution incident was the reason for the cutoff.[20]

Chinese environmental activist and journalist Ma Jun warned in 2006 that China is facing a water crisis that includes water shortages, water pollution and a deterioration in water quality. Ma argued that 400 out of 600 cities in China are facing water shortages to varying degrees, including 30 out of the 32 largest cities. Furthermore, Ma argued, discharges of waste water have increased continually over the years 2001-2006, and that that 300 million peasants’ drinking water is not safe. He warned: "In the north, due to the drying up of the surface water, the underground water has been over-extracted. The water shortage in the north could have drastic affects because almost half of China’s population lives on only 15 percent of its water. The situation is not sustainable. Though the south has abundant water, there is a lack of clean water due to serious water pollution. Even water-abundant deltas like the Yangtze and the Pearl River suffer from water shortages."[21][22]

According to an article in the Guardian, in 2005, deputy minister Qiu Baoxing stated that more than 100 out of the 660 cities had extreme water shortages. Pan Yue, deputy director of the state environment protection agency, warned that economic growth was unsustainable due to the water problems. In 2004 the World Bank warned that the scarcity of the resource would lead to "a fight between rural interests, urban interests and industrial interests on who gets water in China." In April 2005 there were dozens of injuries in Dongyang city, Zhejiang Province, due to clashes over the nearby chemical factories of the Juxi Industrial Park accused of water pollution that harmed crops and led to deformed babies being born. According the article, a quarter of the population lacked clean drinking water and less than a third of the waste was treated. China is expected to face worsening water shortages until 2030 when the population peaks.[14]

According to a 2007 report by the World Bank, the pollution scandals demonstrate that, if not immediately and effectively controlled, pollution releases can spread across the boundaries of administrative jurisdictions, causing "environmental and economic damage as well as public concern and the potential for social unease". Once an accident has occurred, the impact on the environment and human health becomes more difficult and more costly to control. Therefore, the report recommends prevention of pollution by strict enforcement of appropriate policies and regulations.[23]

Natural contamination[edit]

Large portions of China's aquifers suffer from arsenic contamination of groundwater. Arsenic poisoning occurs after long-term exposure to contaminated groundwater through drinking. The phenomenon was first detected in China in the 1950s. As water demand grows, wells are being drilled deeper and now frequently tap into arsenic-rich aquifers. As a consequence, arsenic poisoning is rising. To date there have been more than 30,000 cases reported with about 25 million people exposed to dangerously high levels in their drinking water.[24]

According to the WHO over 26 million people in China suffer from dental fluorosis (weakening of teeth) due to elevated fluoride in their drinking water. In addition, over 1 million cases of skeletal fluorosis (weakening of bones) are thought to be attributable to drinking water.[25] High levels of fluoride occur in groundwater and defluoridation is in many cases unaffordable.

Pollution incidents[edit]

The Hubei Shuanghuan Science and Technology Stock Co poisoned at least 100 tonnes (220,000 lb) fish in a river in central Hubei province in September 2013 with discharged ammonia into the Fuhe river.[26]

Conservation and Sanitation[edit]

Water supply and sanitation in the People's Republic of China is undergoing a massive transition, while facing numerous challenges - such as rapid urbanization and a widening economic gap between urban and rural areas.[27]

The World Bank in a 2007 report stated that between 1990 and 2005 there have been major financial investments in water infrastructure. While urban water supply coverage increased from 50% to 90%, there are still seasonal water shortages in many cities. Water usage by the growing population has increased but it has decreased by industry causing a stabilization of the overall water usage level. Wastewater treatment of urban wastewater more than tripled from 15% to 52%. Installed wastewater treatment capacity grew much more quickly due to an increasing absolute amount of wastewater. Absolute release of municipal pollutants has decreased slightly since 2000.[28]

According to a 2007 article, the SEPA stated that the water quality in the central drinking water sources for major cities was "mainly good".[15]

Management[edit]

The responsibility for dealing with water is split between several agencies within the government. Water pollution is the responsibility of the environmental authorities, but the water supply itself is managed by the Ministry of Water Resources. Sewage treatment is managed by the Ministry of Construction, but groundwater management falls within the realm of the Ministry of Land and Resources. China grades its water quality in six levels, from Grade I to Grade VI, with Grade VI being the most polluted.[29]

In 2007 Ma Xiancong, a researcher at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences Institute of Law, identified the following areas where the government failed to act, or tacitly consented, approved or actively took part and so created a worse situation: land appropriation, pollution, excessive mining and the failure to carry out environmental impact assessments. An example of this emerged in 2006, when the State Environmental Protection Administration revealed over a dozen hydroelectric projects that had broken the Environmental Impact Assessment Law.[30]

In 2005 experts warned that China must use Integrated Water Resources Management in order to achieve sustainable development.[4]

See also[edit]

China
Other water resources

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b FAO Aquastat:China Profile, Version 2010
  2. ^ China Development Gateway: Ensuring the Safety of Urban Water Supply, Facilitating the Frugal and Appropriate Consumption of Urban Water, Ministry of Construction, August 22, 2006 MOC
  3. ^ China Warned of Water Crisis by 2030, "china.org.cn", June 6, 2002
  4. ^ a b Experts warn of water crisis, China Daily, May 20, 2005
  5. ^ Diamond, Jared: "Collapse," pp.364-5. Penguin Books, 2005
  6. ^ Chris Buckley (2008). "Beijing Olympic water scheme drains parched farmers." Reuters, January 22, 2008.
  7. ^ Shi Jiangtao (2008). "Official Denies Plan to Divert Water from Parched Provinces." South China Morning Post, July 26, 2008.
  8. ^ Xinhua (2008)."China refills lake." June 20, 2008
  9. ^ Xinhua (2007). "Hebei Reservoirs." November 26, 2007.
  10. ^ Michael Sheridan (2008). "Millions forfeit water to Olympic Games." Times, August 24, 2008.
  11. ^ China Aims for Bigger Share of South Asia’s Water Lifeline, by Brahma Chellaney, Japan Times, June 26, 2007
  12. ^ MICHAEL WINES, China Takes a Loss to Get Ahead in the Business of Fresh Water, October 25, 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/10/26/world/asia/china-takes-loss-to-get-ahead-in-desalination-industry.html?pagewanted=all
  13. ^ a b Tania Branigan (25 November 2008). "One-third of China's Yellow river 'unfit for drinking or agriculture' Factory waste and sewage from growing cities has severely polluted major waterway, according to Chinese research". London: guardian.co.uk. Retrieved 2009-03-14. 
  14. ^ a b 100 Chinese cities face water crisis, The Guardian, June 8, 2005
  15. ^ a b "China pays water price for progress", Water 21, Magazine of the International Water Association, August 2007, p. 6
  16. ^ Ministry of Environmental Protection:The State of the Environment of China in 2008, June 5, 2009
  17. ^ Miao Hong (2006). "China battles pollution amid full-speed economic growth." Chinese Embassy (UK), September 29, 2006.
  18. ^ "Pollution makes cancer th54uy6u56u56u356u56u56u56e top killer". Xie Chuanjiao (China Daily). 2007-05-21. 
  19. ^ Washington Post:In China, a Green Awakening City Clamps Down on the Polluting Factories That Built Its Econonomy, October 6, 2007, p. A1, accessed on October 14, 2007
  20. ^ "China city water supply to resume". BBC. 2005-11-27. 
  21. ^ Tackling China's water crisis
  22. ^ Larmer, Brook. (May 2008). Bitter Waters. National Geographic Retrieved on 20 January 2009.
  23. ^ World Bank (2007):Water Pollution Emergencies in China - Prevention and Response accessed on September 4, 2007
  24. ^ UNICEF:China:Child’s environment and sanitation, accessed on December 24, 2009
  25. ^ WHO:Facts and figures: Water, sanitation and hygiene links to health, accessed on December 24, 2009
  26. ^ China chemical spill kills thousands of fish bbc 4 September 2013
  27. ^ BBC News. China to clean up polluted lake. 27 October 2007.
  28. ^ World Bank:Stepping up - Improving the performance of China's urban water utilities, by Greg Browder et al., 2007
  29. ^ Ma, Xiangcong (2007-02-21). "China's environmental governance". chinadialogue. 
  30. ^ Chinadialogue:"China's environmental governance", Ma Xiangcong, February 21, 2007; retrieved on 25 October 2011

External links[edit]