Water roux (Japanese: 湯種, romanized: yu-dane; Chinese: 湯種; pinyin: tāngzhǒng) is a paste of flour cooked in water or milk which is used to improve the texture of bread, making it soft and fluffy. For yu-dane the flour is mixed with an equal weight of boiling water poured over it. However, "scalding" flour, especially rye flour, for baking is a technique that has been used for centuries. This mixture then holds moisture so that, when it is added to a bread mix, the dough bakes with a soft, fluffy texture and the bread then keeps for longer. For tangzhong the flour is cooked at 65 °C (149 °F) in the liquid which causes its starch to gelatinize. When the gelatinized roux is refrigerated it apparently also contributes to slightly greater rise during baking.
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