Watertown (city), New York
Watertown public square
The Garland City
|• Mayor||Jeffrey M. Smith|
|• City Council|
|• Total||9.39 sq mi (24.31 km2)|
|• Land||9.03 sq mi (23.39 km2)|
|• Water||0.35 sq mi (0.92 km2)|
|Elevation||466 ft (142 m)|
| • Estimate |
|• Density||2,750.00/sq mi (1,061.75/km2)|
|Time zone||UTC−5 (EST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−4 (EDT)|
|GNIS feature ID||0968914|
Watertown is a city in the U.S. state of New York and the county seat of Jefferson County. It is situated approximately 25 miles (40 km) south of the Thousand Islands, and along the Black River about 5 miles (8.0 km) east of its mouth at Lake Ontario. It lies 180 miles (290 km) northwest of Albany, the state capital, and 328 miles (530 km) northwest of New York City. As of the 2010 census, it had a population of 27,023, an increase of 1.2% since 2000. The U.S. Army post Fort Drum is near the city.
Named after the many falls on the Black River, the city developed early in the 19th century as an industrial and manufacturing center. From years of generating industrial wealth, by the early 20th century the city was said to have more millionaires per capita than any other city in the nation.
Geographically, Watertown is located in the central part of Jefferson County. It lies 70 miles (110 km) north of Syracuse and 31 miles (50 km) south of the Ontario border. The city is served by Watertown International Airport.
The city claims to be the origin of the five and dime store and the safety pin, and it is the home of Little Trees air fresheners. It manufactured the first portable steam engine. It has the longest continually operating county fair in the United States. It holds the Red and Black football franchise, the oldest surviving semi-professional team in the United States.
This was long part of the territory of the Iroquois Confederacy. In historic times, the Onondaga and the Mohawk had occupied this area. After the American Revolutionary War, they and other Iroquois nations were forced to cede most of their land to the United States under the terms of peace mediated by Great Britain. The US sold the land for development, mostly to migrants from New England.
The city of Watertown was settled in 1800 by pioneers from New Hampshire, most notably Hart Massey, Henry Coffeen, and Zachariah Butterfield, part of a large migration into New York from New England after the Revolutionary War. These pioneers chose the area due to the Black River, which flowed west into Lake Ontario about five miles away.
The pioneers' vision was for an industrial center that would draw power from the river. All the land was rough and forested. Elevation was also a problem. The western end of the town was 12 to 15 feet (3.7 to 4.6 m) higher than the eastern end, with a large depression in the middle. A small stream also passed through the town.
Within a few years, settlers cleared the center of town to create the ambitious Public Square. During the nineteenth century, several significant buildings were constructed around it. Together these have been designated as a historic district and it is listed on the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP).
As industry and businesses flourished, successful residents built substantial retail buildings, churches, and private residences close to the square. The Paddock Arcade, built in 1850 according to European and US models, is the oldest continuously operating enclosed mall in the United States. It is also listed on the NRHP, as are several significant churches and private mansions.
The drop in the Black River at Watertown's location—40 feet (12 m) in the center of town, and 120 feet (37 m) over 2.5 miles (4.0 km)—provided abundant water power for early industry. By the mid-19th century, entrepreneurs had built paper mills and major industries, including one to manufacture the first portable steam engine in 1847. In 1851, the city was joined to Albany and other major cities of the state by the railroad. Other mills were added to the business base, generating revenue to support the city's early public works projects, such as the water system and illuminating gas works in 1853, and a telephone system in 1879.
Watertown claims that Rodman native Frank W. Woolworth conceived the idea of his eponymous mercantile chain while working here in 1878. Woolworth, then employed as a clerk in Moore's Store, set up a successful clearance display of low-priced items. This led to his idea of a store specializing in fixed-price, cut-rate merchandise. Woolworth left Watertown and opened his first store in 1879 in Utica, New York, located to the southeast in the state.
Among the many manufacturing businesses was the Davis Sewing Machine Company, which originated in Watertown. It was predecessor to George P. Huffman's Huffy Corporation (NYSE: HUF), now a maker of bicycles and other sporting goods. Little Trees air fresheners were developed in Watertown in 1951; the Car-Freshner Corporation headquarters and manufacturing plant is located here.
In 1869, Watertown was incorporated as a city. In 1920, the city adopted a city manager-style of government. The Jefferson County Courthouse Complex is an example of the substantial architecture of the city, and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. An early industrial city that earned great wealth for many of its citizens by the turn of the 20th century, Watertown also developed an educated professional class of doctors and lawyers.
A number of factors affected Watertown's progress. The economic center of the country kept moving west following development of the frontier and a shift of population into the Midwest. As Chicago boomed, it attracted many of the younger people from upstate New York for its business and professional opportunities. In the mid-20th century, industrial technology shifted and jobs changed. In the restructuring of railroads and deindustrialization that took place in the mid- and late 20th century, Watertown suffered economic and population declines.
Today the city serves as the commercial and financial center for a large rural area. It is the closest major community to Fort Drum and the post's large population of 13,000. Since the city is located just 30 miles (48 km) from the international boundary with Canada via the Thousand Islands Bridge, shopping by Canadian visitors is an important part of the local economy. It also is part of an area receiving numerous tourists and summer residents annually.
Watertown, South Dakota, was named in the city's honor.
Properties and sites listed on National Register of Historic Places
- Emerson Place
- Roswell P. Flower Memorial Library
- Jefferson County Courthouse Complex
- Paddock Mansion
- Saint Paul's Episcopal Church
- Emma Flower Taylor Mansion
- Thomas Memorial AME Zion Church
- Trinity Episcopal Church and Parish House
- Watertown Masonic Temple
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 9.3 square miles (24 km2), of which 9.0 square miles (23 km2) are land and 0.3 square miles (0.78 km2) (3.45%) are water.
The Black River flows westward through the city toward Lake Ontario. The Black River is a world-renowned kayaking destination. Competition-level kayaking events, such as the Blackwater Challenge, have been held on the river.
By tradition, the city's name was derived from the abundant water power available from the river. Businesses harnessed water power to create one of the early industrial centers in New York, beginning with paper mills processing lumber.
Jefferson Community College (JCC) is located in the western part of the city near the county fairgrounds.
Watertown has a humid continental climate (Köppen: Dfb), with cold, snowy winters and warm, wet summers. Unless otherwise noted, all figures cited below are from the GHCN station located closer to downtown.
Winters can be very cold: temperatures remain at or below the freezing mark on an average 54 days annually, and fall to 0 °F (−18 °C) or below on an average 20 nights. Moreover, Watertown is located in plant hardiness zone 4b, which means that one can expect the temperature to drop below −20 °F (−29 °C) at least once per year. Summers are mild to warm, and temperatures of 90 °F (32 °C) or above on average occur on only 3.1 days annually. Record temperatures range from −39 °F (−39 °C) on December 29, 1933, up to 99 °F (37 °C) on July 20 and 27, 1894, although the airport has dropped to as low as −43 °F (−42 °C) on January 16, 1994.
Precipitation averages 43.1 inches (1,090 mm), and is distributed fairly uniformly throughout the year, with slightly more during autumn and slightly less during spring and late winter. Since Watertown is situated near the eastern edge of Lake Ontario, it receives a bountiful amount of lake-effect snow, averaging 112 inches (280 cm) of snowfall per winter.
|Climate data for Watertown, New York (GHCN station, 151.5 m (497 ft) AMSL), 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1893–present|
|Record high °F (°C)||66
|Average high °F (°C)||28.3
|Average low °F (°C)||9.3
|Record low °F (°C)||−43
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||3.21
|Average snowfall inches (cm)||30.6
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||17.2||13.8||12.6||12.2||13.2||12.5||10.5||10.9||12.2||14.2||15.3||17.2||161.8|
|Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||11.9||9.8||6.1||1.6||0||0||0||0||0||0.2||3.3||10.5||43.4|
|Climate data for Watertown International Airport, New York (96.9 m (318 ft) AMSL), 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1949–present|
|Record high °F (°C)||66
|Average high °F (°C)||29.3
|Average low °F (°C)||9.4
|Record low °F (°C)||−43
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||2.66
|Average snowfall inches (cm)||31.6
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||16.3||13.5||12.3||12.8||12.4||12.2||10.1||10.2||11.3||13.6||15.2||16.5||156.4|
|Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||13.7||10.4||7.0||2.4||0.1||0||0||0||0.1||0.4||4.5||12.0||50.6|
|U.S. Decennial Census|
As of the census of 2000, there were 26,705 people, 11,036 households, and 6,500 families living in the city. The population density was 2,981.3 per square mile (1,150.8/km2). There were 12,450 housing units at an average density of 1,389.9 per square mile (536.5/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 89.13% White, 4.95% Black or African American, 0.54% Native American, 1.16% Asian, 0.11% Pacific Islander, 1.67% from other races, and 2.45% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 3.59% of the population. In 2009, the population was estimated at 27,489.
There were 11,036 households, out of which 31.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.7% were married couples living together, 14.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 41.1% were non-families. 34.5% of all households were made up of individuals, and 13.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.99.
In the city, the population was spread out, with 25.9% under the age of 18, 10.4% from 18 to 24, 29.6% from 25 to 44, 18.5% from 45 to 64, and 15.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.1 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $28,429, and the median income for a family was $36,115. Males had a median income of $31,068 versus $21,294 for females. The per capita income for the city was $16,354. About 14.4% of families and 19.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.2% of those under age 18 and 11.8% of those age 65 or over.
As of the 2010 US Census, there were 27,023 people living in the city. The racial makeup of the village was 86.25% White, 6.04% African American, 0.58% Native American, 1.83% Asian, 0.18% Pacific Islander, 1.33% from other races, and 3.79% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 5.59% of the population.
Arts and culture
- New York State Zoo at Thompson Park was founded in 1920.
- The historic Thompson Park is a large, city-owned public park featuring tennis courts, playgrounds, a public pool, picnic areas, large open fields which host various sports and activities, an 18-hole golf course, hiking trails, and views of the city of Watertown and surrounding areas due to its high elevation. The park was designed by John C. Olmsted, a prolific landscape architect. During the considerably snowy winters in Watertown, the park offers many large hills for sledding, as well as multiple cross-country skiing trails throughout the park and surrounding forests. Each summer, Thompson Park also hosts a firework show and live symphony orchestra show on the Fourth of July.
The Duffy Fairgrounds is currently home to two sports teams. The Watertown Rapids of the Perfect Game Collegiate Baseball League have played here starting in 2017, following several professional teams. The Watertown Wolves have played at the municipal arena at the fairgrounds since 2012. They are a member of the Federal Prospects Hockey League and have won two titles, in 2015 and 2018.
After first hosting a minor league baseball team in the 1888 Eastern International League, Watertown and Duffy Fairgrounds hosted several others. The Watertown Bucks of the Can-Am League (1936), the Watertown Athletics of the Border League (1946-1951), the Watertown Pirates (1983-1988) and Watertown Indians of the New York-Penn League (1989-1998) played at the Duffy Fairgrounds. Watertown teams were an affiliate of the Boston Bees (1936), Pittsburgh Pirates (1983-1988) and Cleveland Indians (1989-1998).
Watertown is served by the Watertown City School District. The elementary schools are North, Ohio, Knickerbocker, Sherman and Starbuck. The higher level schools are H.T. Wiley Intermediate School, Case Middle School, Watertown High School, and Immaculate Heart Central Elementary, Intermediate, and Junior and Senior High Schools, the Catholic and secular educational institutions. There is also a Faith Fellowship Christian School. Jefferson Community College is a two-year college located in the city as well.
The local newspaper, the Watertown Daily Times, is published seven days a week and serves Jefferson, St. Lawrence and Lewis counties. The Fort Drum Mountaineer is a weekly newspaper for Fort Drum soldiers and their dependents.
The Watertown market is served by four commercial television stations. The oldest is Carthage-licensed, CBS-affiliated WCNY-TV (channel 7), put on the air in 1954 by the publishers of the Watertown Daily Times. The station changed its call letters to WWNY-TV in 1965. After an unsuccessful struggle against the Federal Communications Commission and its directive for newspapers to divest themselves of television stations held within the same market, the Daily Times sold WWNY-TV to United Communications Corporation of Kenosha, Wisconsin, in 1981.
In 2001, United Communications entered into an agreement with Smith Broadcasting to operate a Fox network affiliate with low-power transmitters in Watertown and Massena. After a year of joint operation, UCC took complete ownership of WNYF-CD/WWNY-CD (channel 28). Both WWNY and WNYF were sold to Atlanta-based Gray Television in 2019.
Watertown is also served by PBS member stations WPBS-TV/WNPI-DT (channels 16/18), NBC affiliate WVNC-LD (channel 45), which also operates the area's MyNetworkTV affiliate on its LD2 subchannel, and ABC affiliate WWTI-TV (channel 50), which also operates the area's CW affiliate through The CW Plus.
Watertown is served by a number of radio stations:
- WTNY 790 AM Talk
- WATN 1240 AM News/Talk
- WNER 1410 AM Sports
- WSLJ 88.9 FM Public radio
- WKWV 90.1 FM Christian Contemporary (K-Love)
- WJNY 90.9 FM Classical
- WRVJ 91.7 FM Public radio
- WBLH 92.5 FM (Black River) Classic hits
- WCIZ-FM 93.3 FM Classic hits
- WOTT 94.1 FM (Calcium) Classic Rock
- WWTJ-LP 96.9 FM Religious Teaching
- WFRY-FM 97.5 FM Country music
- WTOJ 103.1 FM (Carthage) Adult Contemporary
- WBDR 106.7 FM (Copenhagen) Top 40
Infrastructure and transportation
Watertown was the nexus of the Rome, Watertown & Ogdensburg Railroad, which was later absorbed into the New York Central Railroad (NYC) network. Watertown sat at the junction of five different lines, as trains from Syracuse, Rome, Oswego, and Utica passed through Watertown on their way to points along the St. Lawrence River (principally, Ogdensburg and Massena) and to Canada. The Watertown passenger station, situated along the Black River behind Public Square at what is now J.B. Wise Place, was described as among the finest in the system. With the decline in travel by rail after World War II, however, the last named passenger train with a sleeper section to the town was the Iroquois in 1961; the train carrying sleepers south from Watertown was the Fifth Avenue / Cleveland Limited, also ending in 1961. Passenger service to Watertown finally ended in 1964. The station itself was demolished and replaced with a parking lot. Although the rail network is greatly attenuated compared to its peak in the early 20th century, CSX Transportation still transports freight by rail through Watertown.
Interstate 81 runs through the Watertown area. It is a north-south route that runs from near Dandridge, Tennessee north to Hill Island, Ontario, connecting via the Thousand Islands Bridge and a short connecting road to Highway 401 across the Canada–US border. Interstate 81 passes just to the west of the city of Watertown, near Salmon Run Mall. Access to the highway is from Exits 45 (Route 3), 46 (Route 12F), and 47 (Route 12).
U.S. Route 11 runs from eastern New Orleans, Louisiana, to its northern terminus at the Canada–United States border in Rouses Point, New York. U.S. Route 11 runs north-south through the city of Watertown.
Many state highways converge on the city. New York State Route 3 is an east-west route that begins in Sterling and heads north and east to Watertown. NY 3 interchanges with I-81 at the city line. NY 3 heads east into Watertown, overlapping with both US 11 and NY 12 through downtown prior to leaving the city to the northeast to head through the Adirondacks to Plattsburgh.
New York State Route 12 is a north-south route through the city, extending northward to Clayton then following the St. Lawrence Seaway to Morristown. A spur, NY 12E, takes a slightly-longer path through Cape Vincent before rejoining NY 12.
Watertown International Airport is a county-owned, public-use airport located in Hounsfield, 6 miles (10 km) west of Watertown's central business district of Watertown. American Eagle has scheduled flights to and from Philadelphia.
- Eric Anzalone, singer, actor, author, member of the Village People
- Samuel Beardsley, New York State Attorney General (1836–1839) and U.S. congressman
- Albert Bouchard, drummer for and co-founding member of popular rock band Blue Öyster Cult
- Joe Bouchard, bassist for and co-founding member of popular rock band Blue Öyster Cult, brother of Albert Bouchard
- John Calhoun, founding publisher of the Chicago Democrat
- Rocco Canale, NFL player for Philadelphia Eagles 1944-1949
- Reginald Case, artist
- Allen Welsh Dulles, director of the Central Intelligence Agency
- John Foster Dulles, U.S. Secretary of State
- Frederick Exley, author of A Fan's Notes, 1968, and other works
- Leonard J. Farwell, businessman and Wisconsin governor
- Moses W. Field, U.S. congressman, one of the founders of the Independent Greenback Party
- Paul Finkelman, President of Gratz College, historian
- Roswell P. Flower, U.S. congressman and governor of New York (1892–1895)
- John Gary, singer
- Oscar S. Gifford, lawyer and South Dakota politician
- Eric Greif, lawyer and heavy metal music figure
- Richard Grieco, actor, model, singer, former college football player
- Robert Guinan, painter
- Vic Hanson, athlete, enshrined in the Basketball Hall of Fame (1960) and the College Football Hall of Fame (1973)
- Fred Harvey Harrington, educator and president of the University of Wisconsin–Madison, born in Watertown.
- Serranus Clinton Hastings, U.S. congressman and founder of the Hastings College of the Law at the University of California
- Charles B. Hoard, businessman and member of the United States House of Representatives
- Mary-Margaret Humes, actress
- Orville Hungerford, U.S. congressman, banker, and railroad president
- Robert Lansing, U.S. Secretary of State
- Donald Lutz, baseball player for Cincinnati Reds
- Dick May, NASCAR Sprint Cup driver
- Tim McCreadie, NASCAR Nationwide series driver
- John M. McHugh, US Secretary of the Army
- Viggo Mortensen, actor and author, star of The Lord of the Rings film trilogy, A History of Violence, and The Road
- Mark Neveldine, actor, writer, producer, director (Crank, Crank: High Voltage, Gamer, Ghost Rider: Spirit of Vengeance & The Vatican Tapes)
- Denis O'Brien, New York State Attorney General (1883–1887)
- Natalie Oliveros, pornographic actress known under the stage name Savanna Samson
- Kyle Puccia, Billboard-charting singer/songwriter
- Matt Puccia, NASCAR Sprint Cup series crew chief
- Maggie Rizer, supermodel and AIDS activist
- Gary M. Rose, former United States Army officer, Vietnam War veteran, and recipient of the Medal of Honor
- Virgil Ross, animator, born in Watertown
- Elwyn E. Royce, Wisconsin State Assemblyman
- Charles H. Sawyer, governor of New Hampshire
- Mary Gay Scanlon, congresswomen from PA 5
- Arthur Shawcross, serial killer
- Electa Nobles Lincoln Walton (1824–1908), educator, lecturer, writer, and suffragist
- Frank Winfield Woolworth, founder of F. W. Woolworth Company/Five and Dime stores, worked at a store in Watertown at his start
- Charles W. Yost, U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations
- Zina D. H. Young, leader in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and social activist
In popular culture
- Writer Fred Exley grew up in Watertown, and he set much of his 1968 novel A Fan's Notes in the city.
- Watertown was the given setting for the 1990 Bette Midler film Stella. While the movie was filmed in Ontario, several local items were taken there to be shown in the film, including the local daily newspaper, taxi-cabs, and shopping bags from the locally owned Empsall's department store.
- Harry Chapin made a famous quote—"I spent a week there one afternoon"—about Watertown. His song "A Better Place to Be" was inspired by a story he heard in Watertown. Chapin mentioned both the quote and the origin of the song on his 1976 album Greatest Stories Live.
- Frank Sinatra's 1970 concept album Watertown explores the life of a middle-aged man in Watertown, New York, whose wife has left him and his children.
- In the 2005 film Robots, the fictional town of Rivet Town is based on Watertown, where Robots director Chris Wedge lived during his teens.
- In the Law & Order: SVU episode "Selfish", Watertown is briefly mentioned. And a short scene is shown inside a home in Watertown
This article includes a list of general references, but it remains largely unverified because it lacks sufficient corresponding inline citations. (February 2020) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
- "2019 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 27, 2020.
- "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". United States Census Bureau. May 24, 2020. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
- "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "Geographic Identifiers: 2010 Census Summary File 1 (G001): Watertown city, New York". American Factfinder. U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved August 22, 2018.
- History at Official Web Site
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica. 28 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 411. .
- "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. July 9, 2010.
- Peel, M. C. and Finlayson, B. L. and McMahon, T. A. (2007). "Updated world map of the Köppen–Geiger climate classification". Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 11 (5): 1633–1644. doi:10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007. ISSN 1027-5606.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) (direct: Final Revised Paper)
- "NOWData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2015-02-19.
- United States Department of Agriculture. United States National Arboretum. USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map [archived March 3, 2015].
- "Station Name: NY WATERTOWN". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2015-02-19.
- "Station Name: NY WATERTOWN INTL AP". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2015-02-19.
- "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
- Brauchle, Robert (October 26, 2008). "It has an appeal to everyone". Watertown Times.
- Immaculate Heart Central Schools, (retrieved November 18, 2011)
- NBC to launch affiliate in Watertown
- April 1961 New York Central Timetable http://www.canadasouthern.com/caso/ptt/images/tt-0461.pdf
- October 1963 New York Central Timetable http://www.canadasouthern.com/caso/ptt/images/tt-1063.pdf
- April 1964 New York Central Timetable http://streamlinermemories.info/NYC/NYC64TT.pdf
- "American Airlines Flight schedule". Retrieved March 27, 2017.
- "Eric Anzalone". BBC. Retrieved March 5, 2014.
- "BEARDSLEY, Samuel, (1790 - 1860)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved March 5, 2014.
- Strong, Martin Charles (2004). The Great Rock Discography. Canongate U.S. p. 158. ISBN 9781841956152.
- "John Calhoun". Plainfield Public Library District. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- "The Rocco P. Canale Education Memorial Scholarship". State University of New York Jefferson. Retrieved March 5, 2014.
- "Survivor". Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved March 5, 2014.
- "Allen W. Dulles". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved March 5, 2014.
- "John Foster Dulles always remembered Watertown roots -". Time warner Cable News. Retrieved March 5, 2014.
- Lambert, Bruce (1992-06-18). "Frederick E. Exley, 63, Author Who Told of His Own Trouble". The New York Times. Retrieved March 5, 2014.
- "Chapter 6: Wisconsin Governors". Encyclopedia of Wisconsin. 200 Park Ave., New York, N.Y. 10017 U.S.A.: Somerset Publishers. 1990. p. 94. ISBN 0-403-09907-1.CS1 maint: location (link)
- "FIELD, Moses Whelock, (1828 - 1889)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved March 5, 2014.
- "Paul Finkelman". Macmillan Publishers. Retrieved March 5, 2014.
- "BEARDSLEY, Samuel, (1790 - 1860)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved March 5, 2014.
- Kingsbury, George Washington Kingsbury (1915). History of Dakota Territory, Volume 2. S.J. Clarke Publishing Company. p. 1360.
- Watertown Daily Times mentions Greif's father. Greif was born in The House of the Good Samaritan; his father was the only podiatrist in Jefferson County
- "Overview for Richard Grieco". Turner Classic Movies.
- "Robert Guinan". Art World Chicago. Retrieved March 5, 2014.
- Porter, David L. (2005). Basketball: A Biographical Dictionary. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 188. ISBN 9780313309526.
- "Presidents and Chancellors of the University of Wisconsin-Madison". wisc.edu. Archived from the original on 2013-11-07.
- "HASTINGS, Serranus Clinton, (1813 - 1893)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved March 5, 2014.
- Charles B. Hoard at Congressional Biography Directory
- "Mary-Margaret Humes". Retrieved March 24, 2014.
- "HUNGERFORD, Orville, (1790 - 1851)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved March 5, 2014.
- "BIOGRAPHIES OF THE SECRETARIES OF STATE: ROBERT LANSING". U. S. Department of State Office of the Historian. Retrieved March 6, 2014.
- "Donald Lutz Stats, Video Highlights, Photo, Bio". Retrieved April 16, 2014.
- "Newcomers Guide: People". Watertown Daily Times. Retrieved March 6, 2014.
- "John M. McHugh Secretary of the U.S. Army". U.S. Department of the Defense. Retrieved March 6, 2014.
- Weiner, Jonah (2009-08-27). "The Fast and Furiously Lampooned". The New York Times. Retrieved March 6, 2014.
- "DENIS O'BRIEN". New York Courts. Retrieved March 6, 2014.
- "Coming Home- Recording Artist Kyle Puccia". 2001-2012 WWNY TV 7 United Communications Corp., Watertown, NY. Archived from the original on March 6, 2014. Retrieved March 6, 2014.
- "Watertown native Puccia acknowledges NASCAR crew chief award". Watertown Daily Times. Retrieved March 7, 2015.
- "Virgil Ross Art". Heritage Auctions. Retrieved December 28, 2017.
- 'Wisconsin Blue Book 1925,' Biographical Sketch of Elywn E. Royce, pg. 682
- Metcalf, Henry Harrison and McClintock, John Norris (1886). The Granite Monthly: A New Hampshire Magazine Devoted to History, Biography, Literature, and State Progress, Volume 9. H.H. Metcalf. p. 243.
- "Upstate New York Serial Killer Dies". AP. 11 October 2008. Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 24 March 2014.
- Howe, Julia Ward; Graves, Mary Hannah (1904). Representative Women of New England (Public domain ed.). New England Historical Publishing Company. pp. 247–.
- "Young, Zina D. H." Brigham Young University. Retrieved March 6, 2014.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Watertown, New York.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Watertown (New York).|
|Wikisource has the text of an 1879 American Cyclopædia article about Watertown (city), New York.|