Watts Bar Nuclear Generating Station
|Watts Bar Nuclear Plant|
Location of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant in Tennessee
|Location||Rhea County, near Spring City, Tennessee|
|Commission date||Unit 1: May 27, 1996
Unit 2: Oct 22, 2015
|Operator(s)||Tennessee Valley Authority|
|Nuclear power station|
|Reactor type||pressurized water reactor|
|Cooling source||Tennessee River|
|Units operational||1 x 1,121 MW
1 x 1,180 MW (Pre-Commercial Testing)
|Average generation||10,050 GWh|
The Watts Bar Nuclear Power Plant is a Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) nuclear reactor used for electric power generation. It is located on a 1,770-acre (7.2 km²) site in Rhea County, Tennessee, near Spring City, between the cities of Chattanooga and Knoxville. Watts Bar Unit 1 is the most recent civilian reactor to come on-line in the United States. Watts Bar supplies enough electricity for about 650,000 households in the Tennessee Valley.
The plant, construction of which began in 1973, has two Westinghouse pressurized water reactor units: Unit 1, completed in 1996, and Unit 2, completed in 2015. Unit I has a winter net dependable generating capacity of 1,167 megawatts. Unit 2 has a projected capacity of 1,150 megawatts.
Unit 2 construction project
Unit 2 was 80% complete when construction on both units was stopped in the 1980s due in part to a projected decrease in power demand. In 2007, the TVA Board approved completion of Unit 2 on August 1, and construction resumed on October 15. The project was expected to cost $2.5 billion, and employ around 2,300 contractor workers. Once finished, it will create an estimated 250 permanent jobs. Unit 2 is expected to be the first new nuclear reactor to come online in the USA in nearly two decades and likely the last Generation II reactor.
In response to severe damage to Japan's Fukushima-Daichi nuclear facility as a result of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, the NRC issued 9 orders to improve safety at domestic plants. Two applied to Watts Bar Unit 2 and required design modifications: "Mitigation Strategies Order" and "Spent Fuel Pool Instrumentation Order". In February 2012, TVA said the design modifications to Watts Bar 2 were partially responsible for the project running over budget and behind schedule. The plant cost a total of US$4,700,000,000.
TVA declared construction substantially complete in August 2015 and requested that NRC staff proceed with the final licensing review; on October 22, the NRC approved a forty-year operating license for Unit 2, marking the formal end of construction and allowing for the installation of nuclear fuel and subsequent testing. On December 15, 2015 TVA announced that the reactor is fully loaded with fuel and is ready for criticality and power ascension tests. Initial criticality of the reactor and at-power tests are expected to begin in early 2016. Commercial Operation is expected to begin in June 2016. On 23 May 2016, initial criticality was achieved. On June 3rd, the unit's turbine generator was placed online and connected to the grid for the first time. On June 5th an unexpected malfunction of a governor valve in the high pressure side of the steam turbine triggered the plant's safety systems to shut down the reactor automatically. Testing of the unit resumed on the 8th after the valve was repaired and the plant was brought back online. As of June 17th testing continues with the unit operating at 28% power.
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission operating license for Watts Bar was modified in September 2002 to allow TVA to irradiate tritium-producing burnable absorber rods at Watts Bar to produce tritium for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Nuclear Security Administration. The Watts Bar license amendment currently permits TVA to install up to 240 tritium-producing rods in Watts Bar Unit 1. Planned future license amendments would allow TVA to irradiate up to approximately 2,000 tritium-producing rods in the Watts Bar reactor.
TVA began irradiating tritium-producing rods at Watts Bar Unit 1 in the fall of 2003. TVA removed these rods from the reactor in the spring of 2005. DOE successfully shipped them to its tritium-extraction facility at Savannah River Site in South Carolina. DOE reimburses TVA for the cost of providing the irradiation services, and also pays TVA a fee for each tritium-producing rod that is irradiated.
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission defines two emergency planning zones around nuclear power plants: a plume exposure pathway zone with a radius of 10 miles (16 km), concerned primarily with exposure to, and inhalation of, airborne radioactive contamination, and an ingestion pathway zone of about 50 miles (80 km), concerned primarily with ingestion of food and liquid contaminated by radioactivity.
The 2010 U.S. population within 10 miles (16 km) of Watts Bar was 18,452, an increase of 4.1 percent in a decade, according to an analysis of U.S. Census data for msnbc.com. The 2010 U.S. population within 50 miles (80 km) was 1,186,648, an increase of 12.8 percent since 2000. The city center of Oak Ridge is located 37 miles (60 km) from the station.
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission's estimate of the risk each year of an earthquake intense enough to cause core damage to the reactor at Watts Bar was 1 in 27,778, according to an NRC study published in August 2010. Seismic damage is not synonymous with nuclear disaster.
- DiSavino, Scott (March 16, 2012). "TVA cuts contractors at Alabama Bellefonte nuclear site". Reuters.
- "WATTS BAR-2". PRIS. International Atomic Energy Agency. June 29, 2013. Retrieved June 29, 2013.
- "TVA: Watts Bar Nuclear Plant". Tennessee Valley Authority. February 10, 2008. Archived from the original on February 12, 2012. Retrieved March 14, 2012.
- "TVA moves toward 2012 startup of Watts Bar II". timesfreepress.com. Chattanooga Times Free Press. July 20, 2009. Retrieved March 14, 2012.
- Testa, Bridget (2012). "Three Generations of Nuclear Power Plants in the U.S.". Retrieved 2015-04-08.
- "Mitigation Strategies". nrc.gov. Retrieved 2015-11-09.
- "Spent Fuel Pool Instrumentation Order". nrc.gov. Retrieved 2015-11-09.
- "TVA Awards Watts Bar, Sequoyah Outage Contract To Westinghouse". Nuclear Power News.
- "Watts Bar nuclear reactor granted operating license - first new U.S. reactor in 19 years". timesfreepress.com. Retrieved 2015-10-22.
- "TVA Loads Fuel into New Watts Bar Unit 2". tva.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-15.
- Today — Initial Criticality. www.tva.com. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
- "NRC: Backgrounder on Emergency Preparedness at Nuclear Power Plants". Fact Sheets. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. January 2009. Retrieved March 14, 2012.
- Dedman, Bill (April 14, 2011). "Nuclear neighbors: Population rises near US reactors". NBCNews.com. Retrieved May 1, 2011.
- Dedman, Bill (March 17, 2011). "What are the odds? US nuke plants ranked by quake risk". NBCNews.com. Retrieved April 19, 2011.
- "MSNBC Media" (PDF).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Watts Bar Nuclear Generating Station.|
- "Watts Bar Nuclear Plant". TVA. Retrieved 2008-11-16.
- PDF (2.70 MB)
- "Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Tennessee". U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). October 10, 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-16.
- "Watts Bar 1 Pressurized Water Reactor". Operating Nuclear Power Reactors. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). February 14, 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-16.
- "Watts Bar Unit 2 Reactivation". NRC. July 31, 2008. Retrieved 2015-08-04.
- "History of Watts Bar Unit 2 Reactivation". NRC. June 9, 2008. Retrieved 2015-08-04.