Waverley Route

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Waverley Route
Lothianbridge viaduct01 2000-05-28.jpg
Newbattle (or Lothianbridge) viaduct
Overview
Type Heavy rail
System National Rail
Status Disused, scheduled for partial re-opening
Locale Edinburgh, Midlothian, Borders, Carlisle
Great Britain
Termini Edinburgh Waverley
Carlisle
Operation
Opening 1849
Closed 1969 (under re-construction; partial re-opening 2015)
Owner Network Rail
Operator(s) Abellio ScotRail
Technical
Line length 98.25 mi (158.12 km)
Track gauge 4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm)
Route map
Waverley Line 1969 en.png

The Waverley Route was a railway line that ran south from Edinburgh, through Midlothian and the Scottish Borders, to Carlisle. The line was built by the North British Railway; the stretch from Edinburgh to Hawick opened in 1849 and the remainder to Carlisle opened in 1862. The line was named after a series of novels by Sir Walter Scott. The line was closed in 1969, as a result of the Beeching Report. Part of the line, from Edinburgh to Tweedbank, is scheduled to reopen in September 2015.[1][2] The reopened railway is to be known as the Borders Railway.

History[edit]

Origins[edit]

Edinburgh and Dalkeith Railway[edit]

The North British Railway (NBR) was established on 4 July 1844 when Parliamentary authorisation was given for the construction of a 57-mile-30-chain (92.3 km) line from Edinburgh to Berwick-upon-Tweed with a 4-mile-50-chain (7.4 km) branch to Haddington.[3] The company's chairman and founder was John Learmonth, the chairman of the Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway,[4] whose ambition it was to enclose the triangle of land between Edinburgh, Berwick and Carlisle with NBR rails.[5] Carlisle was a key railway centre where a cross-border link with the Lancaster and Carlisle Railway could be established.[6][7]

The NBR's Edinburgh-Berwick line was to be the starting point for the route which would run diagonally across the Southern Uplands to the Solway Plain and Carlisle, a distance of some 98 miles (158 km).[8] The first step in establishing the line was the acquisition of the Edinburgh and Dalkeith Railway (E&DR), a local line which ran from an inconveniently-sited station at St Leonards on the southern extremity of Edinburgh to Dalhousie on the Lothian Coalfield.[9] The E&DR, which had been authorised on 26 May 1826 as a tramway to carry coal to the Firth of Forth at Fisherrow and, later, Leith,[10] ran for a distance of 8 12 miles (13.7 km) with branches eastwards to Leith and Fisherrow from Wanton Walls.[11] The proprietors of the E&DR viewed the NBR's overtures with some alarm as they feared the loss of their valuable coal traffic; thought was given to extending the E&DR to meet the Edinburgh and Glasgow or the projected Caledonian Main Line but the proprietors' concerns were assuaged by the NBR's generous offer of £113,000 for the outright purchase of the line and the sale was completed in October 1845.[10][12][11]

In the state in which it was acquired, the E&DR was of little use to the NBR as it had been operated as a horse-drawn tramway for the previous thirteen years, was built to a 4 ft 6 in gauge and was in a dilapidated state in terms of both infrastructure and rolling stock.[11] Nevertheless, the concern brought with it a number of advantages: its proprietors had developed an efficient coal-marketing organisation which would greatly benefit its new owners, it consolidated the NBR's position in Edinburgh while also barring the rival Caledonian Railway from the Lothian Coalfields, and, perhaps most importantly, the E&DR pointed in the direction of Carlisle.[11] Parliamentary authorisation for the line's acquisition was obtained on 21 July 1845 with the passing of the North British Railway (Edinburgh & Dalkeith Purchase) Act, which allowed the NBR to lay a spur from its Edinburgh-Berwick line near Portobello to the E&DR at Niddrie, thereby allowing NBR services to run directly from North Bridge station to Dalhousie.[11]

Edinburgh and Hawick Railway[edit]

An Act to extend the E&DR from its southern terminus at Dalhousie to Hawick was obtained on 31 July 1845 with the incorporation of the Edinburgh and Hawick Railway.[6][11] Although nominally independent, the company had £400,000 of its capital subscribed by NBR directors and the shares, each bearing a 4% guarantee, were to be transferred to NBR shareholders after incorporation.[6] The line would first be extended to Galashiels by paying £1,200 to buy out the independent Galashiels Railway project.[13] The line to Hawick was to be the greatest and most costly of the NBR's lines.[14] From Dalhousie it climbed up the valleys of the South Esk and the Gore Water for 8 miles (13 km) at 1 in 70 to reach a 900-foot (270 m) summit at Falahill, before dropping down to the Gala Water which it crossed fifteen times to reach Galashiels.[15] The next stage passed through the Tweed Valley, around the Eildons to Melrose and St Boswells, and finally to Hawick over undulating terrain.[15] Construction was already under way in June 1846 when the company obtained authorisation to build seven branch lines - four from its Berwick line and three from the Hawick line.[15] The line opened on 1 November 1849.[6]

Border Union Railway[edit]

Despite the manifest lack of traffic potential over the barren moorlands separating Hawick and Carlisle, reaching the Cumbrian county town was to be a hotly disputed affair with the NBR and its Glasgow-based rival, the Caledonian Railway, vying for control.[16][17] The Caledonian was keen to hinder the progress of the NBR and planned an incursion into NBR territory with the Caledonian Extension Railway - a 104-mile (167 km) line from Ayr to Berwick to complement its main line from Carlisle to Glasgow.[16][17] In 1847, the Caledonian obtained powers to construct a line eastwards from Gretna on its main line to Canonbie, only 8 miles (13 km) from Hawick, but these powers were allowed to lapse.[18] A second scheme was promoted in 1857: a single-line branch to Langholm whose sole aim was to keep the NBR out of Carlisle.[16][18] The NBR put forward a rival scheme: the 43-mile (69 km) long double-track Border Union Railway which would run from Hawick down Liddesdale and through Newcastleton to the Solway Plain and Carlisle.[18] The extension being a matter of life and death for the NBR, its chairman, Richard Hodgson, set about appealing to local councils and traders for their support.[16] Through his efforts, the Border Union Railway was backed by the town councils of Edinburgh, Leith, Dunbar, Haddington, Berwick and Hawick, whilst the Leith Dock Commissioners, the Merchant Company of Edinburgh and the Edinburgh Chamber of Commerce also supported the scheme.[19] The Border towns saw the Glasgow-based Caledonian Railway as an interloper, whereas the NBR was an Edinburgh company and their chairman was from the Borders region.[19] Such was the support for Hodgson that a public holiday was declared in his honour at Hawick in August 1858.[16][20]

Notwithstanding this support, Hodgson sought to build bridges with the Caledonian by offering, on 4 September 1858, to construct a joint line between Hawick and Carlisle.[21] The line would be built in two equal parts by the companies which would be responsible for its management; free interchange of traffic would be allowed on the NBR lines north and west of Hawick and on the lines south and west of the Caledonian main line.[21] The proposal gained no traction with the Caledonian, leading the NBR to publish details of its proposed scheme, to be known as the Border Union Railway, on 17 December 1858.[21] Authorisation was given on 21 July 1859 when the Border Union (North British) Railway Act provided for the construction of a 43-mile (69 km) long line to Carlisle.[22][16] The line opened throughout to passengers on 1 July 1862.[23][24]

Comprised within the Border Union Railway Act were also powers allowing the NBR to cross the Caledonian Railway's main line and join the Carlisle and Silloth Bay Railway at Rattlingate, as well as the granting of facilities at Carlisle Citadel railway station.[25] This brought two advantages: firstly, the NBR had access to Carlisle and Silloth harbour with access to Ireland and Liverpool and, secondly, it allowed freight to be sent by sea without having to work through Carlisle and thus not be subject to the Anglo-Scottish traffic agreement which set the rates for goods workings via Carlisle.[26][23][27] It had not been the NBR's intention to own ships but the Carlisle blockade made this necessary and the paddle steamer Ariel was acquired in 1862 for the purposes of carrying passengers, cattle and goods between Silloth and Liverpool, Dublin and Belfast.[28] Access to Carlisle had also been made difficult by the London and North Western Railway (L&NWR), which worked the Lancaster and Carlisle Railway since 1857.[29] The L&NWR was in league with the Caledonian Railway with which it had established an efficient cross-border service, the two companies having reached a secret agreement to deny a share of the Carlisle traffic to the newcomer by providing that traffic from the south for Edinburgh had to be sent by the Caledonian main line unless previously consigned to the NBR's line.[30] This had been so effective that locomotive parts ordered by the NBR from The Midlands reached the company's St Margarets works in Edinburgh via the Caledonian.[26]

Topography and construction[edit]

At 98 14 miles (158.1 km), the alignment chosen for the Waverley Route was considerably longer than the direct route as the crow flies between Edinburgh and Carlisle.[31] However, the course was chosen navigated a careful path around the formidable natural barriers south of Edinburgh in the form of the Southern Uplands and the summits at Whitrope (1,006 feet or 307 metres) and Falahill (880 feet or 270 metres).[32] Although advantage was taken of the easy conditions offered by the numerous river valleys, these two areas of high ground had to be tackled head-on and gave rise to the line's reputation as the toughest main line in Britain due to its constant curves and continuous steep gradients.[31][33]

From Edinburgh Waverley, the line proceeded south via Portobello East Junction towards the Moorfoots and the Lammermuirs, following the valleys of the South Esk, Gore Water and the Tyne.[31] From Hardengreen Junction near Galashiels there began a 10-mile (16 km) climb at a gradient of 1 in 70 to reach Falahill before meandering along the course of the Gala Water down to its confluence with the River Tweed which accompanied the line for a few miles eastwards to Melrose and St Boswells, descending at typically 1 in 150.[34] The route swung to the south-west at St Boswells towards the River Teviot and on to Hawick where the valley of Slitrig Water provided easy going before the 10-mile (16 km) climb at 1 in 70 over the massed hills to Whitrope Summit.[34] The gradient subsequently eased to 1 in 96 through Whitrope Tunnel to Whitrope Siding box and descended at an unbroken 1 in 75 for over 8 miles (13 km) through the curves necessitated by the rugged countryside around Arnton Fell towards Riccarton Junction and Steele Road.[34] Thereafter came easier terrain in the form of Liddel Water where the line turned west to follow Liddesdale and the Esk valley to reach the border at Kershope Burn.[34] The final stretch from Riddings struck out across the coastal plain to Longtown and then Carlisle.[34][35][36]

The first sod on the Border Union Railway was turned at Hawick on 22 July 1859, a day after the line had received Parliamentary approval.[25] Construction works were to last two years and ten months with the task made all the more difficult by the Caledonian Railway's delaying tactics in Parliament which meant that the main works could only begin as winter was approaching.[25] The heavy construction work took place in difficult weather - three frightful winters and two wet summers - in desolate country miles from public roads which required teams of horses to bring materials across the moors and hillsides to the remote work sites.[37] Life on the moorland was hard for the railway navvies and it was difficult to hire and keep men in the very wet conditions which at times prevented any progress.[38] When the NBR's directors toured the Hawick-Hermitage section in January 1862, a number of defects were found including a collapsed wall at the north end of Teviot viaduct due to shoddy specifications, a succession of landslips which required the directors to proceed in a ballast wagon and a stark lack of progress at Stobs.[39] On two of the construction contracts, the NBR's chief engineer had to take over from the contractors whose equipment was sequestrated and sold.[40]

By September 1861, the southern section of the line was ready for traffic but none could be carried as the Caledonian Railway had failed to lay the connection with its newly-constructed Port Carlisle branch at Port Carlisle Junction.[40] This was grudgingly done after a request by the NBR but the single-line laid was rejected by the Board of Trade which insisted on a double-track connection.[40] When the connection was finally laid and access obtained to Carlisle Citadel station, the Caledonian charged the rate for 4 miles (6.4 km) for the 1 12-mile (2.4 km) approach and refused to accept NBR telegraph wires on its branch or NBR passholders who were dropped off at Port Carlisle Junction.[41] The Border Union Railway was opened in sections: freight services were introduced between Carlisle and Scotch Dyke on 12 October 1861 followed by the passenger service on 28 October, this service was extended to Newcastleton on 1 March 1862 and to Riccarton Junction on 2 June.[42] Opening throughout came on 1 July 1862.[42]

Naming and branches[edit]

The Waverley Route between England and Scotland, The Waverley is the most interesting and attractive, and is the only Route which enables the Tourist to visit Melrose (for Melrose Abbey and Abbotsford) and St Boswells (for Dryburgh Abbey)

North British Railway advertisement, Black's Where Shall We Go (1877).[43]

The name Waverley Route first appeared in NBR minute books towards the end of 1862 and headed the first timetable of Hawick-Carlisle services.[44][43][24] Although no indication exists as to how it was chosen or who was responsible, it was inspired by the Waverley Novels by Sir Walter Scott who lived at Abbotsford House near the route of the line and had taken an active interest in early railways.[43][24][44] Scott's portrait often adorned posters and timetables and the Scott Monument in Edinburgh became the route's leitmotif.[24] The first class of locomotive specially built for the line, Drummond's 4-4-0 of 1876, were known as the Abbotsford Class, No. 479 bearing the name so closely associated with Scott.[24][45]

On the same day that the Carlisle extension was opened, services also began running on the Border Counties Railway.[24][46] It branched off the Waverley Route at Riccarton Junction and ran south to join the Newcastle and Carlisle Railway at Hexham.[46] This provided the NBR with a connection to Newcastle and the East Coast line over North Eastern Railway (NER) metals.[47] The NER extracted a high price from the NBR in the form of running rights from Berwick-upon-Tweed to Edinburgh which were fully exercised by the NER, thereby greatly reducing the role of the Scottish company on the East Coast line.[47]

The Waverley Route spawned a series of branches serving the towns and villages in the Scottish Borders: a branch line from Kelso Junction near St Boswells reached Kelso where it met with an NER branch from Tweedmouth.[48] The NBR Chairman, Richard Hodgson, sought to link the Waverley Route with the Edinburgh-Berwick line between Ravenswood Junction, north of St Boswells, and Reston; the branch between Reston and Duns had been completed in 1849 and a western section to St Boswells was promoted as the Berwickshire Railway which opened throughout on 2 October 1865.[49] Other towns to be connected were Jedburgh by the independent Jedburgh Railway which was inaugurated on 17 July 1856 and worked by the NBR,[50] Selkirk via the Selkirk and Galashiels Railway also opened in 1856 and operated by the NBR,[51] while Langholm received a branch from Riddings Junction, and Gretna one from Longtown.[33][42] One of the last branches to be constructed was the Lauder Light Railway in 1901 which replaced an omnibus subsidised by the NBR omnibus providing access from the town of Lauder, famed for its trout, and connecting with trains at Stow.[52]

Early years[edit]

The initial results of the Waverley Route disappointed and led to heated discussions at NBR board meetings.[52] A lobby developed, featuring in particular shareholders from Glasgow, which called for the line to be abandoned or sold to the Midland Railway.[53] The campaign was led by Archibald Orr-Ewing, an NBR director who described the line as "the most serious burden on the North British".[53] The financial picture changed with the decision of the Midland Railway to construct the Settle-Carlisle Line.[47][33][54] A through service between St Pancras and Edinburgh began on 1 May 1876 after new rails had been fitted to the Waverley Route at a cost of £23,957 in order to equip the line for Midland trains.[54] The block telegraph was still being installed when the first through services traversed the line.[54] Upon the completion of the Midland's line, the Waverley Route attained main line status.[47][33]

Closure[edit]

Background[edit]

Throughout its lifetime, the Waverley Route only achieved moderate success.[55] Even during its best years, returns from the line's intermediate stations were meagre.[55] In 1920, the eleven stations between Stobs and Harker on the traffic desert between Hawick and Carlisle raised only £28,152 in receipts, with Longtown contributing the bulk of this amount.[55] The line was challenging to work due to its severe gradients requiring costly double-heading and difficult to maintain particularly in winter.[55]

As a result, right from the first year of its existence, there were calls from within the NBR to close the line which was considered as a millstone by its successive operators.[56][57] Too far east of the Scottish industrial heartland in the Clyde Valley and traversing thinly-populated countryside for much of the way, the Waverley Route lived off cross-border passenger services and traffic generated by the wool textile industries in Galashiels, Selkirk and Hawick.[43][56] As a passenger artery, the effectiveness of the route to compete with Edinburgh-London traffic was hampered by its slower journey times compared with the East Coast and West Coast lines, requiring the line's operators to compensate by laying on superior rolling stock.[55] A reasonable number of passengers were carried from Edinburgh to Leeds and Sheffield but thereafter loads were lighter.[58] A survey conducted in July 1963 on a peak Saturday Edinburgh-London service showed less than 40 passengers were carried between Kettering and St Pancras, although the train had been standing room only as far as Leeds.[59] Local services fared little better as motor transport made inroads from the 1920s onwards resulting in the successive closures to passenger traffic of the Waverley Route's branch lines: Lauder on 12 September 1932,[60] Dolphinton on 1 April 1933,[60] Duns to Earlston and Jedburgh on 12 August 1948,[61] Duns and Selkirk on 10 September 1951,[58] Hexham on 15 October 1956[46] and Peebles and Eyemouth on 5 February 1962.[62]

In terms of goods traffic, coal was brought in and out of the Tweed town mills and Cheviot wool brought from local farms.[43][56] As a consequence, once new road transport techniques allowed farmers to move their sheep to market in one move and merchants to shift coal from pit to boilerhouse without using the railway, the writing was on the wall for the line.[63]

Proposal tabled[edit]

Last trains[edit]

Aftermath[edit]

Cut off from Edinburgh to the north and Carlisle to the south, those lacking a car had no option but to travel by bus. As of 2014, the main bus service to Edinburgh takes more time than a Victorian steam train and double the time of a commuter train in 1968. The Galashiels-Edinburgh X95 service took 75 minutes in 2006 to travel the distance, this journey time increasing to 86 minutes northbound in 2010 and May 2011 as a result of timetable changes.[64] This compared unfavourably with the last Waverley Route timetable in 1968-9, according to which the slowest train took 65 minutes over the same distance, whereas the fastest managed the journey in 42 minutes.[64]

Without the new Borders Railway, commuters can spend up to 90 minutes travelling between Galashiels and Edinburgh.[65]

Infrastructure and services[edit]

Passenger services[edit]

The initial service between Edinburgh and Carlisle consisted of four trains each way daily: an express, a fast, a local and a Parliamentary.[44] Journey times were 3 hours and 3 minutes for the express and fast trains, and 4 hours and 36 minutes for the local and Parliamentary services.[44] There were no through services; the express and fast trains connected with services from England at Carlisle.[44] Passengers departing Edinburgh at 9:45 am would arrive at London Euston at 9:50 pm, while an afternoon service connected with the overnight southbound West Coast express.[44] Two stopping services each way were provided on Sundays.[44]

By July 1914, the first departure from Edinburgh was a through service to Carlisle at 6:15 am.[66] The service called at all of the line's 31 stations, including Abbeyhill, Piershill and Portobello, and took 275 minutes to traverse the 98 14 miles (158.1 km), with 16 minutes spent waiting at Galashiels, St Boswells and Hawick.[66] The first arrival of the day in Carlisle via the Waverley Route was however a 6:00 am service from Hawick which arrived at 8:18 am after a 15-minute stand at Riccarton Junction to connect with the 6:40am service to Newcastle.[67] Three daily corridor restaurant car expresses ran to St Pancras, of which one had through coaches for Bristol.[68] Carlisle was reached after a non-stop 131-minute run at an average speed of 45 miles per hour (72 km/h).[68] A fast arrival in Carlisle was essential as the corridor coaches were allowed a maximum of 8¼ hours for the next 409 miles (658 km) to St Pancras.[68]

Goods workings[edit]

Motive power and sheds[edit]

Major structures[edit]

Post-closure[edit]

Edinburgh CrossRail[edit]

Main article: Edinburgh Crossrail

Passenger services were reintroduced on the freight-only section between Portobello Junction and Millerhall when, on 3 June 2002, stations were opened at Brunstane and Newcraighall.[69][70] The reopening was part of the Edinburgh Crossrail scheme aimed at relieving congestion in Edinburgh by providing a rail service from the east.[69][70] Brunstane was built in simple fashion with a single platform,[71] while Newcraighall, which serves the large Fort Kinnaird retail park, is a larger station with a bus interchange and park and ride facility.[69][72] Newcraighall is the terminus for services to and from Fife,[73] a half-hourly train to Dunblane via Waverley and Haymarket having initially been provided before services were extended to Kirkcaldy and Cowdenbeath.[69] Reintroduction of passenger services was a success and provided a psychological boost for campaigners seeking the reopening of the Waverley Route.[69][74]

Waverley Route Heritage Association[edit]

Riccarton Junction in 2007

By 2002, the voluntary Waverley Route Heritage Association (WRHA) had laid a short section of track at Whitrope Siding, just short of Whitrope Tunnel 12 miles (19 km) south of Hawick.[75][76] The Association's intention is to create a heritage railway between Whitrope and Riccarton which is generally aimed at the tourist market.[75]

The running line has since been extended from Whitrope Tunnel for about 0.8 miles (1,300 m).[77] A heritage centre has been built at Whitrope as part of the WRHA activities.[78] The Heritage Centre held two open days in July 2010, when it was officially opened by local MP and the new Secretary of State for Scotland Michael Moore and veteran Borders rail campaigner Madge Elliot, who led the campaign to save the Waverley Route in the late 1960s.[79] WRHA has a small shunter and has included cab rides with passenger trains, which ran from 2012—the first traction to move on the line since its closure.[76]

Borders Railway project[edit]

Main article: Borders Railway
Site of Tynehead Station in 2013: Trees have been cut back as construction has started on the rebuilding of the Waverley Line. The station will not be reopened.
Site of Tynehead Station, 10 June 2015: With construction of the Borders Railway largely complete, the change from the previous image is drastic.

In June 2006, the Waverley Railway (Scotland) Act was passed by the Scottish Parliament by 114 votes to 1.[80] The Act authorised the construction of 31 miles (50 km) of new track from Newcraighall to Tweedbank via Galashiels.[80][81] The Scottish Executive provided £115 million towards the £151 million estimated cost of the project.[82]

Preparatory works were formally initiated in March 2007 by the Deputy First Minister, Nicol Stephen.[83] It was envisaged that the main construction works would commence in 2011 and services would begin running in 2013.[84][85] However, problems in the tendering procedure resulted its cancellation in 2011 with the project being handed over to Network Rail at a revised cost of £295 million.[86][87][88][89] Works were initiated in November 2012 with BAM Nuttall appointed the following month as the main contractor.[90][91]

Tracklaying was completed in February 2015 and services are scheduled to commence on 6 September 2015.[92] Reopening the line as far as Carlisle has not been ruled out by the Scottish Government,[93] although campaigners have raised doubts over the infrastructure capability of the new line amid concerns that it may make future expansion difficult.[94]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Network Rail Timetable, May 2015
  2. ^ "Borders Railway". Transport Scotland. Retrieved 2015-03-17. 
  3. ^ Thomas (1969), p. 21.
  4. ^ Thomas (1969), p. 14.
  5. ^ Thomas (1969), pp. 23, 84-85.
  6. ^ a b c d Awdry (1990), p. 129.
  7. ^ Thomas & Paterson (1984), p. 103.
  8. ^ Thomas (1969), p. 23.
  9. ^ Thomas (1969), pp. 23-24.
  10. ^ a b Awdry (1990), p. 128.
  11. ^ a b c d e f Thomas (1969), p. 24.
  12. ^ Caplan (1985), p. 8.
  13. ^ Awdry (1990), pp. 128-129.
  14. ^ Thomas (1969), p. 37.
  15. ^ a b c Thomas (1969), p. 41.
  16. ^ a b c d e f Thomas & Paterson (1984), p. 104.
  17. ^ a b Thomas (1969), pp. 84-85.
  18. ^ a b c Thomas (1969), p. 85.
  19. ^ a b Thomas (1969), p. 87.
  20. ^ Thomas (1969), pp. 87-88.
  21. ^ a b c Thomas (1969), p. 88.
  22. ^ Awdry (1990), pp. 118-119.
  23. ^ a b Awdry (1990), p. 119.
  24. ^ a b c d e f Thomas (1981), p. 60.
  25. ^ a b c Thomas (1969), p. 89.
  26. ^ a b Thomas & Paterson (1984), p. 105.
  27. ^ Thomas (1969), pp. 89, 199.
  28. ^ Thomas (1969), pp. 199-200.
  29. ^ Awdry (1990), p. 86.
  30. ^ Thomas & Paterson (1984), pp. 104-105.
  31. ^ a b c Caplan (1985), p. 10.
  32. ^ Caplan (1985), pp. 10-12.
  33. ^ a b c d Thomas (1981), p. 62.
  34. ^ a b c d e Caplan (1985), p. 12.
  35. ^ "Maps & Gradients | Waverley Route Heritage Association". Wrha.org.uk. Retrieved 2015-05-03. 
  36. ^ "Image of gradients on route" (JPG). Wrha2.files.wordpress.com. Retrieved 2015-05-03. 
  37. ^ Thomas (1969), pp. 89, 92.
  38. ^ Thomas (1969), p. 92.
  39. ^ Thomas (1969), pp. 93-94.
  40. ^ a b c Thomas (1969), p. 94.
  41. ^ Thomas (1969), pp. 94-95.
  42. ^ a b c Thomas (1969), p. 95.
  43. ^ a b c d e Caplan (1985), p. 5.
  44. ^ a b c d e f g Thomas (1969), p. 96.
  45. ^ "The Drummond D27 & D28 (NBR Class M) 'Abbotsford' 4-4-0 Locomotives". The LNER Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2015-05-25. 
  46. ^ a b c Awdry (1990), p. 118.
  47. ^ a b c d Caplan (1985), p. 9.
  48. ^ Thomas (1981), pp. 61-62.
  49. ^ Awdry (1990), p. 117.
  50. ^ Awdry (1990), p. 140.
  51. ^ Awdry (1990), p. 159.
  52. ^ a b Thomas & Paterson (1984), p. 106.
  53. ^ a b Thomas (1969), p. 162.
  54. ^ a b c Thomas (1969), p. 163.
  55. ^ a b c d e Thomas & Paterson (1984), p. 107.
  56. ^ a b c Thomas (1981), p. 66.
  57. ^ Thomas & Paterson (1984), pp. 106-107.
  58. ^ a b Thomas & Paterson (1984), p. 108.
  59. ^ Thomas & Paterson (1984), pp. 108-109.
  60. ^ a b Awdry (1990), p. 142.
  61. ^ Awdry (1990), pp. 117, 140.
  62. ^ Awdry (1990), pp. 131, 157.
  63. ^ Thomas (1981), pp. 65-66.
  64. ^ a b Spaven (2015), p. 217.
  65. ^ "Blog and News Articles". Scotjobsnet.co.uk. Retrieved 2015-05-03. 
  66. ^ a b Caplan (1985), p. 24.
  67. ^ Caplan (1985), pp. 24-25.
  68. ^ a b c Caplan (1985), p. 25.
  69. ^ a b c d e Cross (2010), p. 9.
  70. ^ a b Darsley & Lovett (2013), fig. 106.
  71. ^ Darsley & Lovett (2013), fig. 107.
  72. ^ Darsley & Lovett (2013), fig. 103.
  73. ^ Darsley & Lovett (2013), fig. 102.
  74. ^ Spaven (2015), p. 183.
  75. ^ a b Spaven (2015), p. 208.
  76. ^ a b "Border Union Railway | Waverley Route Heritage Association". Wrha.org.uk. 2012-07-01. Retrieved 2015-05-03. 
  77. ^ "February Track Weekend | Waverley Route Heritage Association". Waverleyrouteha.wordpress.com. 2015-02-10. Retrieved 2015-05-03. 
  78. ^ "Whitrope Heritage Centre | Waverley Route Heritage Association". Wrha.org.uk. Retrieved 2015-05-03. 
  79. ^ "Open Weekend & Official Opening | Waverley Route Heritage Association". Waverleyrouteha.wordpress.com. Retrieved 2015-05-03. 
  80. ^ a b "MSPs vote 114-1 to give final go-ahead to Borders rail link". The Scotsman. 2006-06-15. Retrieved 2015-06-24. 
  81. ^ "Borders railway link bill passed". BBC News. 2006-06-14. Retrieved 2015-05-03. 
  82. ^ "Cash case 'weak' for Borders line". The Scotsman. 2005-03-15. Retrieved 2015-06-24. 
  83. ^ "Waverley line assessment starts". BBC News. 2007-03-27. Retrieved 2015-05-03. 
  84. ^ "'Defining moment' as government agency takes reins of Waverley Line". Southern Reporter. Retrieved 2015-05-03. 
  85. ^ "Timetable set for Borders railway". BBC News. 2008-08-06. Retrieved 2015-05-03. 
  86. ^ "Rail reopening faces fresh delay". BBC News. 2009-11-03. Retrieved 2015-05-03. 
  87. ^ "Borders Railway moves closer to reality" (PDF). Railway Herald (228). 2010-06-28. p. 6. Retrieved 2010-06-29. 
  88. ^ "Scottish rebuild progress". Railway Gazette. 2010-03-24. Retrieved 2010-06-29. 
  89. ^ "Borders rail link tender process scrapped". BBC News. 2011-09-29. Retrieved 2011-10-12. 
  90. ^ Carrell, Severin (2012-11-05). "Scottish Borders boost as line shut in 1960s moves step closer to reopening". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 2012-11-10. 
  91. ^ Henderson, Damien (2012-12-14). "Borders Railway builders appointed". The Herald. Retrieved 2012-12-14. 
  92. ^ "Borders to Edinburgh railway: Track laying gets under way". BBC News. 2014-10-09. Retrieved 2014-10-12. 
  93. ^ "Alex Salmond may reopen Waverley rail link". Edinburgh Evening News. 2014-04-25. Retrieved 2015-05-03. 
  94. ^ Dalton, Alastair (2014-04-29). "Borders Railway cuts ‘could hold back development’". The Scotsman. Retrieved 2015-05-03. 

Sources[edit]

  • Awdry, Christopher (1990). Encyclopaedia of British Railway Companies. Sparkford: Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 1-8526-0049-7. OCLC 19514063. 
  • Caplan, Neil (1985). The Waverley Route. Railway World Special. Weybridge: Ian Allan. ISBN 0-7110-1541-4. 
  • Cross, David (2010). Last Years of the Waverley Route. Hersham: Oxford Publishing. ISBN 978-0-86093-633-6. 
  • Darsley, Roger; Lovett, Dennis (December 2013). Galashiels to Edinburgh including the Lauder and Dalkeith Branches. Scottish Main Lines. Midhurst: Middleton Press. ISBN 978-1-908174-52-9. 
  • Darsley, Roger; Lovett, Dennis (December 2012). Hawick to Galashiels including the Selkirk Branch. Scottish Main Lines. Midhurst: Middleton Press. ISBN 978-1-908174-36-9. 
  • Spaven, David (2015) [2012]. Waverley Route: The battle for the Borders Railway. Edinburgh: Argyll. ISBN 978-1-908931-82-5. 
  • Thomas, John (1969). The North British Railway 1. Newton Abbot: David & Charles. ISBN 0-7153-4697-0. 
  • Thomas, John (1981) [1976]. Scotland. Forgotten Railways. Newton Abbot: David & Charles. ISBN 0-7153-8193-8. 
  • Thomas, John; Paterson, Alan J.S. (1984) [1971]. Scotland: The Lowlands and the Borders. A Regional History of the Railways of Great Britain. Newton Abbot: David & Charles. ISBN 0-946537-12-7. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]