|This article needs additional citations for verification. (February 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
|Achroia grisella caterpillars, length 13-16 mm.|
|Lesser wax moth (Achroia grisella)
Waxworms are the caterpillar larvae of wax moths, which belong to the snout moth family (Pyralidae). Two closely related species are commercially bred – the lesser wax moth (Achroia grisella) and the greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella). They belong to the tribe Galleriini in the snout moth subfamily Galleriinae. Another species whose larvae share that name is the Indian meal moth (Plodia interpunctella), though this species is not available commercially.
The adult moths are sometimes called "bee moths", but, particularly in apiculture, this can also refer to Aphomia sociella, another Galleriinae moth which also produces waxworms, but is not commercially bred.
Waxworms are medium-white caterpillars with black-tipped feet and small, black or brown heads.
In the wild, they live as nest parasites in bee colonies and eat cocoons, pollen, and shed skins of bees, and chew through beeswax, thus the name. Beekeepers consider waxworms to be pests. Galleria mellonella (the greater wax moths) will not attack the bees directly, but feed on the wax used by the bees to build their honeycomb. Their full development to adults requires access to used brood comb or brood cell cleanings—these contain protein essential for the larvae's development, in the form of brood cocoons. The destruction of the comb will spill or contaminate stored honey and may kill bee larvae or be the cause of the spreading of honey bee diseases.
When kept in captivity, they can go a long time without eating, particularly if kept at a cool temperature. Captive wax worms are generally raised on a mixture of cereal grain, bran and honey.
Waxworms as food source
These larvae are used extensively as live food for terrarium pets and some pet birds, mostly due to their high fat content, their ease of breeding, and their ability to survive for weeks at low temperatures. Most commonly, they are used to feed reptiles such as bearded dragons (species in the genus Pogona), the neon tree dragon (Japalura splendida), geckos, brown anole (Anolis sagrei), turtles such as the three-toed box turtle (Terrapene carolina triunguis) or chameleons. They can also be used for amphibians such as Ceratophrys frogs or salamanders or newts such as the Strauch's spotted newt (Neurergus strauchii) or the axolotls. Small mammals such as the domesticated hedgehog can also be fed with wax worms, while birds such as the greater honeyguide can also appreciate the food. They can also be used as food for captive predatory insects reared in terrarium, such as assassin bugs in the genus Platymeris, and are also occasionally used to feed certain kinds of fish in the wild, such as bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus).
Waxworms can also be consumed by humans who practice entomophagy.
Waxworms as bait
Waxworms may be store-bought or raised by anglers. Anglers and fishing bait shops often refer to the larvae as "waxies". They are used for catching some varieties of panfish, members of the sunfish family (Centrarchidae), Green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus) and can be used for shallow water fishing with the use of a lighter weight. They are also used for fishing some members of the Salmonidae family, Masu salmon (Oncorhynchus masou), white-spotted char (Salvelinus leucomaenis) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).
Waxworms as an alternative to mammals in animal research
Waxworms can replace mammals in certain types of scientific experiments with animal testing, especially in studies examining the virulence mechanisms of bacterial and fungal pathogens. Waxworms prove valuable in such studies because the innate immune system of insects is strikingly similar to that of mammals. Waxworms survive well at human body temperature and are large enough in size to allow straightforward handling and accurate dosing. Additionally, the considerable cost savings when using waxworms instead of small mammals (usually mice, hamsters, or guinea pigs) allows testing throughout that is otherwise impossible. Using waxworms, it is now possible to screen large numbers of bacterial and fungal strains to identify genes involved in pathogenesis or large chemical libraries with the hope of identifying promising therapeutic compounds. The later studies have proved especially useful in identifying chemical compounds with favorable bioavailability.
Biodegradation of Plastic
Two bacterial strains Enterobacter asburiae (YT1) and Bacillus sp. (YP1) capable of degrading Polyethylene (main use, to make plastic bags) were found in worm's gut. Waxworms are capable of chewing and eating Polyethylene films. A test with a 28-day incubation period of these two strains of bacteria on Polyethylene films, the films' hydrophobicity decreased. As well as damage of the films' with pits and cavities (0.3-0.4 μm in depth), was observed on the surfaces of the Polyethylene films using scanning Electron microscopy and Atomic-force microscopy.
- "Evidence of Polyethylene Biodegradation by Bacterial Strains from the Guts of Plastic-Eating Waxworms"
- "A Worm’s Gut Could Help Dispose of Plastic Trash"
- Evidence of polyethylene biodegradation by bacterial strains from the guts of plastic-eating waxworms.
- "Use for Waxworms". Retrieved 22 December 2014
- Antunes, Luísa C. S.; Imperi, Francesco; Carattoli, Alessandra; Visca, Paolo (2011). Adler, Ben, ed. "Deciphering the Multifactorial Nature of Acinetobacter baumannii Pathogenicity". PLoS ONE. 6 (8): e22674. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0022674. PMC . PMID 21829642.
- Kavanagh, Kevin; Reeves, Emer P. (2004). "Exploiting the potential of insects for in vivo pathogenicity testing of microbial pathogens". FEMS Microbiology Reviews. 28 (1): 101–12. doi:10.1016/j.femsre.2003.09.002. PMID 14975532.
- Aperis, G; Burgwynfuchs, B; Anderson, C; Warner, J; Calderwood, S; Mylonakis, E (2007). "Galleria mellonella as a model host to study infection by the Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain". Microbes and Infection. 9 (6): 729–34. doi:10.1016/j.micinf.2007.02.016. PMC . PMID 17400503.