|First appearance||Batman #307 (January 1979)|
|Type of business||Conglomerate|
Wayne Enterprises, also known as Wayne Industries, is a fictional company appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. The company is owned by American billionaire Bruce Wayne and run by Lucius Fox.
- 1 Fictional company history
- 2 Wayne Foundation
- 3 In other media
- 3.1 Television
- 3.2 Film
- 3.3 Video games
- 4 References
- 5 External links
Fictional company history
Based in Gotham City, WayneCorp was founded in the 17th century but officially became a company in the 19th century under Alan Wayne. The company is the eighth largest international conglomerate in the DC universe; being exceeded by LexCorp, Stagg Industries, and Ferris Aircraft. Today, WayneCorp continues to achieve excellence across a wide range of industry sectors and markets, employing some 170,000 people in 170 countries.
The current Chairman, Bruce Wayne, is a keen modernizer and continues to grow the business in the financial sector and in high-end technologies. Bruce Wayne maintains a 51% majority ownership/control of the common stock, as the controlling stockholder of Wayne Enterprises. This allows for the prevention of any hostile takeover attempts of the company by a corporate raider or nefarious individual, attempting to seek control of the vast Wayne empire. Another 30% of the common stock is in friendly hands of allies of Bruce Wayne. Therefore, any hostile takeover attempts of Wayne Enterprises would be unlikely. Lucius Fox is the acting CEO and the Senior Vice President of Finance, Miss Wells (Harvard MBA in Economics) works closely with Mr. Wayne to inform and ensure major shareholders vote their proxies in favor of the board of directors, assuring Bruce Wayne and his executives, control and influence of company decisions, policies, and operational procedures.
- Known subsidiaries
Although the company is primarily known as a military defense contractor, Wayne Enterprises also includes dozens of umbrella companies involved in all sectors of the economy both in Gotham City and around the world.
Many of the following divisions of the company include:
- Wayne Construction,
- Wayne Electronics,
- Wayne Technologies,
- Wayne Biotech
- Wayne Medical
- Wayne Healthcare (which runs Gotham Cities healthcare system)
- Wayne Pharmaceuticals
- Wayne Foods
- Wayne Shipping
- Wayne Steel
- Wayne Automotive
- Wayne Shipbuilders
- Wayne Aerospace
- Wayne Weapons
- Wayne Aviation
- Wayne Airlines
- Wayne Chemicals
- Wayne Industries
- Wayne Oil
- Wayne Botanical
- Wayne Mining
- Wayne Manufacturing
- Wayne Research Institute
- Wayne Energy
- Wayne Electric
- Wayne Studios
- Wayne Entertainment (including ownership of The Daily Planet newspaper)
- Wayne Records
- Wayne Stage
- Wayne Television
- Wayne Retail
Recently, Bruce Wayne made headlines when he announced that he would begin officially funding the vigilante known as the Batman in a “new era in the fight against crime” through the formation of a subsidiary called Batman, Incorporated. Wayne’s interest in the Batman likely stems from his own experience with violent crime as a child, but several investors have questioned whether Wayne’s noted incompetence in the boardroom will actually provide a benefit to the Batman, rather than a hindrance.
Wayne Aerospace is a subsidiary of Wayne Technologies and remains one of the more highly successful divisions of Wayne Enterprises. It has its own airline called Wayne Airlines and an aviation division called Wayne Aviation. The aerospace division is a major military defense contractor within Gotham and the United States. The W.A. is mostly known for its extremely well structured, luxurious and exclusive corporate and private jets and airliners. Much like the Gulfstream, Wayne Enterprises tries to keep the Slipstream corporate jets out of the hands of celebrities and sells them mostly to large corporations. This in turn has made the Slipstream into a cult item among the rich because it is fashionable to have a plane as a status symbol of wealth. Wayne Aerospace's experimental aviation branch produces experimental and the research planes built for the United States government and NASA. The military aviation branch designs and manufactures highly successful jet fighters and helicopters for the American Air Forces. The most notable models of these are the W-4 Wraith fighter and the Kestrel attack helicopter. As the most prominent aerospace company in the region, Wayne Aerospace has a working partnership with Eagle Air Force Base near Gotham City. Wayne Aerospace is also responsible for maintaining the systems and the planes for the Archie Goodwin International Airport in Little Stockton, in Gotham. Wayne Aerospace maintains good natured competition with other aerospace corporations like Ferris Air and its nemesis, LexAir. The division has generated millions of dollars for Wayne Enterprises. The company's government contracts and space exploration contracts with NASA have been very lucrative. However, Wayne Aerospace's most important mission is to provide the latest technology and information for the Dark Knight to vanquish crime and his enemies.
Wayne Technologies is the biggest division within Wayne Enterprises. As more and more innovations were made and new things were discovered, the division has played an important role in the technology scene around Gotham and providing the latest and cutting edge devices for Batman. As alien invasions and involvement have become more sporadic around Gotham, WayneTech acquired alien technology and used it for research & development. With this breakthrough acquisition, Wayne Enterprise was able to rival technologies produced by its nemesis, LexCorp. Some of Wayne Technologies' research into alien technology has contributed to large breakthroughs in medicine, cybernetics, pharmaceuticals and avionics. Subsidiaries of WayneTech include: Holt Holdings Inc. (the company formerly owned by the current Mister Terrific), Wayne Biotech, Wayne Pharmaceuticals, and Wayne Healthcare. WayneTech is a great resource for Batman. Not only does it provide contacts for him into the high technology world, the division can also be used to analyze whatever gadget he might find faster than he would be able to do alone. WayneTech also provides a source of business income for Wayne Enterprises as the company owns dozens of patents, including all of Holt's systems except the T-Spheres, as licensing these patents can be extremely lucrative for the company. With the strength of this division, Batman has access to any kind of medical facility or procedure, from normal to special or experimental applications, information and medical analysis. Through the company he also has access to medical files on everyone in Gotham. Since WayneTech is the market leader in cybernetic applications, he has extremely high level government contracts and contacts.
Wayne Foods is a little known subsidiary of Wayne Enterprises with its headquarters based in downtown Gotham City. The firm was started in 1872 by an Irish immigrant, Patrick Toole, under the name, Toole & Sons Food Merchants. It runs a number of farms and cattle ranches in the Breadbasket regions of the United States, and business was successful in importing Irish products that could be sold at a higher cost in the US economy. By 1905, there were five Toole & Sons stores throughout Gotham City. Patrick Toole died at the age of 72 in 1919, leaving the business to his eldest son, Thomas Toole. Thomas was keen to expand across the US; however, the outbreak of war in Europe in 1914 severely impacted trade lines from Ireland to Gotham. At the end of the war in 1918, Toole & Sons Food Merchants was near bankruptcy. Thomas, unable to carry on his father’s legacy, committed suicide in 1922 at age 43. The second youngest Toole brother, Rory, took over the business and immediately set about selling all company assets in favor of entering liquidation.
The business was bought in 1925 by the Wayne family, who were keen to preserve an important part of Gotham’s retail history. It is one of the most financially successful divisions at Wayne Enterprises and oldest branches. The business returned to profit in less than a year, and by the end of the second World War, Toole & Sons stores controlled over 60% of all food retail across the city. This was achieved by diversifying the product range and opening up stock to new markets outside of Ireland and within the US. The company changed its name to Wayne Foods in 1956. Today, Wayne Foods focuses on the high end market and specialty goods. Although it no longer has the dominance across Gotham as it did from the late 1950s to the mid-1980s, Wayne Foods continues to generate significant revenue for Wayne Enterprises. Wayne Foods produces specialized products like ecological foods, natural lines with no additives and controlled growing. Wayne Foods remains a source of information and contacts for Batman, helping to keep tabs on the food product market and threats pertaining to the safety of the food supply around Gotham City.
Wayne Shipping owns dozens of freighters and handles three-and-a-half billion tons of freight each month. It is used by Batman to gain an inside view on smuggling and drug trafficking. In 1986, Wayne Shipping merged with PAAL Ship Corporation, creating the world's largest commercial shipping operation for precious metals. The former PAAL CEO, Andreas Milanic, successfully floated Wayne Shipping on the New York Stock Exchange in 1988. The Wayne Family currently owns 57% of the company, with Milanic's second son, Dragoslav, owning 20% (and the remaining 23% is in public ownership). Despite a lack of investment in Wayne Shipping since the merger took place, the company still remains an important player in world ocean transportation.
Wayne Yards is responsible for the building of a large number of naval warships, commercial and private ships, and is currently building a Nimitz class aircraft carrier in Gotham. Wayne Steel and Wayne Yards facilities repair a large number of cruisers and destroyers, and also have contacts within the upper echelons of the Navy and the global maritime business.
Wayne Industries is a research and development company used for industrial purposes. The company studies, researches, and develops cleaner, mechanical fission and fusion power plants; and also owns many factories and normal labor units. The company is heavily involved in the industrial circuit, developing industrial machinery such as, manufacturing heavy engines, motors, pneumatic systems and large scale systems. Additionally, Wayne Industries is also involved in automobile manufacturing (Wayne Automotive) and cloth making. Wayne Mining is also a part of Wayne Industries, along with the few power stations (Wayne Electric) the company owns. Wayne Mining mostly mines and produces gold and some precious stones in Africa.
This division of Wayne Enterprises remains a facility for the research and development of more innovative medical procedures and system. The company educates, trains and teaches a huge amount of people annually. It maintains a good working relationship with the Gotham University and Drake Medical. Wayne Chemicals and Wayne Pharmaceuticals work closely with Wayne Biotech to develop new medical vaccines and medicines for the treatment of different diseases. Much of the present research at Wayne Biotech is focused on finding the cure for cancer. Since the human genome has already been unlocked, Wayne Biotech is studying cloning to produce feasible human organs for future transplants. The division is also involved in research into neurosurgery methods, the fight against AIDS and HIV, and reconstructive plastic surgery. Batman uses Wayne Biotech as a research tool for finding medical information, patient histories, information on illnesses, and thus clues for his crime prevention activities.
Wayne Medical is Wayne Biotech’s sister company, but each has different fields of study and work. Wayne Medical handles most of the healthcare system in Gotham and also studies cancer and AIDS with Wayne Biotech. Wayne Medical is focused more on researching illnesses than treating them. It maintains and runs many hospitals in Gotham City and helps the Wayne Foundation with the orphanages.
Wayne Electronics is a large consortium that has recently become a major player in the home and personal computing market. Its products rival LexCorp's in terms of speed, durability and ease of use. Wayne Electronics is a large consortium that manufactures almost anything from portable radios to stereo and Hi-Fi systems, movie cameras, cameras and electronics, measuring devices, scanners, surveillance equipment, computers and other electronics devices. Wayne Electronics is one of the top selling brand names in electronics, from multimedia to precision systems. Its other branches of business include information technology, wired networks, wireless networks and space exploration systems and satellites.
Batman utilizes contacts through Wayne Electronics in the media and entertainment industry, even if in lesser degree than through Wayne Entertainment. Wayne Electronics' contracts with the aerospace, nautical and military industries provide contacts as well.
Wayne Entertainment owns many arenas and stadiums in Gotham and has leased out the Sommerset Stadium to the Metropolis Monarchs and operates its own record label, Wayne Records. This division of Wayne Enterprises continuously innovates new areas in entertainment to create a niche for itself in the entertainment industry around Gotham. Furthermore, Wayne Entertainment has working partnerships with several modeling agencies and multimedia houses, and provides a large number of contacts and information. The Daily Planet newspaper, where Clark Kent and his wife, Lois Lane, work, is operated by Wayne Entertainment. Wayne Entertainment is in direct competition with WGBS (run by Galaxy Communications) and LexCom (run by LexCorp). Those companies, along with other television and movie companies, provide the same services as Wayne Entertainment. Through Wayne Entertainment, Batman has contacts in the media and entertainment industries.
Wayne Construction is the property, construction and civil engineering division of Wayne Enterprises. The division has played a prominent with the construction of a free railway system around Gotham City, wiping out government corruption in the process. In addition, Bruce Wayne himself amassed a private fortune of his own as a successful real estate developer before Gotham became a booming metropolis.
Wayne Chemicals is a part of technology unit at Wayne Enterprises. It controls the branches such as Wayne Oil, Wayne Pharmaceuticals and Wayne Botanical. Wayne Oil acquired Luxor Oil, another oil company that has oil wells, drilling and refineries, providing fuel for Gotham as well as source of investment income for Batman. Wayne Chemicals also has a small percentage of ownership in Tyler Chemicals, based in New York City. Wayne Oil gives Batman a major connection to OPEC and other oil organizations and companies around the world. Wayne Chemicals exercises strong scientific and technological proficiency at developing new compounds and chemicals, but has shifted to research and development in the 1980s. With the oil fields, wells and refineries Wayne Oil purchased with Luxor Oil, it has also started to do research in petrochemicals even more than before. At the same time, it has concentrated a huge effort towards alternative fuel sources. Wayne Chemicals is the first company to have created a power generator using algae. Wayne Pharmaceuticals is another large R&D unit at Wayne Chemicals, providing income, scientific breakthroughs, direct links in the scientific community as well as giving him a technological edge over his adversaries.
Wayne Steel is the steel manufacturing division at Wayne Enterprises. The Steel plan are among the oldest steel mills and one of the oldest shipyards in Gotham City and have nearly as much fame as the Newport News Shipyards. The Wayne Steel shipyards date back to the founding of the Tricorner naval yards. As the government's own naval shipyards started to pull out from Gotham, Wayne Steel moved in and acquired them for WayneYards.The division of the company has always maintained a great working relationship with Gotham-based shipyards. Due to the high quality of their steel, Wayne Steel have also supplied shipyards outside of Gotham with their steel needs. Recent globe-spanning events have left the US navy depleted of ships and the U.S. government since been its most prominent customer for the division, as Wayne Steel has run into a boom and at times can't supply enough steel to the industry. Because of this, Wayne Steel has started to open more steel mills close to Gotham and also around the United States. This has a lead to a major windfall profits for the company. Metallurgical studies have become extremely crucial as alien technologies and new alloys have been studied and then replicated. A new side of the business that has only recently started to take off has positioned Wayne Steel it has had with the government from the 19th century, the division of the company has become a market leader in the study of alien alloys from recent economic and manufacturing crises. This division of Wayne Enterprises allows Batman to prioritize technology and alloys for him to study. Wayne Steel's alliance with the US Navy and the government has produced numerous contacts for Wayne Steel.
The Wayne Foundation is the holding company for the Thomas Wayne Foundation and the Martha Wayne Foundation. The Wayne Foundation funds scientific research and helps people with research by providing facilities and training.
The foundation has its own building, called the Wayne Foundation Building, which includes a penthouse where Batman lived for a period of time. It also has a secret elevator that leads to a matching Batcave in a secret sub-basement under the building.
Through the Wayne Foundation and the organizations underneath, Wayne not only addresses social problems encouraging crime and assists victims in a way that his Batman persona cannot, but the arrangement also provides a large network of connections in the world of charities. He finds out about the newest trends and newest arts, and at the same time maintains connections to the streets through the soup kitchens and social services groups, which augments his crime fighting efforts.
Under the Wayne Foundation building, there is a secret bunker. As of Batman #687, Dick Grayson has taken to using this as his "Batcave", stating that he wishes to embody the role of Batman in a way that is specific to him as well as getting closer to the action in the city. This is similar to the bunker seen in the 2008 film The Dark Knight. The bunker is as well-equipped as the original Batcave, including the Subway Rocket vehicle stationed beneath the bunker.
Thomas Wayne Foundation
The Thomas Wayne Foundation is a foundation for medicine and medical help. This foundation gives annual awards for medical breakthroughs and lifelong commitment, similar to the Nobel Foundation. The Thomas Wayne Foundation is also responsible for funding the Thomas Wayne Memorial Clinic in Park Row, Gotham's infamous Crime Alley. The foundation funds and runs dozens of clinics in Gotham. Bruce Wayne's surrogate mother, Dr. Leslie Thompkins, runs the Memorial Clinic in Crime Alley and governed the other clinics until she left Gotham.
Martha Wayne Foundation
The Martha Wayne Foundation is a patron and supporter of arts, families, education, and tolerance. The foundation supports and helps to run a number of orphanages and free schools, and provides teachers for those who have learning difficulties. Artists can apply for grants from the foundation to help support them in furthering the arts. The foundation sponsors companies like Family Finders. Family Finders is an organization directed at finding lost people and uniting families. The Martha Wayne Foundation also sponsors and runs dozens of soup kitchens within the city.
In other media
DC animated universe
- In Batman: The Animated Series and The New Batman Adventures, Wayne Industries was run both by Bruce Wayne and Lucius Fox. Attempts at taking over the company were made by rival companies, including Roland Daggett of Daggett Industries. After GothCorp's CEO Ferris Boyle was arrested, Wayne Industries helped keep GothCorp running without firing any employees. Wayne Industries once partnered with LexCorp for the development of cybernetic scouting drones, the Waynelexes, but Bruce terminated the contract after Lex Luthor created several large-scale military prototypes, violating the joint approval clause stipulated in their agreement, as well as his involvement in the Joker's rampage on Metropolis. Wayne Industries also hired Arnold Wesker after his release from Arkham Asylum.
- In Batman Beyond, the elder Bruce Wayne defended against numerous hostile takeovers by shrewd industrialist Derek Powers of Powers Technology. However, sometime after Bruce retired as Batman, Powers succeeded in merging the two companies, creating Wayne-Powers Enterprises. Powers has used the company's resources for many illegal business transactions, including making biological weapons for rogue nations. After Powers' criminal identity as Blight was revealed, his son Paxton took over as CEO. Paxton was soon arrested after attempting to murder Bruce and for several major art thefts. Bruce then finally reclaimed the company as both Chairman and CEO and renamed the company again Wayne Enterprises.
- In an episode of the Teen Titans animated series, when Robin defected to Slade, the remaining four Titans fought against Robin on top of Wayne Enterprises, destroying the letters "A" and "Y" in the process.
- Wayne Enterprises appears in The Batman under the name Wayne Industries. In "The Big Heat," Wayne Industries competed against GothCorp for the handling of the Children's Hospital. Although GothCorp won the City Council's vote, the decision was overturned when revealed that Gothcorp was guilty of industrial sabotage and hiring Firefly. The Children's Hospital contract was then awarded to Wayne Industeries.
- The Metropolis division of Wayne Enterprises is briefly seen in the Young Justice episode "Schooled". The episode "Infiltrator" features the Philadelphia branch of Waynetech, which is attacked by swarm of nanites unleashed by the League of Shadows.
- In the pilot of the CW's live-action TV series The Flash, a spin-off of Arrow, a newspaper article from the future tells of a Wayne Tech/Queen Incorporated merger being completed in 2024.
Wayne Enterprises has been featured in several episodes of Gotham.
- In the 1966 film Batman, Bruce Wayne is presented as head of the Wayne Foundation, which is described as a world-renowned organization dedicated to peace and understanding among nations.
Tim Burton / Joel Schumacher series
- In the 1989 film Batman, no mention is made of any family company owned by Bruce Wayne. In the beginning of the film at the Harvey Dent Press Dinner, there is a seat for Bruce Wayne, which is empty (because he is busy working as Batman), suggesting that he funded Dent's campaign. In the casino scene in Wayne Manor, Vicki Vale asks him what he does for a living, and he is about to answer, but is interrupted by Alfred.
- In the 1992 sequel Batman Returns, still no mention is made of Wayne Enterprises in any capacity. However, Bruce is shown attending a meeting with Max Shreck, suggesting that he is known as a stockholder with holdings in various companies.
- In the 1995 film Batman Forever, Wayne Enterprises was finally presented in the series, with Bruce Wayne serving as head of the entire company (CEO), while Fred Stickley was head of the research department until being murdered by Edward Nygma, an employee in that department. Bruce also has a transport tunnel behind his desk in the main office that transports him back to Wayne Manor. In the deleted scenes, the Wayne foundation is mentioned by Bruce and Alfred.
- In the 1997 sequel Batman & Robin, Wayne Enterprises was revealed to have been funding Dr. Jason Woodrue's research only to withdraw it when Bruce realized his intentions. It is when Poison Ivy finds a beaker with the Wayne Enterprises logo on it that causes her to travel to Gotham City. The company is briefly mentioned again later during the donation of the giant telescope for the Gotham Observatory, which Mr. Freeze later turns into a giant freezing weapon.
Christopher Nolan series
- In Batman Begins, board member William Earle (Rutger Hauer) takes over the company after the deaths of Thomas and Martha Wayne. He assures Bruce that the company will be in good hands until he is old enough to claim it. However, after Bruce's disappearance, Earle has Bruce declared legally dead so he can carry on his plan of turning Wayne Enterprises into an open capital company. However, due to Bruce's act of leaving all his money and assets to Alfred, Earle was unable to liquidate his majority shareholding which would have allowed for a complete takeover. When Bruce finally returns to Gotham, he does not show obvious interest in reclaiming the family business. He is given a generous trust fund to live off. Instead, he chooses to work in Applied Sciences, using it and his coworker Lucius Fox to provide him with high-tech equipment. He takes gear originally made military use, including body armor and a prototype armored vehicle, and uses them to create equipment for his war on crime. At the film's end when Wayne Enterprises becomes a public corporation, Bruce reveals he has become majority shareholder by means of a number of shell companies he established using his trust fund. He then fires Earle and installs Fox as the active CEO. According to Forbes' 25 Largest Fictional Companies, Wayne Enterprises had estimated sales of $31.3 billion in 2007.
- Wayne Enterprises appears in Batman: Gotham Knight (which takes place between Batman Begins and The Dark Knight).
- In The Dark Knight, Fox remains as the CEO of Wayne Enterprises. The company's research and development department has produced specialized fabrics and materials, electromagnetic gyroscopic navigational satellite systems (as shown on Batman: Gotham Knight), antihemorrhagic agent, radiation stamping technology, and rotor blades made of metal composites that have low radar signature and special acoustic design. As in Batman Begins, Bruce continues to utilize the resources of his company to aid his vigilante work as Batman. For example, he has Fox arrange a business meeting with a Chinese mogul Lau (Chin Han) in order to "get a closer look" at Lau's business practices and confirm his own suspicions that Lau and his company, LSI Holdings, had been cooperating with the Gotham underworld in money laundering schemes. He also had Fox build components for his new Batsuit. Batman also has used the company's radiation stamping technology to lightly irradiate a large quantity of money for Gordon and his detectives to use to track the mobs' money and identify the banks that are aiding them. Later on, Batman uses a sonar technology developed by Fox in order to track down and capture the Joker. In addition, a subplot of the film involves Wayne Enterprises' fiduciary Coleman Reese (Joshua Harto), who accidentally discovers Bruce Wayne's identity as Batman while reviewing the company's budget when he uncovers blueprints for the Tumblers, and attempts to blackmail Bruce and Fox. Fox gets Reese to back down by questioning his decision to blackmail a man he believes to be a violent vigilante. Later, Bruce "accidentally" saves Reese from the Joker's attention. Ultimately, Reese does not reveal his discovery and resigns from Wayne Enterprises.
- By the time of The Dark Knight Rises, Wayne Enterprises is depicted to be in tough times after the company invests huge sums of money into researching a new fusion power project, but Bruce Wayne subsequently mothballs it. A series of investments falsely made by Bane in Bruce's name puts Wayne Enterprises further into financial ruin, opening an opportunity for business magnate John Daggett to buy the company. Bruce enlists Miranda Tate and her wealth to buy controlling interest in the company which helps him save it and to protect the nuclear reactor by supporting her as the new chair and CEO of the company. With her and Bruce's eventual deaths, all of his assets and majority share holding are placed in trust and sold to pay his debts. As a result, the company continues to run and the position of CEO is returned to Fox. The Wayne Foundation was also mentioned as sponsoring a Gotham City orphanage, where Detective John Blake was raised, and whose funding was cut following the company's fall from profitability.
DC Extended Universe
- During the film Man of Steel, General Zod destroys a satellite, which has the Wayne Enterprises logo on it. The Wayne Enterprises logo is the same one used in The Dark Knight Trilogy.
- In Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice, Wayne Enterprises was called Wayne Financial and featured a different logo.
- Wayne Enterprises Tower appears in DC Universe Online. It is located in the Diamond District while the original Wayne Enterprises building is located in East End.
- Wayne Enterprises Tower appears in the Batman: Arkham games - Batman: Arkham Asylum, Arkham City, Arkham Origins, and Arkham Knight. In the first game, Wayne Enterprises is the answer to one of Riddler's riddles: "Gotham's greatest family towers over the city."
- Wayne Enterprises Tower appears in Lego Batman 2: DC Super Heroes. It is seen being attacked by the team of Lex Luthor and The Joker until the Justice League stopped them from destroying it. It was rebuilt afterwards.
- Batman: Hush
- Shanzelle Fitz-Williams (December 31, 2013). "The Costs of Being a Superhero: A Financial Profile of Batman". Bidness. Retrieved 2 September 2014.
- Noer, Michael; Ewalt, David M. (December 10, 2007). "The 25 Largest Fictional Companies". Forbes. Retrieved July 11, 2010.
- Johnson, Scott. "Major ‘Man of Steel’ Easter Egg".
- Batman Begins at the Internet Movie Database
- Batman Begins at Warner Bros.
- The Dark Knight at the Internet Movie Database
- The Dark Knight at Warner Bros.