Ways and Means (Xenophon)

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Ways and Means (Greek: Πόροι ἢ περὶ Προσόδων, Poroi e peri Prosodon, "Revenues") was written in 354 BC and is believed to be the last work written by Xenophon.[1] Shortly after Athens' defeat in the Social War and the collapse of the Second Athenian Empire, the city was facing financial ruin.[2]

Ways and Means consists of 5 chapters. In chapter 1 Xenophon lists the qualities of Athens that make it qualified for large revenue. The qualities that Xenophon lists are that the seasons in Attica are mild, the land and the sea near it are productive, and Athens is not near the land of the barbarians.[3] In chapter 2, Xenophon suggests that Athens should increase the population of metics (foreigners without citizens' privileges who had to pay a tax for living in Athens) as a means of increasing revenue.


  1. ^ Xenophon the Athenian by W. E. Higgins (1977), p. 138
  2. ^ Economic and Social History of Ancient Greece by M. M. Austin (1980), p. 123
  3. ^ Ways and Means, Ch. 1, Xenophon

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