Weapon of mass destruction
|Weapons of mass destruction|
A weapon of mass destruction (WMD) is a nuclear, radiological, chemical, biological, or any other weapon that can kill and bring significant harm to numerous humans or cause great damage to human-made structures (e.g., buildings), natural structures (e.g., mountains), or the biosphere. The scope and usage of the term has evolved and been disputed, often signifying more politically than technically. Originally coined in reference to aerial bombing with chemical explosives during World War II, it has later come to refer to large-scale weaponry of other technologies, such as chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear warfare.
Early uses of this term
Who can think at this present time without a sickening of the heart of the appalling slaughter, the suffering, the manifold misery brought by war to Spain and to China? Who can think without horror of what another widespread war would mean, waged as it would be with all the new weapons of mass destruction?
At the time, nuclear weapons had not been developed. Japan conducted research on biological weapons (see Unit 731), and chemical weapons had seen wide battlefield use in World War I. Their use was outlawed by the Geneva Protocol of 1925. Italy used mustard agent against civilians and soldiers in Ethiopia in 1935–36.
Following the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki that ended World War II and during the Cold War, the term came to refer more to non-conventional weapons. The application of the term to specifically nuclear and radiological weapons is traced by William Safire to the Russian phrase "Оружие массового поражения" – oruzhiye massovogo porazheniya (weapon of mass destruction).
William Safire credits James Goodby (of the Brookings Institution) with tracing what he considers the earliest known English-language use soon after the nuclear bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki (although it is not quite verbatim): a communique from a 15 November 1945, meeting of Harry Truman, Clement Attlee and Mackenzie King (probably drafted by Vannevar Bush, as Bush claimed in 1970) referred to "weapons adaptable to mass destruction."
Safire says Bernard Baruch used that exact phrase in 1946 (in a speech at the United Nations probably written by Herbert Bayard Swope). The phrase found its way into the very first resolution the United Nations General assembly adopted in January 1946 in London, which used the wording "the elimination from national armaments of atomic weapons and of all other weapons adaptable to mass destruction." The resolution also created the Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)).
An exact use of this term was given in a lecture "Atomic Energy as an Atomic Problem" by J. Robert Oppenheimer. He delivered the lecture to the Foreign Service and the State Department, on 17 September 1947; it is reprinted in The Open Mind (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1955).
It is a very far reaching control which would eliminate the rivalry between nations in this field, which would prevent the surreptitious arming of one nation against another, which would provide some cushion of time before atomic attack, and presumably therefore before any attack with weapons of mass destruction, and which would go a long way toward removing atomic energy at least as a source of conflict between the powers.
During a speech at Rice University on 12 September 1962, President John F. Kennedy spoke of not filling space "with weapons of mass destruction, but with instruments of knowledge and understanding." The following month, during a televised presentation about the Cuban Missile Crisis on 22 October 1962, Kennedy made reference to "offensive weapons of sudden mass destruction."
An early use of the exact phrase in an international treaty is in the Outer Space Treaty of 1967, but the treaty provides no definition of the phrase, and the treaty also categorically prohibits the stationing of "weapons" and the testing of "any type of weapon" in outer space, in addition to its specific prohibition against placing in orbit, or installing on celestial bodies, "any objects carrying nuclear weapons or any other kinds of weapons of mass destruction."
Evolution of its use
During the Cold War, the term "weapons of mass destruction" was primarily a reference to nuclear weapons. At the time, in the West the euphemism "strategic weapons" was used to refer to the American nuclear arsenal. However, there is no precise definition of the "strategic" category, neither considering range nor yield of the nuclear weapon.
Subsequent to Operation Opera, the destruction of a pre-operational nuclear reactor inside Iraq by the Israeli Air Force in 1981, the Israeli prime minister, Menachem Begin, countered criticism by saying that "on no account shall we permit an enemy to develop weapons of mass destruction against the people of Israel." This policy of pre-emptive action against real or perceived weapons of mass destruction became known as the Begin Doctrine.
The term "weapons of mass destruction" continued to see periodic use, usually in the context of nuclear arms control; Ronald Reagan used it during the 1986 Reykjavík Summit, when referring to the 1967 Outer Space Treaty. Reagan's successor, George H.W. Bush, used the term in a 1989 speech to the United Nations, primarily in reference to chemical arms.
The end of the Cold War reduced U.S. reliance on nuclear weapons as a deterrent, causing it to shift its focus to disarmament. With the 1990 invasion of Kuwait and 1991 Gulf War, Iraq's nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons programs became a particular concern of the first Bush Administration. Following the war, Bill Clinton and other western politicians and media continued to use the term, usually in reference to ongoing attempts to dismantle Iraq's weapons programs.
After the 11 September 2001 attacks and the 2001 anthrax attacks in the United States, an increased fear of nonconventional weapons and asymmetric warfare took hold in many countries. The fear reached a crescendo with the 2002 Iraq disarmament crisis and the alleged existence of weapons of mass destruction in Iraq that became the primary justification for the 2003 invasion of Iraq; however, American forces found none in Iraq. They found old stockpiles of chemical munitions including sarin and mustard agents, but all were considered to be unusable because of corrosion or degradation. Iraq, however, declared a chemical weapons stockpile in 2009 which U.N. personnel had secured after the 1991 Gulf War. The stockpile contained mainly chemical precursors, but some munitions remained usable.
Because of its prolific use and (worldwide) public profile during this period, the American Dialect Society voted "weapons of mass destruction" (and its abbreviation, "WMD") the word of the year in 2002, and in 2003 Lake Superior State University added WMD to its list of terms banished for "Mis-use, Over-use and General Uselessness" (and "as a card that trumps all forms of aggression").
Definitions of the term
The most widely used definition of "weapons of mass destruction" is that of nuclear, biological, or chemical weapons (NBC) although there is no treaty or customary international law that contains an authoritative definition. Instead, international law has been used with respect to the specific categories of weapons within WMD, and not to WMD as a whole. While nuclear, chemical and biological weapons are regarded as the three major types of WMDs, some analysts have argued that radiological materials as well as missile technology and delivery systems such as aircraft and ballistic missiles could be labeled as WMDs as well.
However, there is an argument that nuclear and biological weapons do not belong in the same category as chemical and "dirty bomb" radiological weapons, which have limited destructive potential (and close to none, as far as property is concerned), whereas nuclear and biological weapons have the unique ability to kill large numbers of people with very small amounts of material, and thus could be said to belong in a class by themselves.
The NBC definition has also been used in official U.S. documents, by the U.S. President, the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the U.S. Government Accountability Office.
Chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear weapons capable of a high order of destruction or causing mass casualties and exclude the means of transporting or propelling the weapon where such means is a separable and divisible part from the weapon. Also called WMD.
The significance of the words separable and divisible part of the weapon is that missiles such as the Pershing II and the SCUD are considered weapons of mass destruction, while aircraft capable of carrying bombloads are not.
In 2004, the United Kingdom's Butler Review recognized the "considerable and long-standing academic debate about the proper interpretation of the phrase 'weapons of mass destruction'". The committee set out to avoid the general term but when using it, employed the definition of United Nations Security Council Resolution 687, which defined the systems which Iraq was required to abandon:
- "Nuclear weapons or nuclear-weapons-usable material or any sub-systems or components or any research, development, support or manufacturing facilities relating to [nuclear weapons].
- Chemical and biological weapons and all stocks of agents and all related subsystems and components and all research, development, support and manufacturing facilities.
- Ballistic missiles with a range greater than 150 kilometres and related major parts, and repair and production facilities."
Chemical weapons expert Gert G. Harigel considers only nuclear weapons true weapons of mass destruction, because "only nuclear weapons are completely indiscriminate by their explosive power, heat radiation and radioactivity, and only they should therefore be called a weapon of mass destruction". He prefers to call chemical and biological weapons "weapons of terror" when aimed against civilians and "weapons of intimidation" for soldiers.
Testimony of one such soldier expresses the same viewpoint. For a period of several months in the winter of 2002–2003, U.S. Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz frequently used the term "weapons of mass terror", apparently also recognizing the distinction between the psychological and the physical effects of many things currently falling into the WMD category.
Gustavo Bell Lemus, the Vice President of Colombia, at 9 July 2001 United Nations Conference on the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects, quoted the Millennium Report of the UN Secretary-General to the General Assembly, in which Kofi Annan said that small arms could be described as WMD because the fatalities they cause "dwarf that of all other weapons systems – and in most years greatly exceed the toll of the atomic bombs that devastated Hiroshima and Nagasaki".
An additional condition often implicitly applied to WMD is that the use of the weapons must be strategic. In other words, they would be designed to "have consequences far outweighing the size and effectiveness of the weapons themselves". The strategic nature of WMD also defines their function in the military doctrine of total war as targeting the means a country would use to support and supply its war effort, specifically its population, industry, and natural resources.
Within U.S. civil defense organizations, the category is now Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosive (CBRNE), which defines WMD as:
(1) Any explosive, incendiary, poison gas, bomb, grenade, or rocket having a propellant charge of more than four ounces [113 g], missile having an explosive or incendiary charge of more than one-quarter ounce [7 g], or mine or device similar to the above. (2) Poison gas. (3) Any weapon involving a disease organism. (4) Any weapon that is designed to release radiation at a level dangerous to human life.
- any weapon or device that is intended, or has the capability, to cause death or serious bodily injury to a significant number of people through the release, dissemination, or impact of:
- toxic or poisonous chemicals or their precursors
- a disease organism
- radiation or radioactivity
For the purposes of the prevention of weapons proliferation, the U.S. Code defines weapons of mass destruction as "chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons, and chemical, biological, and nuclear materials used in the manufacture of such weapons".
Criminal (civilian) definition
- any "destructive device" defined as any explosive, incendiary, or poison gas – bomb, grenade, rocket having a propellant charge of more than four ounces, missile having an explosive or incendiary charge of more than one-quarter ounce, mine, or device similar to any of the devices described in the preceding clauses
- any weapon that is designed or intended to cause death or serious bodily injury through the release, dissemination, or impact of toxic or poisonous chemicals, or their precursors
- any weapon involving a biological agent, toxin, or vector
- any weapon that is designed to release radiation or radioactivity at a level dangerous to human life
- any "destructive device" as defined in Title 18 USC Section 921: any explosive, incendiary, or poison gas – bomb, grenade, rocket having a propellant charge of more than four ounces, missile having an explosive or incendiary charge of more than one-quarter ounce, mine, or device similar to any of the devices described in the preceding clauses
- any weapon designed or intended to cause death or serious bodily injury through the release, dissemination, or impact of toxic or poisonous chemicals or their precursors
- any weapon involving a disease organism
- any weapon designed to release radiation or radioactivity at a level dangerous to human life
- any device or weapon designed or intended to cause death or serious bodily injury by causing a malfunction of or destruction of an aircraft or other vehicle that carries humans or of an aircraft or other vehicle whose malfunction or destruction may cause said aircraft or other vehicle to cause death or serious bodily injury to humans who may be within range of the vector in its course of travel or the travel of its debris.
Indictments and convictions for possession and use of WMD such as truck bombs, pipe bombs, shoe bombs, and cactus needles coated with a biological toxin have been obtained under 18 USC 2332a.
As defined by 18 USC §2332 (a), a Weapon of Mass Destruction is:
- (A) any destructive device as defined in section 921 of the title;
- (B) any weapon that is designed or intended to cause death or serious bodily injury through the release, dissemination, or impact of toxic or poisonous chemicals, or their precursors;
- (C) any weapon involving a biological agent, toxin, or vector (as those terms are defined in section 178 of this title); or
- (D) any weapon that is designed to release radiation or radioactivity at a level dangerous to human life;
Under the same statute, conspiring, attempting, threatening, or using a Weapon of Mass Destruction may be imprisoned for any term of years or for life, and if resulting in death, be punishable by death or by imprisonment for any terms of years or for life. They can also be asked to pay a maximum fine of $250,000.
The Washington Post reported on 30 March 2006: "Jurors asked the judge in the death penalty trial of Zacarias Moussaoui today to define the term 'weapons of mass destruction' and were told it includes airplanes used as missiles". Moussaoui was indicted and tried for conspiracy to both destroy aircraft and use weapons of mass destruction, among others.
The surviving Boston Marathon bombing perpetrator, Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, was charged in June 2013 with the federal offense of "use of a weapon of mass destruction" after he and his brother Tamerlan Tsarnaev allegedly placed crude shrapnel bombs, made from pressure cookers packed with ball bearings and nails, near the finish line of the Boston Marathon. He was convicted in April 2015. The bombing resulted in three deaths and at least 264 injuries.
The development and use of WMD is governed by several international conventions and treaties.
|Treaty||Date signed||Date of entry into force||Number of states parties||Objective|
|Geneva Protocol||17 June 1925||8 February 1928||145||Ban the use of chemical and biological weapons|
|Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty||5 August 1963||10 October 1963||126 (list)||Ban all nuclear weapons tests except for those conducted underground|
|Outer Space Treaty||27 January 1967||10 October 1967||111||Ban stationing of WMD in space|
|Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)||1 July 1968||5 March 1970||191 (list)||1. prevent nuclear proliferation; 2. promote nuclear disarmament; 3. promote peaceful uses of nuclear energy|
|Seabed Arms Control Treaty||11 February 1971||18 May 1972||94||Ban stationing of WMD on the ocean floor|
|Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT)||10 September 1996||Not in force||170 (list)||Ban all nuclear weapons tests|
|Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BWC)||10 April 1972||26 March 1975||183 (list)||Comprehensively ban biological weapons|
|Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC)||3 September 1992||29 April 1997||193 (list)||Comprehensively ban chemical weapons|
|Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TPNW) (2021)||20 September 2017||22 January 2021||54 (list)||Comprehensively ban nuclear weapons|
Use, possession, and access
There are eight countries that have declared they possess nuclear weapons and are known to have tested a nuclear weapon, only five of which are members of the NPT. The eight are China, France, India, North Korea, Pakistan, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Israel is considered by most analysts to have nuclear weapons numbering in the low hundreds as well, but maintains an official policy of nuclear ambiguity, neither denying nor confirming its nuclear status.
South Africa developed a small nuclear arsenal in the 1980s but disassembled them in the early 1990s, making it the only country to have fully given up an independently developed nuclear weapons arsenal. Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine inherited stockpiles of nuclear arms following the break-up of the Soviet Union, but relinquished them to the Russian Federation.
The history of biological warfare goes back at least to the siege of Caffa in 1346 and possibly much farther back to antiquity. However, only by the turn of the 20th century did advances in microbiology allow for the large-scale weaponization of pathogens. At least nine states have operated offensive biological weapons programs during the 20th century, including Canada (1946 - 1956), France (1921 - 1972), Iraq (1985 - 1990s), Japan (1930s - 1945), Rhodesia, South Africa (1981 - 1993), the Soviet Union (1920s - 1992), the United Kingdom (1934 - 1956), and the United States (1943 - 1969).
The Japanese biological weapons program, which was run by the secret Imperial Japanese Army Unit 731 during the Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945), became infamous for conducting often fatal human experiments on prisoners and producing biological weapons for combat use. The Soviet Union covertly operated the world's largest, longest, and most sophisticated biological weapons program, in violation of its obligations under international law.
International restrictions on biological warfare began with the 1925 Geneva Protocol, which prohibits the use but not the possession or development of biological and chemical weapons. Upon ratification of the Geneva Protocol, several countries made reservations regarding its applicability and use in retaliation. Due to these reservations, it was in practice a "no-first-use" agreement only. The 1972 Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) supplements the Geneva Protocol by prohibiting the development, production, acquisition, transfer, stockpiling, and use of biological weapons. Having entered into force on 26 March 1975, the BWC was the first multilateral disarmament treaty to ban the production of an entire category of weapons of mass destruction. As of March 2021, 183 states have become party to the treaty.
|Countries with known or possible chemical weapons, as of 2013[needs update]|
|Nation||CW Possession||Signed CWC||Ratified CWC|
|Albania||Known||January 14, 1993||May 11, 1994|
|China||Probable||January 13, 1993||April 4, 1997|
|India||Known||January 14, 1993||September 3, 1996|
|Iran||Known||January 13, 1993||November 3, 1997|
|Israel||Probable||January 13, 1993||No|
|Japan||Probable||January 13, 1993||September 15, 1995|
|Libya||Known||No||January 6, 2004 |
|Myanmar (Burma)||Possible||January 14, 1993||July 8, 2015|
|Pakistan||Probable||January 13, 1993||October 28, 1997|
|Russia||Known||January 13, 1993||November 5, 1997|
|Probable||No||April 20, 2000 |
|Sudan||Possible||No||May 24, 1999 |
|Syria||Known||No||September 14, 2013 |
|United States||Known||January 13, 1993||April 25, 1997|
|Vietnam||Probable||January 13, 1993||September 30, 1998|
Chemical weapons have been used around the world by various civilizations since ancient times. In the industrial era, they were used extensively by both sides during World War I, and by the Axis powers during World War II (both in battle and in extermination camp gas chambers) though Allied powers also stockpiled them. Countries in Western Europe renounced the use of such weapons. As of 2018, a handful of countries have known inventories, and many are in the process of being safely destroyed under the Chemical Weapons Convention. Nonetheless, proliferation and use in war zones remains an active concern, most recently the use of chemical weapons in the Syrian Civil War.
Ethics and international legal status
Some commentators classify some or all the uses of nuclear, chemical, or biological weapons during wartime as a war crime (or crime against humanity if widespread) because they kill civilians (who are protected by the laws of war) indiscriminately or are specifically prohibited by international treaties (which have become more comprehensive over time). Proponents of use say that specific uses of such weapons have been necessary for defense or to avoid more deaths in a protracted war. The tactic of terror bombing from aircraft, and generally targeting cities with area bombardment or saturation carpet bombing has also been criticized, defended, and prohibited by treaty in the same way; the destructive effect of conventional saturation bombing is similar to that of a nuclear weapon.
United States politics
Due to the potentially indiscriminate effects of WMD, the fear of a WMD attack has shaped political policies and campaigns, fostered social movements, and has been the central theme of many films. Support for different levels of WMD development and control varies nationally and internationally. Yet understanding of the nature of the threats is not high, in part because of imprecise usage of the term by politicians and the media.
Fear of WMD, or of threats diminished by the possession of WMD, has long been used to catalyze public support for various WMD policies. They include mobilization of pro- and anti-WMD campaigners alike, and generation of popular political support. The term WMD may be used as a powerful buzzword or to generate a culture of fear. It is also used ambiguously, particularly by not distinguishing among the different types of WMD.
A television commercial called Daisy, promoting Democrat Lyndon Johnson's 1964 presidential candidacy, invoked the fear of a nuclear war and was an element in Johnson's subsequent election.
Later, United States' President George W. Bush used the threat of potential WMD in Iraq as justification for the 2003 invasion of Iraq. Broad reference to Iraqi WMD in general was seen as an element of President Bush's arguments. The claim that Iraq possessed Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) was a major factor that led to the invasion of Iraq in 2003 by Coalition forces.
Over 500 munitions containing mustard agent and sarin were discovered throughout Iraq since 2003; they were made in the 1980s and are no longer usable as originally intended due to corrosion.
The American Heritage Dictionary defines a weapon of mass destruction as: "a weapon that can cause widespread destruction or kill large numbers of people, especially a nuclear, chemical, or biological weapon." In other words, it does not have to be nuclear, biological or chemical (NBC). For example, Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, one of the perpetrators of the Boston Marathon bombing, was charged under United States law 18 U.S.C. 2332A for using a weapon of mass destruction and that was a pressure cooker bomb. In other words, it was a weapon that caused large-scale death and destruction, without being an NBC weapon.
In 2004, the Center for International and Security Studies at Maryland (CISSM) released a report examining the media's coverage of WMD issues during three separate periods: nuclear weapons tests by India and Pakistan in May 1998; the U.S. announcement of evidence of a North Korean nuclear weapons program in October 2002; and revelations about Iran's nuclear program in May 2003. The CISSM report argues that poor coverage resulted less from political bias among the media than from tired journalistic conventions. The report's major findings were that:
1. Most media outlets represented WMD as a monolithic menace, failing to adequately distinguish between weapons programs and actual weapons or to address the real differences among chemical, biological, nuclear, and radiological weapons.
2. Most journalists accepted the Bush administration's formulation of the "War on Terror" as a campaign against WMD, in contrast to coverage during the Clinton era, when many journalists made careful distinctions between acts of terrorism and the acquisition and use of WMD.
3. Many stories stenographically reported the incumbent administration's perspective on WMD, giving too little critical examination of the way officials framed the events, issues, threats, and policy options.
4. Too few stories proffered alternative perspectives to official line, a problem exacerbated by the journalistic prioritizing of breaking-news stories and the "inverted pyramid" style of storytelling.— Susan D. Moeller, Media Coverage of Weapons of Mass Destruction
In a separate study published in 2005, a group of researchers assessed the effects reports and retractions in the media had on people's memory regarding the search for WMD in Iraq during the 2003 Iraq War. The study focused on populations in two coalition countries (Australia and the United States) and one opposed to the war (Germany). Results showed that U.S. citizens generally did not correct initial misconceptions regarding WMD, even following disconfirmation; Australian and German citizens were more responsive to retractions. Dependence on the initial source of information led to a substantial minority of Americans exhibiting false memory that WMD were indeed discovered, while they were not. This led to three conclusions:
- The repetition of tentative news stories, even if they are subsequently disconfirmed, can assist in the creation of false memories in a substantial proportion of people.
- Once information is published, its subsequent correction does not alter people's beliefs unless they are suspicious about the motives underlying the events the news stories are about.
- When people ignore corrections, they do so irrespective of how certain they are that the corrections occurred.
A poll conducted between June and September 2003 asked people whether they thought evidence of WMD had been discovered in Iraq since the war ended. They were also asked which media sources they relied upon. Those who obtained their news primarily from Fox News were three times as likely to believe that evidence of WMD had been discovered in Iraq than those who relied on PBS and NPR for their news, and one third more likely than those who primarily watched CBS.
|Media source||Respondents believing evidence of WMD had been found in Iraq|
Based on a series of polls taken from June–September 2003.
In 2006, Fox News reported the claims of two Republican lawmakers that WMDs had been found in Iraq, based upon unclassified portions of a report by the National Ground Intelligence Center. Quoting from the report, Senator Rick Santorum said "Since 2003, coalition forces have recovered approximately 500 weapons munitions which contain degraded mustard or sarin nerve agent". According to David Kay, who appeared before the U.S. House Armed Services Committee to discuss these badly corroded munitions, they were leftovers, many years old, improperly stored or destroyed by the Iraqis. Charles Duelfer agreed, stating on NPR's Talk of the Nation: "When I was running the ISG – the Iraq Survey Group – we had a couple of them that had been turned in to these IEDs, the improvised explosive devices. But they are local hazards. They are not a major, you know, weapon of mass destruction."
Later, wikileaks would show that WMDs of these kinds continued to be found as the Iraqi occupation continued.
Awareness and opinions of WMD have varied during the course of their history. Their threat is a source of unease, security, and pride to different people. The anti-WMD movement is embodied most in nuclear disarmament, and led to the formation of the British Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament in 1957.
In order to increase awareness of all kinds of WMD, in 2004 the nuclear physicist and Nobel Peace Prize winner Joseph Rotblat inspired the creation of The WMD Awareness Programme to provide trustworthy and up to date information on WMD worldwide.
In 1998 University of New Mexico's Institute for Public Policy released their third report on U.S. perceptions – including the general public, politicians and scientists – of nuclear weapons since the breakup of the Soviet Union. Risks of nuclear conflict, proliferation, and terrorism were seen as substantial.
While maintenance of the U.S. nuclear arsenal was considered above average in importance, there was widespread support for a reduction in the stockpile, and very little support for developing and testing new nuclear weapons.
Also in 1998, but after the UNM survey was conducted, nuclear weapons became an issue in India's election of March, in relation to political tensions with neighboring Pakistan. Prior to the election the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) announced it would "declare India a nuclear weapon state" after coming to power.
BJP won the elections, and on 14 May, three days after India tested nuclear weapons for the second time, a public opinion poll reported that a majority of Indians favored the country's nuclear build-up.
On 15 April 2004, the Program on International Policy Attitudes (PIPA) reported that U.S. citizens showed high levels of concern regarding WMD, and that preventing the spread of nuclear weapons should be "a very important U.S. foreign policy goal", accomplished through multilateral arms control rather than the use of military threats.
A Russian opinion poll conducted on 5 August 2005 indicated half the population believes new nuclear powers have the right to possess nuclear weapons. 39% believes the Russian stockpile should be reduced, though not fully eliminated.
In popular culture
Weapons of mass destruction and their related impacts have been a mainstay of popular culture since the beginning of the Cold War, as both political commentary and humorous outlet. The actual phrase "weapons of mass destruction" has been used similarly and as a way to characterise any powerful force or product since the Iraqi weapons crisis in the lead up to the Coalition invasion of Iraq in 2003.
Common hazard symbols
|Symbol Type (Toxic, Radioactive or Biohazard)||Symbol||Unicode||Image|
Radioactive weaponry/hazard symbol
The international radioactivity symbol (also known as trefoil) first appeared in 1946, at the University of California, Berkeley Radiation Laboratory. At the time, it was rendered as magenta, and was set on a blue background.
It is drawn with a central circle of radius R, the blades having an internal radius of 1.5R and an external radius of 5R, and separated from each other by 60°. It is meant to represent a radiating atom.
The International Atomic Energy Agency found that the trefoil radiation symbol is unintuitive and can be variously interpreted by those uneducated in its meaning; therefore, its role as a hazard warning was compromised as it did not clearly indicate "danger" to many non-Westerners and children who encountered it. As a result of research, a new radiation hazard symbol (ISO 21482) was developed in 2007 to be placed near the most dangerous parts of radiation sources featuring a skull, someone running away, and using a red rather than yellow background.
The red background is intended to convey urgent danger, and the sign is intended to be used on equipment where very strong ionizing radiation can be encountered if the device is dismantled or otherwise tampered with. The intended use of the sign is not in a place where the normal user will see it, but in a place where it will be seen by someone who has started to dismantle a radiation-emitting device or equipment. The aim of the sign is to warn people such as scrap metal workers to stop work and leave the area.
Biological weaponry/hazard symbol
Developed by Dow Chemical company in the 1960s for their containment products.
According to Charles Dullin, an environmental-health engineer who contributed to its development:
We wanted something that was memorable but meaningless, so we could educate people as to what it means.
- List of CBRN warfare forces
- Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of the United States Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction
- Commission on the Prevention of WMD proliferation and terrorism
- The Bomb (film)
- Ethnic bioweapon
- Fallout shelter
- Global issue
- Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction
- NBC suit
- New physical principles weapons
- Nuclear terrorism
- Orbital bombardment
- Russia and weapons of mass destruction
- Strategic bombing
- United States and weapons of mass destruction
- Weapons of Mass Destruction Commission
- "Weapon of mass destruction - weaponry". Encyclopedia Britannica. 1 November 1952. Retrieved 25 June 2019.
- "Archbishop's Appeal," Times (London), 28 December 1937, p. 9.
- "Biological Weapons Program – Japan". Fas.org. Archived from the original on 27 July 2010. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
- Eric Croddy (1997). Chemical and Biological Warfare: An Annotated Bibliography. Scarecrow Press. p. 30. ISBN 9780810832718. Archived from the original on 2 January 2016. Retrieved 11 January 2016.
- William R. Cullen (2008). Is Arsenic an Aphrodisiac?: The Sociochemistry of an Element. Royal Society of Chemistry. p. 241. ISBN 9780854043637. Archived from the original on 2 January 2016. Retrieved 11 January 2016.
- Safire, William (19 April 1998). "On Language; Weapons of Mass Destruction". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 June 2019.
- "UNODA – Nuclear Weapons Home". Un.org. Archived from the original on 6 June 2012. Retrieved 14 May 2012.
- United Nations General Assembly Session 1 Resolution 1. Establishment of a Commission to Deal with the Problems Raised by the Discovery of Atomic Energy A/RES/1(I) 24 January 1946. Retrieved 2010-06-18.
- Pais, A.; Crease, R.P. (2007). J. Robert Oppenheimer: A Life (in German). Oxford University Press. p. 158. ISBN 978-0-19-532712-0. Retrieved 25 June 2019.
- "NSC-68 United States Objectives and Programs for National Security". Fas.org. Archived from the original on 24 October 2010. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
- "John F. Kennedy Moon Speech—Rice Stadium". nasa.gov. Archived from the original on 6 July 2015. Retrieved 30 June 2015.
- Kennedy JF (22 October 1962). Televised remarks to the American people re "the Soviet military buildup on the island of Cuba"
- Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, Art. IV, Jan. 27, 1967, T.I.A.S. No. 6347, 610 U.N.T.S. 205, 18 U.S.T. 2410 (effective Oct. 10, 1967).
- Brian Alexander, Alistair Millar, ed. (2003). Tactical nuclear weapons : emergent threats in an evolving security environment (1. ed.). Washington DC: Brassey's. p. 7. ISBN 978-1-57488-585-9. Retrieved 22 March 2011.
- Country Profiles -Israel Archived 2014-10-06 at the Wayback Machine, Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI), updated May, 2014
- "CNN Cold War – Historical Documents: Reagan-Gorbachev transcripts". 18 May 2008. Archived from the original on 18 May 2008. Retrieved 14 May 2012.
- "Excerpts From Bush's Speech at the Opening of the U.N. General Assembly –". The New York Times. Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Ussr). 26 September 1989. Archived from the original on 18 March 2009. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
- MICHAEL WINES, Special to The New York Times (30 September 1990). "Confrontation in the Gulf; U.S. Explores New Strategies to Limit Weapons of Mass Destruction –". The New York Times. IRAQ. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
- "Global Nuclear Arsenal Declines, But Future Cuts Uncertain Amid U.S.-Russia Tensions". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 17 June 2019.
- Munitions Found in Iraq Meet WMD Criteria Archived 1 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Military.com, report filed by American Forces Press Service, 29 June 2006
- "India Completes Chemical Weapons Disposal; Iraq Declares Stockpile | Analysis | NTI". nti.org. Archived from the original on 3 January 2016. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
- "American Dialect Society". Americandialect.org. 13 January 2003. Archived from the original on 15 June 2006. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
- "Lake Superior State University:: Banished Words List:: 2003". Lssu.edu. Archived from the original on 20 August 2017. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
- "Criminal Complaint United States vs Dzhokhar Tsarnaev". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 22 April 2013. Retrieved 23 April 2013.
- Reed, Laura (2014). "Weapons of Mass Destruction". Hampshire College. Hampshire College. Archived from the original on 2 August 2015. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2 April 2010. Retrieved 6 February 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents Volume 37, Issue 19 (May 14, 2001)" (PDF). Frwebgate.access.gpo.gov. Retrieved 14 May 2012.[permanent dead link]
- CIA Site Redirect – Central Intelligence Agency Archived 4 October 2006 at the Wayback Machine
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 1 October 2004. Retrieved 6 February 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 June 2006. Retrieved 6 February 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Weapons of Mass Destruction: State Department Oversight of Science Centers Program" (PDF). Retrieved 5 August 2010.[permanent dead link]
- "Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms". Dtic.mil. 12 April 2001. Archived from the original on 10 October 2016. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
- Review of Intelligence on Weapons of Mass Destruction: Report of a Committee of Privy Counsellors Archived 16 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine (HC 898), London: The Stationery Office, 2004, §14.
- Harigel, Gert G. (22 November 2001). "Chemical and Biological Weapons: Use in Warfare, Impact on Society and Environment". Retrieved 19 January 2021.
- "A Soldier's Viewpoint on Surviving Nuclear, Chemical and Biological Attacks". Sightm1911.com. Archived from the original on 1 September 2010. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
- "Colombia". 2 September 2007. Archived from the original on 2 September 2007. Retrieved 14 May 2012.
- What makes a weapon one of mass destruction? – Times Online
- Capt. G. Shane Hendricks, Dr. Margot J. Hall (2007). "The History and Science of CBRNE Agents, Part I" (PDF). American Institute of Chemists. p. 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 4 July 2014.
- "US CODE: Title 50—War and National Defense". .law.cornell.edu. 23 March 2010. Archived from the original on 27 April 2010. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
- "US CODE: 50, ch. 40—Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction". .law.cornell.edu. 23 March 2010. Archived from the original on 27 April 2010. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
- "US CODE: 50, ch. 40, § 2302. Definitions". .law.cornell.edu. 23 March 2010. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
- "US CODE: 50, ch. 43—Preventing Weapons of Mass Destruction Proliferation and Terrorism". .law.cornell.edu. 23 March 2010. Archived from the original on 28 July 2010. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
- "US CODE: 50, ch. 43; § 2902. Definitions". .law.cornell.edu. 23 March 2010. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
- "US CODE: Chapter 113B—Terrorism". .law.cornell.edu. 28 June 2010. Archived from the original on 19 August 2010. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
- "US CODE: Title 18, § 921. Definitions". .law.cornell.edu. 13 September 1994. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
- "US CODE: Title 18, § 2332a. Use of weapons of mass destruction". .law.cornell.edu. 28 June 2010. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
- "What is A Weapon of Mass Destruction". Fbi.gov. 30 March 2007. Archived from the original on 13 October 2010. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
- "8/95 Grand Jury Indictment of McVeigh & Nichols". Lectlaw.com. Archived from the original on 24 February 2010. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
- "FindLaw for Legal Professionals – Case Law, Federal and State Resources, Forms, and Code". Caselaw.lp.findlaw.com. Archived from the original on 10 June 2011. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
- "U.S. v. Richard C. Reid" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 March 2009. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
- "The Free Lance-Star – 14 Jul 1998". Archived from the original on 2 January 2016. Retrieved 11 January 2016.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 July 2017. Retrieved 27 June 2017.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Indictment of ZACARIAS MOUSSAOUI". www.justice.gov. 9 September 2014.
- Kotz, Deborah (24 April 2013). "Injury toll from Marathon bombs reduced to 264". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on 31 March 2019. Retrieved 29 April 2013.
Boston public health officials said Tuesday that they have revised downward their estimate of the number of people injured in the Marathon attacks, to 264.
- "Disarmament Treaties Database: 1925 Geneva Protocol". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Archived from the original on 21 May 2019. Retrieved 10 February 2021.
- "Disarmament Treaties Database: Partial Test Ban Treaty". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 10 February 2021.
- "Disarmament Treaties Database: Outer Space Treaty". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved 10 February 2021.
- "Disarmament Treaties Database: Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT)". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Archived from the original on 3 August 2018. Retrieved 10 February 2021.
- "Disarmament Treaties Database: Sea-bed Treaty". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Archived from the original on 3 December 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2021.
- "Disarmament Treaties Database: Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Archived from the original on 3 December 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2021.
- "Disarmament Treaties Database: Biological Weapons Convention". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Archived from the original on 2 February 2021. Retrieved 10 February 2021.
- "Disarmament Treaties Database: Chemical Weapons Convention". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Archived from the original on 3 December 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2021.
- "Disarmament Treaties Database: Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Archived from the original on 26 January 2021. Retrieved 10 February 2021.
- "6. World nuclear forces". www.sipri.org.
- "U.S. Nuclear Weapons in Europe | NATO Nuclear Weapons Policy | NTI". nti.org. Archived from the original on 7 November 2018. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
- United Nations (1972). Biological Weapons Convention.
- Wheelis, Mark (September 2002). "Biological Warfare at the 1346 Siege of Caffa". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 8 (9): 971–975. doi:10.3201/eid0809.010536. PMC 2732530. PMID 12194776.
- Mayor, Adrienne (2003). Greek Fire, Poison Arrows & Scorpion Bombs: Biological and Chemical Warfare in the Ancient World. Abrams Press. ISBN 978-1585673483.
- "Canada". Nuclear Threat Initiative. Retrieved 4 March 2021.
- "France". Nuclear Threat Initiative. Retrieved 4 March 2021.
- "Iraq". Nuclear Threat Initiative. Retrieved 4 March 2021.
- "Japan". Nuclear Threat Initiative. Retrieved 4 March 2021.
- "South Africa". Nuclear Threat Initiative. Retrieved 4 March 2021.
- "Russia". Nuclear Threat Initiative. Retrieved 4 March 2021.
- "United Kingdom". Nuclear Threat Initiative. Retrieved 4 March 2021.
- "United States". Nuclear Threat Initiative. Retrieved 4 March 2021.
- Dando, Malcolm (2006). Chapter 2: Biological warfare before 1945. In Bioterror and Biowarfare: A Beginner's Guide. Oneworld. pp. 11–31. ISBN 9781851684472.
- Leitenberg, M., Zilinskas, R., & Kuhn, J. (2012). Conclusion. In The Soviet Biological Weapons Program (pp. 698-712). Cambridge, Massachusetts; London, England: Harvard University Press. Retrieved February 7, 2021, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt2jbscf.30
- Baxter RR, Buergenthal T (28 March 2017). "Legal Aspects of the Geneva Protocol of 1925". The American Journal of International Law. 64 (5): 853–879. doi:10.2307/2198921. JSTOR 2198921. Archived from the original on 27 October 2017. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
- "Text of the 1925 Geneva Protocol". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Archived from the original on 9 February 2021. Retrieved 2 March 2021.
- "Disarmament Treaties Database: 1925 Geneva Protocol". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Archived from the original on 21 May 2019. Retrieved 2 March 2021.
- Beard, Jack M. (April 2007). "The Shortcomings of Indeterminacy in Arms Control Regimes: The Case of the Biological Weapons Convention". American Journal of International Law. 101 (2): 277. doi:10.1017/S0002930000030098. ISSN 0002-9300. S2CID 8354600.
- "Biological Weapons Convention". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Archived from the original on 15 February 2021. Retrieved 2 March 2021.
- "Disarmament Treaties Database: Biological Weapons Convention". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Archived from the original on 2 February 2021. Retrieved 2 March 2021.
- "STATUS OF PARTICIPATION IN THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION AS AT 14 OCTOBER 2013". Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons. 14 October 2013.
- "SIGNATORY STATES". Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons. 2 September 2013.
- "Myanmar Joins Chemical Weapons Convention". Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons. 9 July 2015.
- See List of weapons of mass destruction treaties.
- See Debate over the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki for various perspectives on the only combat use of nuclear weapons. The Khabarovsk War Crime Trials sentenced some members of the Japanese army to jail terms for the use of biological and chemical weapons during World War II. The Halabja poison gas attack was determined a war crime by Dutch and Iraqi courts, resulting in the execution of Ali Hassan al-Majid.
- See Aerial bombardment and international law.
- The Bombing of Dresden in World War II in particular has been referred to as mass murder: Volkery, Carsten. "War of Words" Archived 9 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine, Der Spiegel, 2 February 2005
- In addition to previous treaties on bombardment of civilian areas generally, carpet bombing of cities, towns, villages, or other areas containing a concentration of civilians was specifically designated a war crime by the 1977 Protocol I of the Geneva Conventions: "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2 December 2015. Retrieved 8 December 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "David T. Wright – Weapons of mass distraction". Thornwalker.com. 13 April 1998. Archived from the original on 15 June 2011. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
- "Weapons of Mass Destruction Are Overrated as a Threat to America: Newsroom: The Independent Institute". Independent.org. 28 January 2004. Archived from the original on 13 June 2010. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
-  Archived 11 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- "War Pimps, by Jeffrey St. Clair [Weapons of Mass Deception: The Uses of Propaganda in President Bush's War on Iraq, by John Stauber and Sheldon Rampton]". Theava.com. 13 August 2003. Archived from the original on 11 June 2011. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
- "Munitions Found in Iraq Meet WMD Criteria, Official Says". US Department of Defense. Archived from the original on 14 June 2014. Retrieved 1 April 2014.
- "American Heritage Dictionary: "Weapon of mass destruction"". Archived from the original on 4 September 2015. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
- "18 U.S.C. 2332A". Archived from the original on 12 May 2015. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
- "Court case" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 June 2014. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
- Moeller, Susan D. (9 March 2004). "MEDIA COVERAGE OF WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION" (PDF). Retrieved 19 May 2021.
- "Psychological Science – Journal Information". Blackwellpublishing.com. Archived from the original on 14 August 2010. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
- "Misperceptions, the Media and the Iraq War" (PDF). Archived from the original on 10 February 2006. Retrieved 22 October 2009.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link), PIPA, 2 October 2003
- "Report: Hundreds of WMDs Found in Iraq". Fox News. 22 June 2006. Archived from the original on 24 April 2008. Retrieved 30 June 2007.
- Kay, David. "House Armed Services Committee Hearing", 29 June 2006
- Duelfer, Charles. Expert: Iraq WMD Find Did Not Point to Ongoing Program Archived 16 December 2018 at the Wayback Machine NPR. 22 June 2006
- Shachtman, Noah (23 October 2010). "WikiLeaks Show WMD Hunt Continued in Iraq – With Surprising Results". Wired.com. Archived from the original on 24 March 2014. Retrieved 12 March 2017.
- "CIA's Final Report: No WMD Found in Iraq". NBC News. 25 April 2005. Retrieved 1 July 2007.
- "Iraq WMD Inspectors End Search, Find Nothing". Fox News. 26 April 2005. Archived from the original on 5 August 2007. Retrieved 24 July 2007.
- John Pike. "Sandia National Laboratories – News Releases". Globalsecurity.org. Archived from the original on 18 March 2009. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
- John Pike. "17 Days in May – India Nuclear Forces". Globalsecurity.org. Archived from the original on 24 August 2010. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
- "The Pipa/Knowledge Networks Poll" (PDF). 29 September 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 September 2005. Retrieved 14 May 2012.
- Russian public opinion on nuclear weapons (5 August 2005). "Russian public opinion on nuclear weapons – Blog – Russian strategic nuclear forces". Russianforces.org. Archived from the original on 16 February 2006. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
- "Unicode Character 'SKULL AND CROSSBONES' (U+2620)". fileformat.info. Archived from the original on 13 May 2018. Retrieved 12 May 2018.
- "Unicode Character 'RADIOACTIVE SIGN' (U+2622)". fileformat.info. Archived from the original on 13 May 2018. Retrieved 12 May 2018.
- "Unicode Character 'BIOHAZARD SIGN' (U+2623)". fileformat.info. Archived from the original on 13 May 2018. Retrieved 12 May 2018.
- "Origin of the Radiation Warning Symbol (Trefoil)". Archived from the original on 29 February 2012. Retrieved 13 February 2007.
- "Biohazard and radioactive Symbol, design and proportions" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 December 2013.
- "Origin of the Radiation Warning Sign (Trefoil)". orau.org. Retrieved 26 February 2020.
- Linda Lodding, "Drop it and Run! New Symbol Warns of Radiation Dangers and Aims to Save Lives Archived 20 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine," IAEA Bulletin 482 (March 2007): 70–72.
- "IAEA news release Feb 2007". Archived from the original on 17 February 2007. Retrieved 11 January 2016.
- "Biohazard Symbol History". Archived from the original on 13 February 2012.
- Bentley, Michelle. Weapons of Mass Destruction: The Strategic Use of a Concept (Routledge, 2014.) On the usage of the term in American policy
- Cirincione, Joseph, ed. Repairing the Regime: Preventing the Spread of Weapons of Mass Destruction (Routledge, 2014)
- Croddy, Eric A. ed. Weapons of Mass Destruction: An Encyclopedia of Worldwide Policy, Technology, and History (2 vol 2004); 1024pp excerpt
- Curley, Robert, ed. Weapons of Mass Destruction (Britannica Educational Publishing, 2011)
- Graham Jr, Thomas, and Thomas Graham. Common sense on weapons of mass destruction (University of Washington Press, 2011)
- Horowitz, Michael C., and Neil Narang. "Poor Man’s atomic bomb? exploring the relationship between "weapons of mass destruction"." Journal of Conflict Resolution (2013) online
- Hutchinson, Robert. Weapons of Mass Destruction: The no-nonsense guide to nuclear, chemical and biological weapons today (Hachette UK, 2011)
Definition and origin
- "WMD: Words of mass dissemination" (12 February 2003), BBC News.
- Bentley, Michelle, "War and/of Worlds: Constructing WMD in U.S. Foreign Policy", Security Studies 22 (Jan. 2013), 68–97.
- Michael Evans, "What makes a weapon one of mass destruction?" (6 February 2004), The Times.
- Bruce Schneier, "Definition of 'Weapon of Mass Destruction'" (6 April 2009), Schneier on Security.
- Stefano Felician, Le armi di distruzione di massa, CEMISS, Roma, 2010, 
- United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540
- David P. Fidler, "Weapons of Mass Destruction and International Law" (February 2003), American Society of International Law.
- Joanne Mariner, "FindLaw Forum: Weapons of mass destruction and international law's principle that civilians cannot be targeted" (20 November 2001), CNN.
Compliance with international WMD regimes
- Lentzos, Filippa (2019). "Compliance and Enforcement in the Biological Weapons Regime". United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research: Weapons of Mass Destruction Control & Enforcement. Geneva, Switzerland. 4. doi:10.37559/WMD/19/WMDCE4.
- Trapp, Ralf (2019). "Compliance Management under the Chemical Weapons Convention". United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research: Weapons of Mass Destruction Control & Enforcement. Geneva, Switzerland. 3. doi:10.37559/WMD/19/WMDCE3.
- Heinonen, Olli (2020). "IAEA Mechanisms to Ensure Compliance with NPT Safeguards". United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research: Weapons of Mass Destruction Control & Enforcement. Geneva, Switzerland. 2. doi:10.37559/WMD/19/WMDCE2.
- Media Coverage of Weapons of Mass Destruction at the Wayback Machine (archived 17 February 2006), by Susan D. Moeller, Center for International and Security Studies at Maryland, 2004.
- Memory for fact, fiction, and misinformation, by Stephan Lewandowsky, Werner G.K. Stritzke, Klaus Oberauer, and Michael Morales, Psychological Science, 16(3): 190–195, 2005.
- Steven Kull et al., Americans on WMD Proliferation (15 April 2004), Program on International Policy Attitudes/Knowledge Networks survey.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Weapons of mass destruction.|
- "Home". Center for the Study of Weapons of Mass Destruction.
- Journal dedicated to CBRNE issues
- United Nations: Disarmament at the Wayback Machine (archived 24 June 2005)
- US Department of State at the Wayback Machine (archived 13 March 2007)
- Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI), non-profit organisation working to prevent catastrophic attacks and accidents with weapons of mass destruction
- Federation of American Scientists (FAS)
- Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
- Avoiding Armageddon, PBS
- FAS assessment of countries that own weapons of mass destruction
- National Counterproliferation Center – Office of the Director of National Intelligence
- HLSWatch.com: Homeland Security Watch policy and current events resource
- Office of the Special Assistant for Chemical Biological Defense and Chemical Demilitarization Programs, Official Department of Defense web site that provides information about the DoD Chemical Biological Defense Program
- Terrorism and the Threat From Weapons of Mass Destruction in the Middle East at the Wayback Machine (archived 29 April 2001)
- "Iranian Chemical Attacks Victims" (Payvand News Agency)
- Iran: 'Forgotten Victims' Of Saddam Hussein Era Await Justice
- Comparison of Chinese, Japanese and Vietnamese translations
- Nuclear Age Peace Foundation
- Radius Engineering International Inc. Radius Engineering International Inc (ed.). "Nuclear Weapons Effects" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 December 2010. Retrieved 20 December 2010. These tables describe the effects of various nuclear blast sizes. All figures are for 15 mph (13 kn; 24 km/h) winds. Thermal burns represent injuries to an unprotected person. The legend describes the data.
- Gareth Porter, "Documents linking Iran to nuclear weapons push may have been fabricated Archived 9 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine", TheRawStory, 10 November 2008
- Gareth Porter, "The Iranian Nuke Forgeries: CIA Determines Documents were Fabricated", CounterPunch, 29 December 2009