Wearable technology, wearables, fashion technology, tech togs, or fashion electronics are smart electronic devices (electronic device with micro-controllers) that can be incorporated into clothing or worn on the body as implants or accessories.
Wearable devices such as activity trackers are an example of the Internet of Things, since "things" such as electronics, software, sensors, and connectivity are effectors that enable objects to exchange data (including data quality) through the internet with a manufacturer, operator, and/or other connected devices, without requiring human intervention.
Wearable technology has a variety of applications which grows as the field itself expands. It appears prominently in consumer electronics with the popularization of the smartwatch and activity tracker. Apart from commercial uses, wearable technology is being incorporated into navigation systems, advanced textiles, and healthcare.
The pre-history of wearable technology starts with the watch, which was worn by people to tell time. In 1500 the German inventor Peter Henlein created small watches which were worn as necklaces. A century later, men began to carry their watches in their pockets as the waistcoat became a fashionable item, which led to the creation of pocket watches. Wristwatches were also created in the late 1600s but were worn mostly by women as bracelets. Over time, the watch become smaller and more precise. In 1904, the aviator Alberto Santos-Dumont pioneered the use of the wristwatch as it allowed him to have his hands unoccupied when piloting. This proved that the wrist is a convenient place to wear a watch which led people to start using wristwatches. People started to create wearables to use in every occasion, from tools that help them win in gambling games, to rings used as a computational device by traders, to electronic headbands used as a costume in theaters, and a wearable camera strapped to a bird to take aerial photos, among others.
Modern wearable technology is related to both ubiquitous computing and the history and development of wearable computers. Wearables make technology pervasive by incorporating it into daily life. Through the history and development of wearable computing, pioneers have attempted to enhance or extend the functionality of clothing, or to create wearables as accessories able to provide users with sousveillance — the recording of an activity typically by way of small wearable or portable personal technologies. Tracking information like movement, steps, and heart rate is part of the quantified self movement.
The origins of modern wearable technology are influenced by both of these responses to the vision of ubiquitous computing. One early piece of widely adopted pre-modern wearable technology was the calculator watch, which was introduced in the 1980s. An even earlier wearable technology was the hearing aid.
In 2004, fashion design label CuteCircuit unveiled a concept Bluetooth-connected electronics called the HugShirt at the CyberArt Festival in Bilbao, Spain, where it won the Grand Prize at the festival. The HugShirt, designed for tele-transmitting touch over distance, differs from previous early wearable technology examples (e.g. watches or the helmet designs of wearable computing in the 1990s) because the product is the first wearable technology that took the form of a garment of clothing. As such, it is also the first piece of Bluetooth-connected and internet-connected clothing. This product was included in Time magazine's "Best Inventions of the Year" special issue.
McLear and Fitbit are the first two technology companies to develop modern wearables for mass consumer use, and not solely as futurist conceptual products. McLear, today remaining as one of the leaders in the wearable computing space, began research and development on smart watches and invented the smart ring in 2010. 
Fitbit released its first step counter in late 2010; Fitbit products have primarily focused upon activity tracking. Fitbit is now owned by Alphabet and is no longer an independent wearable electronics company.
In the following years smartwatches began to be released by major electronics companies as well as by new start-ups. One of the first offerings was the Samsung Galaxy Gear in September 2013. Apple followed more than a year later with the Apple Watch in April 2015. In January 2018, a small business, Empatica, received the first FDA clearance for their smartwatch in Neurology, the Embrace, which monitors and alerts for grand mal seizures, while also detecting steps and sleep.
From 1995-1997, Jennifer Healey and Rosalind Picard at the MIT Media Lab designed, built, and demonstrated data collection and decision making from wearables that monitored continuous physiological data from the wearer. These shoes, jewelry, and clothing accessories collected data that related to affective state and controlled cameras and other devices.
In 2009, Sony Ericsson teamed up with the London College of Fashion for a contest to design digital clothing. The winner was a cocktail dress with Bluetooth technology making it light up when a call is received.
Zach "Hoeken" Smith of MakerBot fame made keyboard pants during a "Fashion Hacking" workshop at a New York City creative collective.
The Tyndall National Institute in Ireland developed a "remote non-intrusive patient monitoring" platform which was used to evaluate the quality of the data generated by the patient sensors and how the end users may adopt to the technology.
More recently, London-based fashion company CuteCircuit created costumes for singer Katy Perry featuring LED lighting so that the outfits would change color both during stage shows and appearances on the red carpet. In 2012, CuteCircuit created the world's first dress to feature Tweets, as worn by singer Nicole Scherzinger.
In the consumer space, sales of smart wristbands (aka activity trackers such as the Jawbone UP and Fitbit Flex) started accelerating in 2013. One in five American adults have a wearable device, according to the 2014 PriceWaterhouseCoopers Wearable Future Report. As of 2009, decreasing cost of processing power and other components was facilitating widespread adoption and availability.
In professional sports, wearable technology has applications in monitoring and real-time feedback for athletes. Examples of wearable technology in sport include accelerometers, pedometers, and GPS's which can be used to measure an athlete's energy expenditure and movement pattern.
On April 16, 2013, Google invited "Glass Explorers" who had pre-ordered its wearable glasses at the 2012 Google I/O conference to pick up their devices. This day marked the official launch of Google Glass, a device intended to deliver rich text and notifications via a heads-up display worn as eyeglasses. The device also had a 5 MP camera and recorded video at 720p. Its various functions were activated via voice command, such as "OK Glass". The company also launched the Google Glass companion app, MyGlass. The first third-party Google Glass App came from the New York Times, which was able to read out articles and news summaries.
However, in early 2015, Google stopped selling the beta "explorer edition" of Glass to the public, after criticism of its design and the $1,500 price tag.
While optical head-mounted display technology remains a niche, two popular types of wearable devices have taken off: smartwatches and activity trackers. In 2012, ABI Research forecast that sales of smartwatches would hit $1.2 million in 2013, helped by the high penetration of smartphones in many world markets, the wide availability and low cost of MEMS sensors, energy-efficient connectivity technologies such as Bluetooth 4.0, and a flourishing app ecosystem.
Crowdfunding-backed start-up Pebble reinvented the smartwatch in 2013, with a campaign running on Kickstarter that raised more than $10m in funding. At the end of 2014, Pebble announced it had sold a million devices. In early 2015, Pebble went back to its crowdfunding roots to raise a further $20m for its next-generation smartwatch, Pebble Time, which started shipping in May 2015.
In March 2014, Motorola unveiled the Moto 360 smartwatch powered by Android Wear, a modified version of the mobile operating system Android designed specifically for smartwatches and other wearables. Finally, following more than a year of speculation, Apple announced its own smartwatch, the Apple Watch, in September 2014.
Wearable technology was a popular topic at the trade show Consumer Electronics Show in 2014, with the event dubbed "The Wearables, Appliances, Cars and Bendable TVs Show" by industry commentators. Among numerous wearable products showcased were smartwatches, activity trackers, smart jewelry, head-mounted optical displays and earbuds. Nevertheless, wearable technologies are still suffering from limited battery capacity.
Another field of application of wearable technology is monitoring systems for assisted living and eldercare. Wearable sensors have a huge potential in generating big data, with a great applicability to biomedicine and ambient assisted living. For this reason, researchers are moving their focus from data collection to the development of intelligent algorithms able to glean valuable information from the collected data, using data mining techniques such as statistical classification and neural networks.
Wearable technology can also collect biometric data such as heart rate (ECG and HRV), brainwave (EEG), and muscle bio-signals (EMG) from the human body to provide valuable information in the field of health care and wellness.
Another increasingly popular wearable technology involves virtual reality. VR headsets have been made by a range of manufacturers for computers, consoles, and mobile devices. Recently Google released their headset, the Google Daydream.
In July 2014 a smart technology footwear was introduced in Hyderabad, India. The shoe insoles are connected to a smartphone application that uses Google Maps, and vibrate to tell users when and where to turn to reach their destination.
In recent years fitness trackers and smartwatches have become increasingly common and recognizable as examples of wearable technology. Examples include Garmin, Fitbit, Apple Watch, and Samsung Galaxy Gear.
In addition to commercial applications, wearable technology is being researched and developed for a multitude of uses. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology is one of the many research institutions developing and testing technologies in this field. For example, research is being done to improve haptic technology for its integration into next generation wearables. Another project focuses on using wearable technology to assist the visually impaired in navigating their surroundings.
As wearable technology continues to grow, it has begun to expand into other fields. The integration of wearables into healthcare has been a focus of research and development for various institutions. Wearables continue to evolve, moving beyond devices and exploring new frontiers such as smart fabrics. Applications involve using a fabric to perform a function such as integrating a QR code into the textile, or performance apparel that increases airflow during exercise
Methods and techniques
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The following methods and techniques explain the manufacturing process of clothing from fiber to garment and the insertion of electronics to the process.
E-textiles, also known as smart textile and digital textile was first experimented in at the end of the 19th century during the Second Industrial Revolution when the public became familiar with electric appliances.
The basic e-textile materials consists of traditional fibers such as cotton and silk, synthetic substances, and conductive materials like stainless steel yarn and silver threads. With the development of conductive yarns, it has been proven that conventional fabrication methods can be used to product e-textiles as well. This development includes the coating of non-conductive fiber (like Polyester PET) with conductive material such as metal like gold or silver to produce 24K gold coated yarns or silver coated yarns to produce e-textile.
Smart fabrics production processes are being developed where stretchable circuits are printed right into a fabric using conductive ink.
Common fabrication techniques therefore include the following:
Wearable technology and health
Wearable technology is often used to monitor a user's health. Given that such a device is in close contact with the user, it can easily collect data.
Wearables can be used to collect data on a user's health including:
- Heart rate
- Calories burned
- Steps walked
- Blood pressure
- Release of certain biochemicals
- Time spent exercising
These functions are often bundled together in a single unit, like an activity tracker or a smartwatch like the Apple Watch Series 2 or Samsung Galaxy Gear Sport. Devices like these are used for physical training and monitoring overall physical health, as well as alerting to serious medical conditions such as seizures (e.g. Empatica Embrace).
Currently other applications within healthcare are being explored, such as:
- Forecasting changes in mood, stress, and health 
- Measuring blood alcohol content
- Measuring athletic performance
- Monitoring how sick the user is
- Long-term monitoring of patients with heart and circulatory problems that records an electrocardiogram and is self-moistening
- Health Risk Assessment applications, including measures of frailty and risks of age-dependent diseases
While wearables can collect data in aggregate form, most of them are limited in their ability to analyze or make conclusions based on this data; thus, most are used primarily for general health information. (An exception is seizure-alerting wearables, which continuously analyze the wearer's data and make a decision about calling for help; the data collected can then provide doctors with objective evidence that they may find useful in diagnoses.) Wearables can account for individual differences, although most just collect data and apply one-size-fits-all algorithms.
Today, there is a growing interest to use wearables not only for individual self-tracking, but also within corporate health and wellness programs. Given that wearables create a massive data trail which employers could repurpose for objectives other than health, more and more research has begun to study the dark side of wearables. Asha Peta Thompson founded Intelligent Textiles Limited, Intelligent Textiles, who create woven power banks and circuitry that can be used in e-uniforms for infantry.
Wearables have expanded into the entertainment space by creating new ways to experience digital media. Virtual reality headsets and augmented reality glasses have come to exemplify wearables in entertainment. The influence of these virtual reality headsets and augmented reality glasses are seen mostly in the gaming industry. Virtual reality headsets such as the Oculus Rift, HTC Vive, and Google Daydream View aim to create a more immersive media experience by either simulating a first-person experience or displaying the media in the user's full field of vision. Television, films, and video games have been developed for these devices. In a 2014 expo, Ed Tang of Avegant presented his "Smart Headphones". These headphones use Virtual Retinal Display to enhance the experience of the Oculus Rift. Some augmented reality devices fall under the category of wearables. Augmented reality glasses are currently in development by several corporations. Snap Inc.'s Spectacles are sunglasses that record video from the user's point of view and pair with a phone to post videos on Snapchat. Microsoft has also delved into this business, releasing Augmented Reality glasses in 2017. The device explores using digital holography, or holograms, to give the user a first hand experience of Augmented Reality. Wearable technology has also expanded from the wrist to apparel. There is a shoe made by the company shiftwear that uses a smartphone application to periodically change the design display on the shoe. The shoe is designed using normal fabric but utilizes a display along the midsection and back that shows a design of your choice. The application was up by 2016 and a prototype for the shoes was created in 2017. Another example of this can be seen with Atari's headphone speakers. Atari and Audiowear are developing a face cap with built in speakers. The cap will feature speakers built into the underside of the brim, and will have Bluetooth capabilities. Many other devices can be considered entertainment wearables and need only be devices worn by the user to experience media.
The creation of the first virtual reality headset can be credited to Cinematographer Morton Heilig. He created a device known as the Sensorama in 1962. The Sensorama was a videogame like device that was so heavy that it needed to be held up by a suspension device.
Early 2019 Microsoft debut their HoloLens 2 that goes beyond just virtual reality into mixed reality headset. Their main focus is to be use mainly by the working class to help with difficult tasks.
Fashionable wearables are “designed garments and accessories that combines aesthetics and style with functional technology.” Garments are the interface to the exterior mediated through digital technology. It allows endless possibilities for the dynamic customization of apparel. All clothes have social, psychological and physical functions. However, with the use of technology these functions can be amplified.
Wearables are made from a functionality perspective or from an aesthetic perspective. When made from a functionality perspective, designers and engineers create wearables to provide convenience to the user. Clothing and accessories are used as a tool to provide assistance to the user. Designers and engineers are working together to incorporate technology in the manufacturing of garments in order to provide functionalities that can simplify the lives of the user. For example, through smartwatches people have the ability to communicate on the go and track their health. Moreover, smart fabrics have a direct interaction with the user, as it allows sensing the customers' moves. This helps to address concerns such as privacy, communication and well-being. Years ago, fashionable wearables were functional but not very aesthetic. As of 2018, wearables are quickly growing to meet fashion standards through the production of garments that are stylish and comfortable. Furthermore, when wearables are made from an aesthetic perspective, designers explore with their work by using technology and collaborating with engineers. These designers explore the different techniques and methods available for incorporating electronics in their designs. They are not constrained by one set of materials or colors, as these can change in response to the embedded sensors in the apparel. They can decide how their designs adapt and responds to the user.
In 1968, the Museum of Contemporary Craft in New York City held an exhibition named Body Covering which presented the infusion of technological wearables with fashion. Some of the projects presented were clothing that changed temperature, and party dresses that light up and produce noises, among others. The designers from this exhibition creatively embedded electronics into the clothes and accessories to create these projects. As of 2018, fashion designers continue to explore this method in the manufacturing of their designs by pushing the limits of fashion and technology.
Project Jacquard, a Google project led by Ivan Poupyrev, has been combining clothing with technology. Google collaborated with Levi Strauss to create a jacket that has touch-sensitive areas that can control a smartphone. The cuff-links are removable and charge in a USB port.
Intel partnered with the brand Chromat to create a sports bra that responds to changes in the body of the user, as well as a 3D printed carbon fiber dress that changes color based on the user's adrenaline levels. Intel also partnered with Google and TAG Heuer to make a smart watch.
Iris van Herpen
Smart fabrics and 3D printing have been incorporated in high fashion by the designer Iris van Herpen. Van Herpen was the first designer to incorporate 3D printing technology of rapid prototyping into the fashion industry. The Belgian company Materialise NV collaborates with her in the printing of her designs.
Issues and Concerns
The FDA drafted a guidance for low risk devices advises that personal health wearables are general wellness products if they only collect data on weight management, physical fitness, relaxation or stress management, mental acuity, self-esteem, sleep management, or sexual function. This was due to the privacy risks that were surrounding the devices. As more and more of the devices were being used as well as improved soon enough these devices would be able to tell if a person is showing certain health issues and give a course of action. With the rise of these devices being consumed so to the FDA drafted this guidance in order to decrease risk of a patient in case the app doesn't function properly. It is argued the ethics of it as well because although they help track health and promote independence there is still an invasion of privacy that ensues to gain information. This is due to the huge amounts of data that has to be transferred which could raise issues for both the user and the companies if a third partied gets access to this data. There was an issue with the google glass that was used by surgeons in order to track vital signs of a patient where it had privacy issues relating to third party use of non-consented information. The issue is consent as well when it comes to wearable technology because it gives the ability to record and that is an issue when permission is not asked when a person is being recorded.
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