Weather god

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Jupiter, king of gods and weather god in ancient Rome
Mariamman, the Hindu goddess of rain.

A weather god, also frequently known as a storm god, is a deity in mythology associated with weather phenomena such as thunder, lightning, rain, wind, storms, tornados, and hurricanes. Should they only be in charge of one feature of a storm, they will be called after that attribute, such as a rain god or a lightning/thunder god. This singular attribute might then be emphasized more than the generic, all-encompassing term "storm god", though with thunder/lightning gods, the two terms seem interchangeable. They feature commonly in polytheistic religions.

Storm gods are most often conceived of as wielding thunder and/or lightning (some lightning gods' names actually mean "thunder",[1][2][3] but since one cannot have thunder without lightning, they presumably wielded both). The ancients didn't seem to differentiate between the two, which is presumably why both the words "lightning bolt" and "thunderbolt" exist despite being synonyms. Storm gods are typically male (especially the lightning/thunder ones), powerful and irascible (the irascibility is probably a trait because of the command over thunder/lightning, thus the god's power over this aspect of the natural world influences his personality). Rain and wind deities tend to not be portrayed as wrathful as thunder/lightning deities.

Africa and the Middle East[edit]

Sub-Sahara Africa[edit]

Afroasiatic Middle East[edit]

Canaanite[edit]

  • Ba'al, Canaanite god of fertility, weather, and war.
  • Hadad, the Canaanite and Carthaginian storm, fertility, & war god. Identified as Baʿal's true name at Ugarit.

Egyptian[edit]

Hebrew[edit]

Mesopotamian[edit]

  • Adad, the Assyrian storm god
  • Marduk, Babylonian god of water, vegetation, judgment, and magic.

Western Eurasia[edit]

Balto-Slavic[edit]

Celtic[edit]

  • Taranis, Celtic god of thunder, often depicted with a wheel as well as a thunderbolt[4]

Norse-Germanic[edit]

  • Freyr, Norse god of rain and sunshine
  • Thor, Norse god of thunder/lightning, oak trees, protection, strength, and hallowing. Also Thunor and Donar, the Anglo-Saxon and Continental Germanic versions, respectively, of him. All descend from Common Germanic *Thunraz, the reflex of the PIE thunder god for this language branch of the Indo-Europeans.[5]

Greco-Roman[edit]

  • Aeolus (son of Hippotes), keeper of the winds in the Odyssey
  • Anemoi, collective name for the gods of the winds in Greek mythology, their number varies from 4 to more
  • Jupiter, the Roman thunder/lightning and sky god and king of the gods
  • Tempestas, Roman goddess of storms or sudden weather. Commonly referred to in the plural, Tempestates.
  • Zeus, Greek thunder/lightning and sky god and king of the gods

Western Asia[edit]

Anatolian-Caucasian[edit]

Hindu-Vedic[edit]

  • Indra, Hindu thunder/lightning god. Also known as the King of gods.
  • Mariamman, Hindu rain goddess.

Persian-Zoroastrian[edit]

  • Vayu-Vata, Iranian duo of gods, the first is the god of wind, much like the Hindu Vayu.

Uralic[edit]

Asia-Pacific / Oceania[edit]

Chinese[edit]

Filipino[edit]

  • Oden, the Bugkalot deity of the rain, worshiped for the deity's life-giving waters[6]
  • Apo Tudo, the Ilocano deity of the rain[7]
  • Anitun Tauo, the Sambal goddess of wind and rain who was reduced in rank by Malayari for her conceit[8]
  • Anitun Tabu, the Tagalog goddess of wind and rain and daughter of Idianale and Dumangan[9]
  • Bulan-hari, one of the Tagalog deities sent by Bathala to aid the people of Pinak; can command rain to fall; married to Bitu-in[10]
  • Santonilyo, a Bisaya deity who brings rain when its image is immersed at sea[11]
  • Diwata Kat Sidpan, a Tagbanwa deity who lives in the western region called Sidpan;[12] controls the rains[13]
  • Diwata Kat Libatan, a Tagbanwa deity who lives in the eastern region called Babatan;[14] controls the rain[15]
  • Diwata na Magbabaya, simply referred as Magbabaya, the good Bukidnon supreme deity and supreme planner who looks like a man; created the earth and the first eight elements, namely bronze, gold, coins, rock, clouds, rain, iron, and water; using the elements, he also created the sea, sky, moon, and stars; also known as the pure god who wills all things; one of three deities living in the realm called Banting[16]
  • Anit: also called Anitan; the Manobo guardian of the thunderbolt[17]
  • Inaiyau: the Manobo god of storms[18]
  • Tagbanua: the Manobo god of rain[19]
  • Umouiri: the Manobo god of clouds[20]
  • Libtakan: the Manobo god of sunrise, sunset, and good weather[21]

Japanese[edit]

  • Fūjin, Japanese wind god.
  • Raijin, Japanese god of thunder, lightning, and storms
  • Susanoo, tempestuous Japanese god of storms and the sea.

Oceania[edit]

Native Americas[edit]

Central America and the Caribbean[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Scheffer, Johannes (1674). The History of Lapland. Oxford
  2. ^ Eesti Keele Instituut (Eesti Teaduste Akadeemia); Eesti Rahvaluule Arhiiv (1 January 2004). Folklore: electronic journal of folklore. The Institute. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
  3. ^ Orel (2003:429)
  4. ^ Paul-Marie Duval. 2002. Les Dieux de la Gaule. Paris, Éditions Payot.
  5. ^ Orel (2003:429)
  6. ^ Wilson, L. L. (1947). Ilongot Life and Legends. Southeast Asia Institute.
  7. ^ Llamzon, Teodoro A. 1978. Handbook of Philippine language groups. Quezon City, Philippines: Ateneo de Manila University Press.
  8. ^ Jocano, F. L. (1969). Philippine Mythology. Quezon City: Capitol Publishing House Inc.
  9. ^ Jocano, F. L. (1969). Philippine Mythology. Quezon City: Capitol Publishing House Inc.
  10. ^ Eugenio, D. L. (2013). Philippine Folk Literature: The Legends. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press
  11. ^ San Agustín, G. (1998). Conquistas de las Islas Filipinas, 1565–1615 (Spanish Edition): Bilingual ed edition. San Agustin Museum.
  12. ^ Filipino Heritage: The metal age in the Philippines (1977). Manila: Lahing Pilipino Pub.
  13. ^ Fox, R. B. (1982). Religion and Society Among the Tagbanuas of Palawan Island, Philippines. Manila: National Museum.
  14. ^ Filipino Heritage: The metal age in the Philippines (1977). Manila: Lahing Pilipino Pub.
  15. ^ Fox, R. B. (1982). Religion and Society Among the Tagbanuas of Palawan Island, Philippines. Manila: National Museum.
  16. ^ Unabia, C. C. (1986). THe Bukidnon Batbatonon and Pamuhay: A Socio-Literary Study. Quezon City : UP Press.
  17. ^ Jocano, F. L. (1969). Philippine Mythology. Quezon City: Capitol Publishing House Inc.
  18. ^ Jocano, F. L. (1969). Philippine Mythology. Quezon City: Capitol Publishing House Inc.
  19. ^ Jocano, F. L. (1969). Philippine Mythology. Quezon City: Capitol Publishing House Inc.
  20. ^ Jocano, F. L. (1969). Philippine Mythology. Quezon City: Capitol Publishing House Inc.
  21. ^ Jocano, F. L. (1969). Philippine Mythology. Quezon City: Capitol Publishing House Inc.

Further reading[edit]

  • Holtom, D. C. "The Storm God Theme in Japanese Mythology." Sociologus, Neue Folge / New Series, 6, no. 1 (1956): 44-56. www.jstor.org/stable/43643852.