|Developer(s)||Apple, Adobe, KDE, and others|
|Initial release||November 4, 1998
June 7, 2005 (WebKit open sourced)
WebKit is a layout engine software component for rendering web pages in web browsers. It powers Apple's Safari web browser, and a fork of the project is used by Chromium-based browsers, such as Google Chrome or Opera.
WebKit also forms the basis for the experimental browser included with the Amazon Kindle e-book reader, as well as the default browser in the Apple iOS, BlackBerry Browser in OS 6 and above, and Tizen mobile operating systems. WebKit's C++ application programming interface provides a set of classes to display web content in windows, and implements browser features such as following links when clicked by the user, managing a back-forward list, and managing a history of pages recently visited.
The exchange of code between WebCore and KHTML was increasingly difficult as the code base diverged because both projects had different approaches in coding and code sharing. At one point KHTML developers said they were unlikely to accept Apple's changes and claimed the relationship between the two groups was a "bitter failure". Apple submitted their changes in large patches that contained a great number of changes with inadequate documentation, often to do with future additions. Thus, these patches were difficult for the KDE developers to integrate back into KHTML. Furthermore, Apple had demanded that developers sign non-disclosure agreements before looking at Apple's source code and even then they were unable to access Apple's bug database.
During the publicized 'divorce' period, KDE developer Kurt Pfeifle (pipitas) posted an article claiming KHTML developers had managed to backport many (but not all) Safari improvements from WebCore to KHTML, and they always appreciated the improvements coming from Apple and still do so. The article also noted Apple had begun to contact KHTML developers about discussing how to improve the mutual relationship and ways of future cooperation. In fact, the KDE project was able to incorporate some of these changes to improve KHTML's rendering speed and add features, including compliance with the Acid2 rendering test.
Since the story of the fork appeared in news, Apple has released changes of the source code of WebKit fork in a public revision control repository. Since the transfer of the sourcecode into a public CVS repository, Apple and KHTML developers have had increasing collaboration. Many KHTML developers have become reviewers and submitters for WebKit revision control repository.
The WebKit team had also reversed many Apple-specific changes in the original WebKit code base and implemented platform-specific abstraction layers to make committing the core rendering code to other platforms significantly easier.
In July 2007, Ars Technica reported that the KDE team would move from KHTML to WebKit. Instead, after several years of integration, KDE Development Platform version 4.5.0 was released in August 2010 with support for both WebKit and KHTML, and development of KHTML continues.
|This section is outdated. (July 2015)|
Beginning in early 2007, the development team began to implement Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) extensions, including animation, transitions and both 2D and 3D transforms; such extensions were released as working drafts to the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) in 2009 for standardization.
In November 2007, the project announced that it had accomplished support for media features of the HTML5 draft specification, allowing for embedded video to be natively rendered and script-controlled in WebKit.
The week after Hyatt's announcement of WebKit's open-sourcing, Nokia announced that it had ported WebKit to the Symbian operating system and was developing a browser based on WebKit for mobile phones running S60. Named Web Browser for S60, it was used on Nokia, Samsung, LG, and other Symbian S60 mobile phones. Apple has also ported WebKit to iOS to run on the iPhone, iPod Touch and iPad, where it is used to render content in the device's web browser and e-mail software. The Android mobile phone platform used WebKit (and later versions its Blink fork) as the basis of its web browser and the Palm Pre, announced January 2009, has an interface based on WebKit. The Amazon Kindle 3 includes an experimental WebKit based browser.
In June 2007, Apple announced that WebKit had been ported to Microsoft Windows as part of Safari.
WebKit has also been ported to several toolkits that support multiple platforms, such as the GTK+ toolkit, Qt framework, Adobe Integrated Runtime, Enlightenment Foundation Libraries (EFL), and the Clutter toolkit. Qt Software (owned by Digia) includes the Qt port in the Qt 4.4 release. The Qt port of WebKit is also available to be used in Konqueror since version 4.1. The Iris Browser on Qt also uses WebKit. The Enlightenment Foundation Libraries (EFL) port is under development (by Samsung and ProFUSION) focusing the embedded and mobile systems, for use as stand alone browser, widgets/gadgets, rich text viewer and composer. The Clutter port is developed by Collabora and sponsored by Bosch.
There is also a project synchronized with WebKit (sponsored by Pleyo) called Origyn Web Browser, which provides a meta-port to an abstract platform with the aim of making porting to embedded or lightweight systems quicker and easier. This port is used for embedded devices such as set-top boxes, PMP and it has been ported into AmigaOS, AROS and MorphOS. MorphOS version 1.7 is the first version of Origyn Web Browser (OWB) supporting HTML5 media tags.
Forking by Google
An optimizing JIT compiler called "FTL" was announced on May 13, 2014. It uses LLVM to generate optimized machine code. "FTL" stands for "Fourth-Tier-LLVM", and unofficially for faster-than-light, alluding to its speed.
- Comparison of web browser engines
- List of KHTML-based browsers
- List of WebKit-based browsers
- List of graphical layout engines
- "'(fwd) Greetings from the Safari team at Apple Computer' — MARC". Lists.kde.org. January 7, 2003. Retrieved January 13, 2013.
- "Safari is released to the world". Donmelton.com. Retrieved January 13, 2013.
- "WebKit Nightly Builds". webkit.org. Retrieved May 27, 2014.
- "WebKit". Trac.webkit.org. Retrieved December 27, 2010.
- "The WebKit Open Source Project". Retrieved April 7, 2012.
- Stachowiak, Maciej (November 9, 2008). "Companies and Organizations that have contributed to WebKit". WebKit Wiki. Retrieved November 17, 2008.
- "The WebKit Open Source Project — Getting the Code". Webkit.org. Retrieved December 27, 2010.
- Barth, Adam (April 3, 2013). "Chromium Blog: Blink: A rendering engine for the Chromium project". Blog.chromium.org. Retrieved June 14, 2013.
- Lawson, Bruce. "Bruce Lawson’s personal site : Hello Blink". Brucelawson.co.uk. Retrieved June 14, 2013.
- "Open Source – WebKit". Apple. Retrieved March 5, 2009.
- "Apple's "WebKit" is now a Registered Trademark in the US". Retrieved March 7, 2013.
- Melton, Don (August 25, 2011). "Attention Internets! WebKit is not 10 years old today. That happened on June 25. I know the date because that's when I started the project.". Twitter. Retrieved October 13, 2011.
- KWQ (pronounced "quack") is an implementation of the subset of Qt required to make KHTML work on OS X. It is written in Objective C++.
- "Safari and KHTML again". kdedevelopers.org. April 30, 2005. Retrieved February 20, 2010.
- "So, when will KHTML merge all the WebCore changes?". kdedevelopers.org. Retrieved February 20, 2010.
- "The bitter failure named 'safari and khtml'".
- "Open-source divorce for Apple's Safari?".
- "WebCore open source changes". Retrieved May 14, 2016.
- "WebCore – KHTML – Firefox: Know your facts!". Archived from the original on February 10, 2009.
- "Konqueror now passes Acid2".
- Molkentin, Daniel (June 7, 2005). "Apple Opens WebKit CVS and Bug Database". KDE News. Retrieved January 16, 2007.
- "Ars at WWDC: Interview with Lars Knoll, creator of KHTML".
- Unrau, Troy (July 23, 2007). "The unforking of KDE's KHTML and WebKit". Ars Technica. Retrieved July 30, 2007.
- "KDE Development Platform 4.5.0 gains performance, stability, new high-speed cache and support for WebKit".
- "Next Generation KDE Technologies Ported to WebCore".
- "CSS Transforms".
- "CSS3 Animations".
- Koivisto, Antti (November 12, 2007). "HTML5 Media Support". Surfin' Safari blog.
- "Announcing SquirrelFish".
- "SquirrelFish project".
- "Introducing SquirrelFish Extreme".
- "Changeset 40439 – WebKit". Trac.webkit.org. January 30, 2009. Retrieved December 27, 2010.
- "WebKit2 wiki". Webkit.org. Retrieved August 3, 2012.
- "Announcing WebKit2". Webkit.org. Retrieved December 27, 2010.
- "Introducing the Nokia N9: all it takes is a swipe! |Nokia Conversations – The official Nokia Blog". Nokia Corporation. Retrieved June 21, 2011.
- "Source code repository for public parts of Safari 5.1". The WebKit Open Source Project. Retrieved July 20, 2011.
- "WWDC 2014 Session 206 - Introducing the Modern WebKit API - ASCIIwwdc".
- "Nokia S60 Webkit Browser".
- "Google Chrome, Google's Browser Project".
- "Comic describing the Google Chrome Project".
- "PS3、ファームウェアv4.10からWebKitへ。 - あまたの何かしら。". D.hatena.ne.jp. February 8, 2012. Retrieved January 13, 2013.
- "Epiphany Mailing list – Announcement: The Future of Epiphany".
- Chen, Brian X. "HP Launches WebOS-Powered Tablet, Phones | Gadget Lab". Wired.com. Retrieved January 13, 2013.
- "A Brand New Steam".
- "100 Million Club (H1 2010 update)". 100 Million Club (H1 2010 update). VisionMobile. Retrieved March 1, 2011.
- "StatCounter". StatCounter. Retrieved April 14, 2015.
- Stachowiak, Maciej (January 10, 2007). "The Obligatory iPhone Post". Surfin' Safari weblog. Retrieved January 24, 2008.
- "Android Uses WebKit".
- "Palm Pre in-depth impressions, video, and huge hands-on gallery".
- Topolsky, Joshua. "New Amazon Kindle announced: $139 WiFi-only version and $189 3G model available August 27th in the US and UK".
- "WebKitGTK+ project website".
- "Alp Toker – WebKit/Gtk+ is coming".
- "QT WebKit". Archived from the original on August 3, 2009.
- "WebKitClutter project website".
- "ProFUSION | Home". Profusion.mobi. Retrieved January 13, 2013.
- "See OWB forge".
- "AmigaOS OWB official page".
- "Amiga – Powering through, dead or alive!". amigaweb.net. Retrieved June 2, 2010.
- "AROS OWB developer page".
- "Origyn Web Browser for MorphOS". Fabian Coeurjoly. Retrieved January 4, 2010.
- Holwerda, Thom (March 8, 2010). "Origyn Web Browser 1.7 Supports HTML5 Media, More". OSNews. Retrieved March 8, 2010.
- "WebKit developers planning Chromium extraction". The H. Retrieved April 9, 2013.
- Stachowiak, Maciej (September 25, 2008). "Full Pass Of Acid3". Surfin' Safari – The WebKit Blog. Retrieved September 29, 2008.
- "Introducing the WebKit FTL JIT".