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Web SQL Database

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Web SQL Database is a deprecated web browser API specification for storing data in databases that can be queried using SQL variant.[1][2] The technology was only ever implemented in Blink-based browsers like Google Chrome and the new Microsoft Edge, and WebKit-based browsers like Safari. As of February 2024, WebSQL is being phased out in favor of WebStorage and IndexedDB and OPFS, but still available in some contexts under restrictive conditions.



The API is supported by Google Chrome,[3] Opera,[4] Microsoft Edge,[5] and the Android Browser, albeit support is slowly being phased out.[6] Web SQL was deprecated and removed for third-party contexts in Chromium 97. Web SQL access in insecure contexts is deprecated as of Chrome/Chromium 105 at which time a warning message was shown in the Chrome DevTools Issue panel.[7] The API will be entirely removed from Chrome 124.[8]



In January 2010, Google announced availability of WebSQL Database API in Google Chrome.[9]

Mozilla Corporation developers publicly opposed the technology and at the same were the main proponents behind an 'alternative storage' standard, IndexedDB.[10][11] Mozilla argued that ratification of WebSQL as a standard would codify the quirks of SQLite implementation.[12][13]

In November 2010, the W3C Web Applications Working Group ceased working on the specification, citing a lack of independent implementations (i.e. using database system other than SQLite as the backend) as the reason the specification could not move forward to become a W3C Recommendation.[1]

In September 2019, Apple released Safari 13 which removed WebSQL entirely.

In November 2021, Chrome 97 removed WebSQL support in third-party contexts.[14]

In February 2023, Chrome 110 removed WebSQL support in insecure contexts but allowed exceptions set with an enterprise policy.

In October 2023, Chrome 119 was shipped with WebSQL disabled in all contexts by default, with an ability to re-enable it until Chrome 123 via a deprecation trial in some contexts.[15]

In April 2024, Chromium-based browsers, including Chrome 124 and Edge 124 have removed support WebSQL completely.[16]

See also



  1. ^ a b "Web SQL Database (W3C Working Group Note)". W3.org. Retrieved 25 October 2011.
  2. ^ Nelson, Anne Fulcher, and Nelson, William Harris Morehead. (2001). Building Electronic Commerce with Web Database Constructions. Boston, MA: Addison Wesley.
  3. ^ Fette, Ian (25 January 2010). "Chromium Blog: More Resources for Developers". Blog.chromium.org. Retrieved 7 September 2013.
  4. ^ "Can I use Web SQL Database". Caniuse.com. Retrieved 7 September 2013.
  5. ^ "View Web SQL Data". learn.microsoft.com. Retrieved 17 September 2022.
  6. ^ "Deprecating and removing Web SQL". Chrome Developers. 31 August 2022.
  7. ^ "What's New in DevTools (Chrome 119)". Chrome for Developers. 10 October 2023. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  8. ^ Ishii, Ayu (28 February 2024). "Intent to Deprecate and Remove Web SQL". groups.google.com. Retrieved 28 February 2024.
  9. ^ Fette, Ian. "More Resources for Developers". Chromium Blog. Retrieved 30 September 2023.
  10. ^ "Why is WebSQL database deprecated?". Programmers Exchange.
  11. ^ "Beyond HTML5: Database APIs and the Road to IndexedDB". Mozilla Corporation.
  12. ^ O'Callahan, Robert (4 June 2010). "Well, I'm Back: Not Implementing Features Is Hard". Weblogs.mozillazine.org. Archived from the original on 9 November 2020. Retrieved 18 February 2011.
  13. ^ Ranganathan, Arun (1 June 2010). "Beyond HTML5: Database APIs and the Road to IndexedDB – Mozilla Hacks - the Web developer blog". Mozilla Hacks – the Web developer blog. Retrieved 21 May 2021.
  14. ^ "Chrome Platform Status". chromestatus.com. Retrieved 30 September 2023.
  15. ^ Jara, Adriana (1 November 2023). "New in Chrome 119". Chrome for Developers. Retrieved 10 November 2023. WebSQL is fully removed as of Chrome 119. A reverse origin trial allows developers to continue to use WebSQL until Chrome 123.
  16. ^ "Release notes for Microsoft Edge Stable Channel". Microsoft Learn. Retrieved 22 April 2024. Removal of Web SQL. Web SQL support is completely removed. In prior releases, Web SQL support was disabled by default but could be re-enabled via the WebSQLAccess policy. After this change, there is no longer any mechanism to enable Web SQL support. This change is happening in the Chromium project, on which Microsoft Edge is based.