Wednesbury (UK Parliament constituency)

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Wednesbury
Former Borough constituency
for the House of Commons
County Staffordshire
18681974 (1974)
Number of members One
Replaced by Walsall North, Walsall South, West Bromwich West
Created from South Staffordshire

Wednesbury was a borough constituency in England's Black Country which returned one Member of Parliament to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1868 until it was abolished for the February 1974 general election.

Wednesbury became a Parliamentary Borough under the Reform Act 1867, taking territory that previously belonged to the constituency of South Staffordshire.[1]

Members of Parliament[edit]

Election Member Party
1868 Alexander Brogden Liberal
1885 Wilson Lloyd Conservative
1886 Philip Stanhope Liberal
1892 Wilson Lloyd Conservative
1895 Walford Davis Green Conservative
1906 Clarendon Hyde Liberal
1910 John Norton-Griffiths Conservative
1918 Alfred Short Labour
1931 Viscount Ednam Conservative
1932 John Banfield Labour
1945 Stanley Evans Labour
1957 John Stonehouse Labour Co-operative
Feb 1974 constituency abolished

Boundaries[edit]

Over its existence the constituency had five different sets of boundaries, in each case combining the town of Wednesbury with neighbouring communities and reflecting population and local government boundary changes.

The new constituency was defined in Schedule B of the Representation of the People Act 1867 as comprising three Staffordshire parishes, namely: Wednesbury, West Bromwich and Tipton. Under the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885 West Bromwich was removed to become a separate constituency. In its place the parish of Darlaston was added to the seat.[2] These boundaries were used until 1918 when the Representation of the People Act redefined constituencies in terms of the local government areas as they existed at the time. The Parliamentary Borough of Wednesbury was to comprise the Municipal Borough of Wednesbury and the Urban Districts of Darlaston and Tipton.[3] The next boundary change, under the Representation of the People Act 1948, came into effect at the 1950 general election. Tipton was removed to become part of a new Rowley Regis and Tipton seat. Wednesbury Borough Constituency now comprised the Borough of Wednesbury and Urban District of Darlaston, to which were added the two urban districts of Wednesfield and Willenhall from the abolished seat of Wolverhampton East.[4][5]

The final adjustment made was as part of a periodic review under the House of Commons (Redistribution of Seats) Act 1949. This came into effect at the 1955 general election, with Wednesfield transferred to the neighbouring county constituency of Cannock.[5][6]

There were widespread local government changes in the Black Country in 1966, and all the local government districts making up the constituency were abolished and their areas absorbed into neighbouring county boroughs. This was reflected when the Wednesbury constituency was abolished in 1974, with its area being divided between the seats of Walsall North (Willenhall), Walsall South (Darlaston), and West Bromwich West (Wednesbury).[5]

Elections[edit]

Election in the 1860s[edit]

Kenealy

The local people were inclined to vote Liberal so there were several contenders for being the Liberal candidate selected, of whom Alexander Brogden was the man nominated. He was by that time, the senior partner in John Brogden and Sons, coal and ironminers, smelters and railway contractors. The other candidates were: Thomas Eades Walker, of the Patent Shaft Works, Conservative and Dr Edward Vaughan Hyde Kenealy, Independent.[1][7]

The nominations were made on Monday, 16 November 1868 from a wooden husting erected on the South side of the Market Place. It was a lively occasion with all space taken, including windows and housetops. There was rioting and special constables had to be sworn in. Each candidate arrived in style and made a speech. By a show of hands organised by the Returning Officer, it was decided that the election would be held on the next day.[1][7][8]

On Election Day, 300 police officers were marched into the borough, but again; there was rioting. This was the last general election at which voting was open. The state of the voting was collected hourly from the different booths by mounted messengers and announced. 10,995 voted out of 15,000 voters.[1][7][8] The result was:

Brogden
United Kingdom general election, 1868: Wednesbury [9]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Alexander Brogden 6,129 56.3 N/A
Conservative Thomas Eades Walker 3,779 34.7 N/A
Independent Edward Kenealy 969 8.9 N/A
Majority 2,350 21.6 N/A
Turnout 10,877 76.2 N/A
Registered electors 14,277
Liberal win (new seat)

Election in the 1870s[edit]

The second time the seat was contested was at the general election of 1874. Walker, the Conservative candidate at the previous election stood instead at East Worcestershire, where he won a seat. In his place, the Conservatives selected Richard Mills, a Darlaston Ironmaster. The result was:[1]

United Kingdom general election, 1874: Wednesbury[9]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Alexander Brogden 7,530 56.4 +0.1
Conservative Richard Mills 5,813 43.6 +8.9
Majority 1,717 12.9 −8.7
Turnout 13,343 65.5 −10.7
Registered electors 20,357
Liberal hold Swing −4.4

Elections in the 1880s[edit]

In the general election of 1880, Frederick Wootton Isaacson opposed the sitting MP. He withdrew shortly before the contest. However, his name remained on the ballot paper and he received a handful of votes:[1]

Isaacson
United Kingdom general election, 1880: Wednesbury [9]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Alexander Brogden 6,912 97.1 +40.7
Conservative Frederick Wootton Isaacson 207 2.9 −40.7
Majority 6,705 94.2 +81.3
Turnout 7,119 35.5 −30.0
Registered electors 20,035
Liberal hold Swing +40.7

At the next general election in 1885, there had been large boundary changes, in particular the removal of West Bromwich to form a separate constituency. The sitting MP did not defend his seat: Brogden’s liquidation had been gazetted in January 1884 due to the failure of the family business. In his place, the Liberals selected the Hon. Philip James Stanhope. The Conservatives selected Wilson Lloyd, who gained the seat for the party.[1]

United Kingdom general election, 1885: Wednesbury[10]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Wilson Lloyd 4,628 51.1 +48.2
Liberal Philip Stanhope 4,433 48.9 −48.2
Majority 195 2.2 N/A
Turnout 9,061 83.8 +48.3
Registered electors 10,808
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing +48.2

Early in 1886, Gladstone introduced the First Home Rule Bill. The legislation divided the Liberal Party, and a general election was held. At Wednesbury, the same two candidates went to the poll and the result was:[1]

Stanhope
United Kingdom general election, 1886: Wednesbury[10]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Philip Stanhope 4,883 53.6 +4.7
Conservative Wilson Lloyd 4,221 46.4 -4.7
Majority 662 7.2 N/A
Turnout 9,104 84.2 +0.4
Registered electors 10,808
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing +4.7

Elections in the 1890s[edit]

The same two candidates fought the 1892 general election, with a narrow victory for the Conservatives with a majority of sixty votes:[1]

United Kingdom general election, 1892: Wednesbury[10]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Wilson Lloyd 4,986 50.3 +3.9
Liberal Philip Stanhope 4,926 49.7 -3.9
Majority 60 0.6 N/A
Turnout 9,912 88.5 +4.3
Registered electors 11,201
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing +3.9

In 1895, there were two new candidates. The Conservatives selected: Walford Davis Green, a barrister and grandson of Thomas Davis, ironmaster of Hill Top, while the Liberals chose Charles Roberts. Green retained the seat for the Conservatives. The result was:[1]

Green
United Kingdom general election, 1895: Wednesbury[10]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Walford Davis Green 4,924 51.0 +0.7
Liberal Charles Henry Roberts 4,733 49.0 −0.7
Majority 191 2.0 +1.4
Turnout 9,657 89.0 +0.5
Registered electors 10,855
Conservative hold Swing +0.7

Elections in the 1900s[edit]

The 1900 general election was held at the height of the Second Anglo-Boer War. In this so-called "khaki election", Green, a supporter of the war, held his seat against the Liberal candidate, Enoch Horton, a Darlaston manufacturer.[1]

United Kingdom general election, 1900: Wednesbury[10]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Walford Davis Green 4,733 50.9 -0.1
Liberal Enoch Horton 4,558 49.1 +0.1
Majority 175 1.8 -0.2
Turnout 9,291 78.4 -10.6
Registered electors 11,856
Conservative hold Swing -0.1

At the 1906 general election, Green retired and in his place, the Conservatives nominated Alfred Bird, head of the manufacturers of Bird's Custard to defend the seat. The Liberals nominated Clarendon Hyde, a businessman, as their candidate. The Liberals polled well throughout the country, and they won a large majority in the House of Commons. Wednesbury was one of the seats the party gained from the Conservatives, and Hyde won a majority of 944 votes.[11]

Hyde
United Kingdom general election, 1906: Wednesbury[10]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Clarendon Hyde 6,150 54.2 +5.1
Conservative Alfred Bird 5,206 45.8 -5.1
Majority 944 8.4 10.2
Turnout 11,356 89.8 +15.4
Registered electors 12,639
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing +5.1

Elections in the 1910s[edit]

A general election was next held in January 1910: the sitting Liberal MP was opposed by a new Unionist candidate, John Norton-Griffiths, a civil engineer and former army officer. While the election had been called to seek a mandate for the so-called "People's Budget", the campaign in Wednesbury centred on the issue of tariff reform, with both candidates placing large wagers on the effects of policies on future food prices. Norton-Griffiths regained the seat for the Unionists.[12]

Griffiths
United Kingdom general election, January 1910: Wednesbury[10]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative John Norton-Griffiths 6,636 52.4 +6.6
Liberal Clarendon Hyde 6,040 47.6 -6.6
Majority 596 4.8 13.2
Turnout 94.0 +4.2
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing +6.6

The result of the general election in January 1910 was inconclusive and another general election was held in December. Norton-Griffiths retained the seat for the Unionist Party against a new Liberal opponent; with an increased majority.[13]

United Kingdom general election, December 1910: Wednesbury[10]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative John Norton-Griffiths 6,423 53.0 +0.6
Liberal Herbert Aker 5,691 47.0 -0.6
Majority 732 6.0 +1.2
Turnout 89.9 -4.1
Conservative hold Swing +0.6

The next general election was delayed by the First World War, and was not held until late-December 1918. The sitting MP, Sir John Norton-Griffiths, was chosen to stand at Wandsworth Central in London. The Unionists instead nominated Archibald White Maconochie, a former Scottish Liberal Unionist MP and tinned food manufacturer. Norton-Griffiths that he would support the new candidate by flying by London to Wednesbury, to circle the town while dropping election literature and then landing and addressing a mass meeting, before returning to the capital. Permission was refused by the Air Ministry, however.[14] The election was to be a three-sided contest, with Alfred Short, a Sheffield trade unionist, nominated by the Labour Party in addition to R L G Simpson of the Liberals.[15] The Liberal vote collapsed and seat was one of the Labour Party's gains at the election, although the governing wartime coalition led by David Lloyd George won an overwhelming majority.[16]

Short
United Kingdom general election, 1918: Wednesbury[17]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Alfred Short 11,341 49.8 n/a
C Unionist Archibald White Maconochie 10,464 45.9 -7.1
Liberal Robert Leveson Gower Simpson 988 4.3 -42.7
Majority 877 3.9 n/a
Turnout 22,793 66.2 -23.7
Registered electors 34,415
Labour gain from Unionist Swing n/a
C indicates candidate endorsed by the coalition government.

Elections in the 1920s[edit]

At the next general election in 1922, Short was opposed only by a Unionist candidate, Herbert Geraint Williams, an economist who had worked in the Ministry of Munitions during the First World War.[18] Short narrowly retained the seat.[19]

United Kingdom general election, 1922: Wednesbury
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Alfred Short 16,087 50.2 +0.4
Unionist Herbert Williams 15,982 49.8 +3.9
Majority 105 0.4 −3.5
Turnout 32,069 85.5 +19.3
Registered electors 37,501
Labour hold Swing −1.8

Although the Unionist Party won an overall majority in 1922, another general election was held at the end of 1923. This followed the resignation of Prime Minister Bonar Law in May 1923 and concerns over unemployment and protectionism. The new Conservative Prime Minister, Stanley Baldwin called a general election for December 1923.

The same two candidates contested the constituency, and Short held the seat comfortably as the Labour Party saw an increase in votes.[19]

United Kingdom general election, 1923: Wednesbury [20]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Alfred Short 17,810 51.5 +1.3
Unionist Herbert Williams 16,791 48.5 −1.3
Majority 1,019 3.0 +2.6
Turnout 34,601 88.7 +3.2
Registered electors 39,024
Labour hold Swing +1.3

The 1923 general election resulted in a hung parliament. Following the collapse of a short-lived minority Labour government, another general election was held in October 1924.

The Unionists chose a new candidate, Benjamin Garnet Lampard-Vachell, an international hockey player. Despite a drop in the Labour vote, Short held the seat by a slim majority.[21]

United Kingdom general election, 1924: Wednesbury
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Alfred Short 18,170 50.5 −1.0
Unionist Benjamin Lampard-Vachell 17,832 49.5 +1.0
Majority 338 1.0 −2.0
Turnout 36,002 89.9 +1.2
Registered electors 40,035
Labour hold Swing −1.0

The next general election was held in May 1929. Four candidates were nominated: the sitting MP, Alfred Short for Labour; Harold Rubin for the Unionists, J. H. Stockdale for the Liberals and Thomas Gee who stood as "The Workers' Candidate". The campaign was very ill-mannered: Rubin issued writs alleging slander against Short, and Gee and was hospitalised after he was hit on the head with a brick thrown at him whilst delivering a speech on 20 May.[22] Short held the seat with an increased majority.[23]

United Kingdom general election, 1929: Wednesbury [24]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Alfred Short 22,420 50.1 −0.4
Unionist Harold Rubin 17,089 38.1 −11.4
Liberal John Henry Stockdale 5,249 11.7 n/a
Workers Thomas Gee 61 0.1 n/a
Majority 5,331 12.0 +11.0
Turnout 44,819 89.7 −0.2
Registered electors 49,971
Labour hold Swing +5.5

Elections in the 1930s[edit]

The 1929 general election led to a short-lived minority Labour Party government. The Labour Party split and a National Government was formed in August 1931. The National Government, comprising four parties (National Labour, Conservatives and two factions of the LIberal Party), went to the country in a general election in October 1931. The sitting MP, Alfred Short, remained with the main section of the Labour Party in opposition to the National Government. The National Government won a large majority: their candidate at Wednesbury, Viscount Ednam, a businessman and former Member of Parliament, unseated Short.[25]

Ednam
1931 General Election: Wednesbury
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Viscount Ednam 25,000 54.5 +16.4
Labour Alfred Short 20,842 45.5 -4.6
Majority 4,158 9.0 30.0
Turnout 89.0 -0.7
Conservative gain from Labour Swing +15.0

Ednam only served as the Member of Parliament for Wednesbury for about eight months: on 29 June 1932 his father died and he inherited the title of Earl of Dudley and was elevated to the House of Lords. A by-election was held in July 1932: a new Labour candidate, John William Banfield, a trade union official, regained the seat for the party against the Conservative nominee, Captain Rex Davis, formerly of the Middlesex Regiment.[26][27]

Wednesbury by-election, 1932
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour John Banfield 21,977 54.7 +9.2
Conservative Rex Davis 18,198 45.3 -9.2
Majority 3,779 9.4 18.4
Turnout 78.0 -11.0
Labour gain from Conservative Swing +9.2

The next general election was held in November 1935. The National Government candidate was the Rev. Herbert Dunnico, a former Labour Party MP, who had lost his seat in 1931 after which he switched to supporting the government. Banfield held the seat for Labour with a reduced majority.[28]

United Kingdom general election, 1935: Wednesbury
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour John Banfield 22,683 53.3 -1.4
National Labour Herbert Dunnico 19,883 46.7 +1.4
Majority 2,800 6.6 -2.8
Turnout
Labour hold Swing -1.4

Election in the 1940s[edit]

Following the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939, the life of the parliament elected in 1935 was extended, with the next general election not being held until July 1945. The sitting MP, J. W. Banfield, died on 25 May 1945 so the seat was vacant for the final few weeks of the parliament.

The Labour Party selected: Stanley Evans, a Birmingham-born industrialist, to defend the seat. His only opponent was Sebastian Earl, a champion rower and member of the National Labour Organisation.[29] National Labour dissolved itself in June 1945, and Earl stood as a "National" candidate supporting the minority Conservative administration of Winston Churchill. The election resulted in a landslide Labour victory, and Evans was elected with a majority of nearly 16,000 votes.[30]

United Kingdom general election, 1945: Wednesbury
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Stanley Evans 29,909 68.2 +14.9
National Labour Sebastian Earl 13,974 31.8 -14.9
Majority 15,935 36.3 +29.8
Turnout
Labour hold Swing +14.9

Elections in the 1950s[edit]

The next general election was held in 1950. Evans was opposed by both Conservative and Liberal candidates. Henry Wilkins, a managing director of Wilkins & Mitchell Limited, washing machine manufacturers of Darlaston, was the Conservative candidate. The Liberals nominated J Bowker, a land agent and former chairman of the Worcestershire Liberal Federation. The constituency's boundaries had been considerably altered, and Evans held the redrawn seat with a similar majority to the one that he had achieved in 1945.[31]

United Kingdom general election, 1950: Wednesbury
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Stanley Evans 33,215 55.85
Conservative Henry Ravenscroft Wilkins 17,761 29.87
Liberal Ronald James Bowker 8,494 14.28 n/a
Majority 15,454 25.99
Turnout
Labour hold Swing

The 1950 general election resulted in a Labour government with a very slim majority in the House of Commons. In October 1951, the Prime Minister, Clement Attlee, called a general election seeking to increase his party's majority.

At Wednesbury, there was straight fight between Labour and the Conservatives, who nominated the same candidates as in the previous year. Evans was re-elected with a reduced majority.[32][33]

United Kingdom general election, 1951: Wednesbury
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Stanley Evans 35,196 60.51
Conservative Henry Ravenscroft Wilkins 22,971 39.49
Majority 12,225 21.02
Turnout
Labour hold Swing

The 1951 general election, resulted in a Conservative government under the leadership of Winston Churchill. In April 1955, Anthony Eden succeeded Churchill as Prime Minister, and he called a general election in the following month.

There were once again two candidates at Wednesbury. The sitting Labour Party MP, Stanley Evans was opposed by Ronald Hall, a divisional inspector for the West Midlands Gas Board, running for the Conservative Party. Evans retained the seat, which had substantially changed boundaries.[34]

United Kingdom general election, 1955: Wednesbury
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Stanley Evans 26,064 60.4
Conservative Ronald Edgar Hall 17,120 39.6
Majority 8,944 20.7
Turnout
Labour hold Swing

In November 1956, there was a vote of confidence in the Conservative government caused by the Suez Crisis. Evans abstained on the vote, being the only Labour MP not to follow the party whip.[35] Although he was not disciplined by the Parliamentary Labour Party, the Wednesbury Divisional Labour Party were highly critical of him. On 17 November the Divisional Party unanimously passed a resolution calling on him to resign, and on 20 November Evans announced his resignation from both the House of Commons and the Labour Party.[36] He formally resigned his seat by taking the office of Crown Steward and Bailiff of the three Chiltern Hundreds of Stoke, Desborough and Burnham on 26 November.[37] The resulting by-election was held on 28 February 1957.[38] The Labour Party selected John Stonehouse, a lecturer who had previously unsuccessfully contested two general elections at Twickenham and Burton-upon-Trent.[39] The Conservatives chose Peter Tapsell, a former member of the Conservative Research Department.[40] An independent candidate, Wolverhampton solicitor Michael Wade, announced his candidacy hours before the close of nominations on 18 February.[41]

Stonehouse held the seat for Labour with an increased majority.[42]

Wednesbury by-election, 1957
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Co-op John Stonehouse 22,235 62.17 +1.77
Conservative Peter Tapsell 9,999 27.96 -11.64
Independent Michael Wade 3,529 9.87 +9.87
Majority 12,236 34.21 +13.51
Turnout
Labour Co-op hold Swing

The next general election was held in October 1959. The Conservative government, now under the leadership of Harold Macmillan, was re-elected with an increased majority. At Wednesbury, there was a three-way contest with Stonehouse holding the seat for Labour against the Conservative candidate Ernest Knight, Chairman of the West Midlands Conservative Teachers' Association, and Francis Wilmott, an industrialist standing for the Liberal Party.

United Kingdom general election, 1959: Wednesbury[43]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Co-op John Stonehouse 24,157 52.1
Conservative Ernest Knight 17,464 37.7
Liberal Francis B Wilmott 4,780 10.3
Majority 6,683 14.4
Turnout
Labour Co-op hold Swing

Elections in the 1960s[edit]

The next general election was held in October 1964. Macmillan had resigned from the premiership in October 1963, and his successor, Alec Douglas-Home, failed to win the election for the Conservatives. The Labour Party under Harold Wilson won a narrow majority, returning Labour to government after thirteen years in opposition.

John Stonehouse faced a straight fight with the Conservative candidate David Harman, an electrical engineer and member of County Borough of West Bromwich Borough Council. He held the seat with a reduced majority.[44]

United Kingdom general election, 1964: Wednesbury
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Co-op John Stonehouse 23,473 53.7
Conservative David Michael Harman 20,251 46.4
Majority 3,222 7.4
Turnout
Labour Co-op hold Swing

Wilson called a general election in March 1966 in an attempt to secure a larger majority. He succeeded, and the Labour Party were comfortably re-elected. At Wednesbury, the same two candidates fought the election, and Stonehouse saw his majority more than double.

United Kingdom general election, 1966: Wednesbury
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Co-op John Stonehouse 26,041 58.9 +5.2
Conservative David Michael Harman 18,213 41.2 -5.2
Majority 7,828 17.7 +10.3
Turnout
Labour Co-op hold Swing

Election in the 1970s[edit]

The next general election was held in June 1970: the Conservatives under Edward Heath defeated the Labour government. At Wednesbury, the same two candidates fought for a third time. Stonehouse held the seat with a reduced majority.[45]

United Kingdom general election, 1970: Wednesbury
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Co-op John Stonehouse 23,998 53.8
Conservative David Michael Harman 20,627 46.2
Majority 3,371 7.6
Turnout
Labour Co-op hold Swing

The constituency was abolished prior to the next election in February 1974. Stonehouse was subsequently elected MP for Walsall North which included part of the abolished seat.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Hackwood, F. W. (2002) [1902]. Wednesbury Ancient and Modern.
  2. ^ Redistribution Of Seats Act 1885. Fifth schedule. Contents and boundaries of boroughs with altered boundaries
  3. ^ Representation of the People Act 1918. Ninth Schedule. Redistribution of Seats
  4. ^ Representation of the People Act 1948, First Schedule
  5. ^ a b c Youngs Jr., Frederic A (1991). Guide to the Local Administrative Units of England. Volume II: Northern England. London: Royal Historical Society. p. 838. ISBN 0861931270.
  6. ^ S.I. 1955/170
  7. ^ a b c Ede, John F. (1962). History of Wednesbury.
  8. ^ a b Willetts, Cyril (1996). Aspects of olden Wednesbury.
  9. ^ a b c Craig, F. W. S., ed. (1977). British Parliamentary Election Results 1832-1885 (e-book)|format= requires |url= (help) (1st ed.). London: Macmillan Press. ISBN 978-1-349-02349-3.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h Craig, F. W. S., ed. (1974). British Parliamentary Election Results: 1885-1918. London: Macmillan Press. p. 204. ISBN 9781349022984.
  11. ^ "Progress of the General Election". The Times. 17 January 1906. p. 10.
  12. ^ "Progress of the General Election". The Times. 17 January 1910. p. 7.
  13. ^ "Progress of the General Election". The Times. 5 December 1910. p. 9.
  14. ^ "Flying to a Meeting. Sir J Griffith-Norton's Plan to Save Time". The Times. 12 December 1918. p. 8.
  15. ^ :"Nominations". The Times. 5 December 1918. p. 15.
  16. ^ "General Election, 1918: The Polls". The Times. 30 December 1918. p. iii.
  17. ^ Debrett's House of Commons and the Judicial Bench
  18. ^ "The Prospects at Wolverhampton". The Times. 26 October 1922. p. 14.
  19. ^ a b "The General Election". The Times. 7 December 1923. p. 6.
  20. ^ British Parliamentary Election Results 1918-1949, FWS Craig
  21. ^ "The General Election". The Times. 30 October 1924. p. 8.
  22. ^ "Candidate Assaulted. Concussion After Being Hit By A Brick". The Times. 22 May 1929. p. 16.
  23. ^ "The General Election". The Times. 1 June 1929. p. 8.
  24. ^ Craig, F.W.S., ed. (1969). British parliamentary election results 1918-1949. Glasgow: Political Reference Publications. p. 268. ISBN 0-900178-01-9.
  25. ^ "General Election, 1931". The Times. 29 October 1931. p. vi.
  26. ^ 'The Wednesbury Election: Polling To-Day', The Times, 26 July 1932
  27. ^ 'The Wednesbury Election: Seat Won By Labour', The Times, 28 July 1932
  28. ^ "UK General Election results November 1935. Tiverton-Walsall". Politics Resources.
  29. ^ "News in Brief". The Times. 4 September 1940. p. 2.
  30. ^ "UK General Election results July 1945. Uxbridge-Wednesbury". Politics Resources.
  31. ^ The Times House of Commons: With Full Results of the Polling, Biographies of Members and Unsuccessful Candidates, Photographs of All Members, and a Complete Analysis, Statistical Tables, and a Map of the General Election. 1950. p. 155.
  32. ^ "UK General Election results October 1951. Thurrock - West Bromwich". Political Science Resources.
  33. ^ The Times House of Commons: With Full Results of the Polling, Biographies of Members and Unsuccessful Candidates, Photographs of All Members, and a Complete Analysis, Statistical Tables, and a Map of the General Election. 1951. p. 105.
  34. ^ The Times Guide to the House of Commons, 1955. The Times. 1955. p. 85.
  35. ^ "Government Majority of 67 in Confidence Vote". The Times. 2 November 1956. p. 4.
  36. ^ "Mr S. Evans, M.P., resigns". The Times. 21 November 1956. p. 6.
  37. ^ "No. 40936". The London Gazette. 27 November 1956. p. 6727.
  38. ^ "Polling Date in Wednesbury". The Times. 11 February 1957. p. 4.
  39. ^ "Labour's Choice for Wednesbury". 21 January 1957. p. 4.
  40. ^ "Conservative Choice". The Times. 5 January 1957. p. 3.
  41. ^ "Independent Candidate Steps In At Wednesbury". The Times. 19 February 1957. p. 4.
  42. ^ "Labour Holds Wednesbury". The Times. 1 March 1957. p. 8.
  43. ^ [1]
  44. ^ The Times House of Commons 1964. The Times. 1964. p. 163.
  45. ^ The Times House of Commons 1970. The Times. 1970. p. 191.

Sources[edit]