Weierstrass M-test

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In mathematics, the Weierstrass M-test is a test for showing that an infinite series of functions converges uniformly and absolutely. It applies to series whose terms are functions with real or complex values, and is analogous to the comparison test for determining the convergence of series of real or complex numbers.

Statement[edit]

Weierstrass M-test. Suppose that {fn} is a sequence of real- or complex-valued functions defined on a set A, and that there is a sequence of positive numbers {Mn} satisfying

Then the series

converges uniformly on A.

Remark. The result is often used in combination with the uniform limit theorem. Together they say that if, in addition to the above conditions, the set A is a topological space and the functions fn are continuous on A, then the series converges to a continuous function.

Generalization[edit]

A more general version of the Weierstrass M-test holds if the codomain of the functions {fn} is any Banach space, in which case the statement

may be replaced by

,

where is the norm on the Banach space. For an example of the use of this test on a Banach space, see the article Fréchet derivative.

Proof[edit]

Consider the sequence of functions

Since the series converges and Mn ≥ 0 for every n, then by the Cauchy criterion,

For the chosen N,

Thus the sequence of partial sums of the series converges uniformly. Hence, by definition, the series converges uniformly.

Inequality (1) follows from the triangle inequality.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Rudin, Walter (January 1991). Functional Analysis. McGraw-Hill Science/Engineering/Math. ISBN 0-07-054236-8. 
  • Rudin, Walter (May 1986). Real and Complex Analysis. McGraw-Hill Science/Engineering/Math. ISBN 0-07-054234-1. 
  • Rudin, Walter (1976). Principles of Mathematical Analysis. McGraw-Hill Science/Engineering/Math. 
  • Whittaker; Watson (1927). A Course in Modern Analysis (Fourth ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 49.