Weight class (boxing)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Manny Pacquiao has won world championships in eight different weight divisions, more than any other boxer.

In boxing, a weight class is a measurement weight range for boxers. The lower limit of a weight class is equal to the upper weight limit of the class below it. The top class, with no upper limit, is called heavyweight in professional boxing and super heavyweight[1] in amateur boxing. A boxing match is usually scheduled for a fixed weight class, and each boxer's weight must not exceed the upper limit. Although professional boxers may fight above their weight class, an amateur boxer's weight must not fall below the lower limit. A nonstandard weight limit is called a catchweight.

Weigh-in[edit]

A boxer who is over the weight limit may strip naked to make the weight if the excess is minimal; otherwise, in a professional bout, one can try again later, typically after losing weight in the interim through dehydration by vigorous exercise in a steam room. If the excess weight is too great, the effort expended trying to "make weight" will make the boxer unfit for the fight itself. In such cases the fight may be cancelled with the over-weight boxer sanctioned or the fight may proceed as a catchweight non-title fight.

The International Boxing Federation (IBF) has a unique weigh-in policy in title fights. In addition to making the weight at the official weigh-in the day before the fight, the boxers are required to submit to a weight check on the morning of the fight. During this later weigh-in, the fighter must weigh no more than 10 pounds (4.5 kg) above the weight limit for the fight. If a boxer skips the morning weigh-in, or fails to make weight at that time, the fight can still proceed, but the IBF title will not be at stake. In heavyweight title fights, the second weigh-in is still mandatory, but since there is no upper weight limit in that class, a boxer can only be sanctioned for failing to submit to the weigh-in.[2][3]

An amateur boxer must make the weight at the initial weigh-in; there is no opportunity to try again later.[4] If the boxer fails to make the projected weight, he or she is eliminated from their bout. If the boxer fails a drug test, he or she is eliminated from the bout as well. There is a "general weigh-in" before the start of the tournament and a "daily weigh-in" on the morning of each of a fighter's bouts.[5] At the general weigh-in, the fighter must be between the weight class's upper and lower limits; at the daily weigh-in only the upper limit is enforced.[5] A fighter outside the limit at the initial weigh-in may be allowed to fight in a different class if there is space in the tournament.[6] At major events such as boxing at the Olympics, there is a limit of one boxer per country per weight class.[7]

Culture[edit]

A boxer may fight different bouts at different weight classes. The trend for professionals is to move up to a higher class as they age, with muscle mass and bone density increasing over time. Winning titles at multiple weight classes to become a "multiple champion" is considered a major achievement. In amateur boxing, bouts are much shorter and much more frequent, and boxers fight at their "natural" weight.

One boxer is said to be better "pound for pound" than another if he is considered superior with due regard for their difference in weight. Theoretical comparisons of the merits of boxers in different weight classes are a popular topic for boxing fans, with a similar speculative appeal to comparing sports figures from different eras; in both cases, the competitors could never face each other in reality.

History[edit]

A boxing match in 1914 between Freddie Welsh and Joe Rivers in Vernon, California

In the early nineteenth century, there were no standard weight classes. In 1823, the Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue said the limit for a "light weight" was 12 stone (168 lb, 76.2 kg) while Sportsman's Slang the same year gave 11 stone (154 lb, 69.9 kg) as the limit.[8]

Size mismatches were dangerous for the smaller boxer and unsatisfying for the spectators. National and world titles could only become recognised if standard weight classes were agreed upon.[9] Important sets of weight classes were those specified in 1909 by the National Sporting Club of London, and those contained in the 1920 Walker Law which established the New York State Athletic Commission (NYSAC).[10]

After the split in the 1960s between the WBC and the WBA, the divisions were narrowed, creating more champions simultaneously, and making it easier for fighters to move between different weight divisions. Among the professional bodies, the names of the new divisions are not standardized between different sanctioning bodies, although the cutoff weights are. These weights are specified in pounds, reflecting the historic dominance of Britain (and, later, the United States) in the sport.[citation needed]

Glamour divisions[edit]

Boxing has its own "Original Eight" weight divisions, also known as the "traditional", "classic", or "glamour" divisions. These divisions are the most prominent and widely recognized weight divisions in boxing. Manny Pacquiao has won world championships in the greatest number of the glamour divisions, winning championships in the flyweight, featherweight, lightweight, and welterweight divisions.

Divisions Weights Years established
Heavyweight ≥200 lb (90.7 kg) +160 lb (72.6 kg) in 1738 by Broughton's Rules; established officially at +12 st (168.0 lb; 76.2 kg) in 1909 by National Sporting Club of London (NSC); +175 lb (79.4 kg) in 1920 by Walker Law; +190 lb (86.2 kg) in 1979 and finally +200 lb (90.7 kg) in 2003
Light heavyweight 168–175 lb (76.2–79.4 kg) Established officially at 12 st (168.0 lb; 76.2 kg) in 1909 by NSC and 175 lb (79.4 kg) in 1920 by Walker Law
Middleweight 154–160 lb (69.9–72.6 kg) Fights dating back to 1840s; established officially at 11 st (154.0 lb; 69.9 kg) in 1909 by NSC and 160 lb (72.6 kg) in 1920 by Walker Law
Welterweight 140–147 lb (63.5–66.7 kg) 145 lb (65.8 kg) in 1889; established officially at 10 st (140.0 lb; 63.5 kg) in 1909 by NSC and 147 lb (66.7 kg) in 1920 by Walker Law
Lightweight 130–135 lb (59.0–61.2 kg) 160 lb (72.6 kg) in 1738 by Broughton's Rules; 140 lb (63.5 kg) in 1889; established officially at 9+12 st (133.0 lb; 60.3 kg) in 1909 by NSC and 135 lb (61.2 kg) in 1920 by Walker Law
Featherweight 122–126 lb (55.3–57.2 kg) 118 lb (53.5 kg) in 1860 by London Prize Ring Rules; 110 lb (49.9 kg) and 115 lb (52.2 kg) in 1889; established officially at 9 st (126.0 lb; 57.2 kg) in 1909 by NSC and standardized at 126 lb (57.2 kg) in 1920 by Walker Law
Bantamweight 115–118 lb (52.2–53.5 kg) 105 lb (47.6 kg) in 1860 by London Prize Ring Rules; 116 lb (52.6 kg) in 1898; established officially at 8+12 st (119.0 lb; 54.0 kg) in 1909 by NSC and 118 lb (53.5 kg) in 1920 by Walker Law
Flyweight 108–112 lb (49.0–50.8 kg) Established officially at 8 st (112.0 lb; 50.8 kg) in 1909 by NSC and standardized at 112 lb (50.8 kg) in 1920 by Walker Law[10]

Tweener divisions[edit]

The newcomer weight divisions or "tweener divisions", mostly recognized with either a "super", "light" or "junior" in front of their names, took many years to be fully recognized as legitimate weight divisions in boxing. Manny Pacquiao has won world championships in four of these divisions; super bantamweight, super featherweight, light welterweight and light middleweight.

Weights Years establishment
Bridgerweight 200–224 lbs (90.7 - 101.6 kg) Established and recognised by the WBC in 2020
Cruiserweight 175–200 lbs (79.4 - 90.7 kg) 190 lbs (86.2 kg) in 1979; changed to 200 lbs (90.7 kg) in 2003
Super middleweight 160–168 lbs (72.6 - 76.2 kg) Established and recognized in 1967–1988
Light middleweight 147–154 lbs (66.7 - 69.9 kg) Established in 1920 by Walker Law; recognized in 1962
Light welterweight 135–140 lbs (61.2 - 63.5 kg) Established officially at 140 lbs (63.5 kg) in 1920 by Walker Law; recognized in 1959
Super featherweight 126–130 lbs (57.2 - 59 kg) Established at 130 lbs (59 kg) in 1920 by Walker Law; recognized in 1959
Super bantamweight 118–122 lbs (53.5 - 55.3 kg) Established at 122 lbs (55.3 kg) in 1920 by Walker Law; recognized in 1976
Super flyweight 112–115 lbs (50.8 - 52.2 kg) Established at 115 lbs (52.2 kg) in 1920 by Walker Law; recognized in 1980
Light flyweight 105–108 lbs (47.6 - 49 kg) Established at 108 lbs (49 kg) in 1920 by Walker Law; recognized in 1975
Strawweight 105 lbs (47.6 kg) Recognized in 1987[10]

Catchweights[edit]

A nonstandard weight limit is called a catchweight. A catchweight may be agreed to for an individual bout—sometimes even for a championship bout—but championships are awarded only at the standard weight classes. For example, when Manny Pacquiao fought Antonio Margarito at a catch-weight of 150 pounds, the World Boxing Council sanctioned this as a title fight for jr. middleweight, whose limit is 154 pounds.[11]

Professional boxing[edit]

This table gives names and limits recognised by the four widely regarded sanctioning bodies (WBA, WBC, IBF, WBO),[12] the label used in Boxrec.com's data, and by the magazines The Ring and Boxing News.

Bridgerweight has been recognised by the WBC since November 2020, but is not currently recognised by any other bodies.[13]

The date is that since which a continuous world title has been recognised by a major sanctioning body; some classes had earlier champions recognised intermittently or by minor bodies. One current weight class with only minor recognition is "super cruiserweight"; widely used as an informal descriptor, it is a formal weight class of the lightly regarded International Boxing Association at a limit of 210 lb; the IBA's cruiserweight limit is 190 lb.[14]

Continuous since Weight limit WBA WBC IBF WBO BoxRec The Ring
1884 Unlimited Heavyweight
2020 224 lb (101.6 kg; 16 st 0 lb) Bridgerweight
1980 200 lb (90.7 kg; 14 st 4.0 lb) Cruiserweight Junior heavyweight Cruiserweight
1913 175 lb (79.4 kg; 12 st 7.0 lb) Light heavyweight
1984 168 lb (76.2 kg; 12 st 0 lb) Super middleweight
1884 160 lb (72.6 kg; 11 st 6.0 lb) Middleweight
1962 154 lb (69.9 kg; 11 st 0 lb) Super welterweight Junior middleweight Super welterweight Junior middleweight
1914 147 lb (66.7 kg; 10 st 7.0 lb) Welterweight
1959 140 lb (63.5 kg; 10 st 0 lb) Super lightweight Junior welterweight Super lightweight Junior welterweight
1886 135 lb (61.2 kg; 9 st 9.0 lb) Lightweight
1959 130 lb (59.0 kg; 9 st 4.0 lb) Super featherweight Junior lightweight Super featherweight Junior lightweight
1889 126 lb (57.2 kg; 9 st 0 lb) Featherweight
1976 122 lb (55.3 kg; 8 st 10.0 lb) Super bantamweight Junior featherweight Super bantamweight Junior featherweight
1894 118 lb (53.5 kg; 8 st 6.0 lb) Bantamweight
1980 115 lb (52.2 kg; 8 st 3.0 lb) Super flyweight Junior bantamweight Super flyweight Junior bantamweight
1911 112 lb (50.8 kg; 8 st 0 lb) Flyweight
1975 108 lb (49.0 kg; 7 st 10.0 lb) Light flyweight Junior flyweight Light flyweight Junior flyweight
1987 105 lb (47.6 kg; 7 st 7.0 lb) Minimumweight Strawweight Mini flyweight Strawweight
2007 102 lb (46.3 kg; 7 st 4.0 lb) Light minimumweight Atomweight

Amateur boxing[edit]

When the (amateur) International Boxing Association (AIBA) was founded in 1946 to govern amateur boxing, it metricated the weight class limits by rounding them to the nearest kilogram. Subsequent alterations as outlined in the boxing at the Summer Olympics article; these have introduced further discrepancies between amateur and professional class limits and names. The lower weight classes are to be adjusted in September 2010, to establish an absolute minimum weight for adult boxers.[1]

Amateur weight classes also specify the minimum weight (which the same as the maximum weight of the next highest class).[1] For safety reasons, fighters cannot fight at a higher weight. This also meant that even the heaviest weight class has a limit, albeit a lower bound. The lower limit for "heavyweight" was established in 1948 at 81 kg. When a new limit of 91+ kg was established in 1984, the name "heavyweight" was kept by the 81+ kg class, and the 91+ kg class was named "super heavyweight", a name not currently used in professional boxing.

Classes are as follows:[15]

Class name Weight class limit (kg/lbs)
Men Women Junior
Super heavyweight Unlimited
Heavyweight 92 kg (202.8 lb; 14.5 st) Unlimited Unlimited
Cruiserweight 86 kg (189.6 lb; 13.5 st)
Light heavyweight 80 kg (176.4 lb; 12.6 st) 81 kg (178.6 lb; 12.8 st) 80 kg (176.4 lb; 12.6 st)
Middleweight 75 kg (165.3 lb; 11.8 st) 75 kg (165.3 lb; 11.8 st) 75 kg (165.3 lb; 11.8 st)
Light middleweight 71 kg (156.5 lb; 11.2 st) 70 kg (154.3 lb; 11.0 st) 70 kg (154.3 lb; 11.0 st)
Welterweight 67 kg (147.7 lb; 10.6 st) 66 kg (145.5 lb; 10.4 st) 66 kg (145.5 lb; 10.4 st)
Light welterweight 63.5 kg (140.0 lb; 10.0 st) 63 kg (138.9 lb; 9.9 st) 63 kg (138.9 lb; 9.9 st)
Lightweight 60 kg (132.3 lb; 9.4 st) 60 kg (132.3 lb; 9.4 st) 60 kg (132.3 lb; 9.4 st)
Featherweight 57 kg (125.7 lb; 9.0 st) 57 kg (125.7 lb; 9.0 st) 57 kg (125.7 lb; 9.0 st)
Bantamweight 54 kg (119.0 lb; 8.5 st) 54 kg (119.0 lb; 8.5 st) 54 kg (119.0 lb; 8.5 st)
Light bantamweight 52 kg (114.6 lb; 8.2 st)
Flyweight 51 kg (112.4 lb; 8.0 st) 52 kg (114.6 lb; 8.2 st) 50 kg (110.2 lb; 7.9 st)
Light flyweight 50 kg (110.2 lb; 7.9 st) 48 kg (105.8 lb; 7.6 st)
Minimumweight 46–48 kg (101.4–105.8 lb; 7.2–7.6 st) 45–48 kg (99.2–105.8 lb; 7.1–7.6 st) 44–46 kg (97.0–101.4 lb; 6.9–7.2 st)

At the Olympics, each weight class is a separate single-elimination tournament awarding one gold, one silver and two bronze medals in each weight class. The event format is geared so that the finals of all represented weight classes are held over the last two days of the competition, entrants that fail to win on the penultimate day being the Bronze medal recipients with the finals deciding Gold and Silver on the final day, all of the bouts are scheduled in ascending order of weight with the super heavyweight final last of all.

Each weight class conducts preliminary and qualification bouts, for all represented classes where the number of entrants requires multiple match-ups before the finals, with the match-ups of the lightest weight class requiring such fighting first and continuing with each subsequent higher weight class as required, further, second, third and fourth round match-ups may be required to complete the schedule using the same weight class progression to ultimately reach the final[16]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c AIBA, Technical & Competition Rules, §1.2 & Appendix K
  2. ^ "Weigh-In Ceremonies" (PDF). Rules for IBF, USBA & Intercontinental Championship and Elimination Bouts. International Boxing Federation/United States Boxing Association. April 2, 2014. pp. 5–6. Retrieved February 10, 2018.
  3. ^ Rafael, Dan (2017-03-18). "Daniel Jacobs blows off weight check, can't win IBF title vs. Gennady Golovkin". ESPN.com. Retrieved 2017-03-18.
  4. ^ AIBA, Technical & Competition Rules, §6.1
  5. ^ a b AIBA, Technical & Competition Rules, §5.1
  6. ^ AIBA, Technical & Competition Rules, §6
  7. ^ AIBA, Technical & Competition Rules, §2.2
  8. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, s.v. "light weight".
  9. ^ Kelsey McCarson (December 1, 2017). "Breaking Down Each Boxing Weight Class". BleacherReport.
  10. ^ a b c "Weight Divisions History & Guide". Pro Boxing-fans.
  11. ^ Guzman, Francisco (13 November 2009). "Miguel Cotto ready to put out his fire power". BraggingRightsCorner. Archived from the original on 13 March 2012. Retrieved 13 March 2012. Pacquiao is also given the chance to fight for the WBO welterweight title despite the catchweight issue.
  12. ^ "Boxing Champions". ESPN.com. 25 February 2011. Retrieved 4 March 2022.
  13. ^ Rivera, Miguel (November 9, 2020). "WBC Prez Says New Weight Division, 200-224, Will Be Called 'Bridger'". BoxingScene.com. Retrieved November 25, 2020.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  14. ^ Men's champions Archived 2010-01-10 at the Wayback Machine International Boxing Association
  15. ^ "AIBA TECHNICAL & COMPETITION RULES" (PDF). Iba.sport. Retrieved 4 March 2022.
  16. ^ AIBA, Technical & Competition Rules, §7.6

External links[edit]