Weight loss effects of water

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The apparent weight loss effects of water have been subject to some scientific research.[1]

This evidence has been used by some of the scientists who worked on this research, and by others, to bolster suggestions that people who are trying to lose weight can benefit from augmenting – but not replacing – their dietary programs by drinking water, either before meals or at any time. Such advice had previously been given by dietitians even before the most recent research was published.[citation needed]

Energy impact[edit]

Energy regulation[edit]

There is some evidence drinking water before or during a meal may help aid weight loss when used in conjunction with a calorie-controlled diet.[1]

Drinking water prior to each meal may help in appetite suppression. A promising approach to reducing appetite which does not involve taking any drugs, and is very safe, is to drink circa 4-5 dl of water 30 minutes before a meal. Though this had been a folk remedy for overeating for many years, and is recommended by some dietitians and stipulated in some scientific studies, it was only recently that the approach was subjected to a scientific randomised controlled trial to see how much effect it had:

  • A 2008 study concluded that drinking water is associated with weight loss in overweight dieting women independent of diet and activity.[2]
  • A 2010 study concluded that people that consumed two cups (500 mL) of water right before eating a meal ate between 75 and 90 fewer calories during that meal.[3]
  • A 2010 study conducted those who drank two eight-ounce glasses of water before each meal consumed 75 to 90 fewer calories while eating. Over three months, water-drinkers lost an average of five pounds more than the dieters who were parched.[4]
  • A 2011 study conducted on obese children concluded that water drinking on resting energy expenditure was significant.[5] Pediatricians agree that hydration in children may be optimal only in breastfed infants.[6]
  • A 2011 study conducted on middle-aged and older adults (aged ≥40 years) given 500 mL 30 minutes before meal 3 times daily for 12 weeks found that the individuals lost 2 kg body weight compared to the control group.[7]
  • A 2013 study conducted on adults 18-23 concluded that when they were given 500 mL given 3 times daily for 8 weeks they lost body weight.[8]
  • A 2013 study concluded reviewed that Studies of individuals dieting for weight loss or maintenance suggest a weight-reducing effect of increased water consumption.[9]

Thermoregulation[edit]

Thermoregulation is the process that allows the human body to maintain its core internal temperature. Cold induced thermoregulation has been proven to be a successful weight loss experiment.[10] One study found that drinking 500 ml of water increased metabolic rate by 30% after 30-40 min with a total thermogenic response of 100 kJ (24 kcal). About 40% of the thermogenic effect originated from warming the water from 22 to 37 °C.[11] However, a later study in 2006 states that approximately 500 mL 3 °C cold water caused only increase in energy expenditure by 4.5% for 60 minutes.[12]

Motivation for higher water intake[edit]

Carbonated water[edit]

Main article: Carbonated water

One study states that consumers of carbonated water prepared at home had significantly higher mean drinking water intake (tap + bottled + carbonated water) in percentage of total water intake than non-consumers, and lower mean intakes of milk, bottled water and tap water, respectively;[13]

Other Health Benefits[edit]

Water is essential to maintain all the normal functions of the mammalian body including controlling body temperature through sweating, lubricate and cushion joints, carry nutrients and oxygen to cells and keeping the blood stream liquid enough to flow through the blood vessels.[14]

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Pre-meal water consumption for weight loss". Australian Family Physician. 42 (7): 478. July 2013. PMID 23826600. 
  2. ^ Stookey JD, Constant F, Popkin BM, Gardner CD (November 2008). "Drinking water is associated with weight loss in overweight dieting women independent of diet and activity". Obesity. 16 (11): 2481–8. doi:10.1038/oby.2008.409. PMID 18787524. 
  3. ^ http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/08/100823142929.htm[full citation needed]
  4. ^ https://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/pressroom/newsreleases/2010/august/clinical-trial-confirms-effectiveness-of-simple-appetite-control-method.htm[full citation needed]
  5. ^ Dubnov-Raz G, Constantini NW, Yariv H, Nice S, Shapira N (October 2011). "Influence of water drinking on resting energy expenditure in overweight children". International Journal of Obesity. 35 (10): 1295–300. doi:10.1038/ijo.2011.130. PMID 21750519. 
  6. ^ Manz F (October 2007). "Hydration in children". Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 26 (5 Suppl): 562S–569S. doi:10.1080/07315724.2007.10719659. PMID 17921466. 
  7. ^ Dennis EA, Dengo AL, Comber DL, et al. (February 2010). "Water consumption increases weight loss during a hypocaloric diet intervention in middle-aged and older adults". Obesity. 18 (2): 300–7. doi:10.1038/oby.2009.235. PMC 2859815free to read. PMID 19661958. 
  8. ^ Vij VA, Joshi AS (September 2013). "Effect of 'water induced thermogenesis' on body weight, body mass index and body composition of overweight subjects". Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. 7 (9): 1894–6. doi:10.7860/JCDR/2013/5862.3344. PMC 3809630free to read. PMID 24179891. 
  9. ^ Muckelbauer R, Sarganas G, Grüneis A, Müller-Nordhorn J (August 2013). "Association between water consumption and body weight outcomes: a systematic review". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 98 (2): 282–99. doi:10.3945/ajcn.112.055061. PMID 23803882. 
  10. ^ McDonald RB, Florez-Duquet M, Murtagh-Mark C, Horwitz BA (1996). "Relationship between cold-induced thermoregulation and spontaneous rapid body weight loss of aging F344 rats". The American Journal of Physiology. 271 (5 Pt 2): R1115–22. PMID 8945943. 
  11. ^ Boschmann M, Steiniger J, Hille U, et al. (December 2003). "Water-induced thermogenesis". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 88 (12): 6015–9. doi:10.1210/jc.2003-030780. PMID 14671205. 
  12. ^ Brown CM, Dulloo AG, Montani JP (September 2006). "Water-induced thermogenesis reconsidered: the effects of osmolality and water temperature on energy expenditure after drinking". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 91 (9): 3598–602. doi:10.1210/jc.2006-0407. PMID 16822824. 
  13. ^ Sichert-Hellert W, Kersting M (December 2004). "Home-made carbonated water and the consumption of water and other beverages in children and adolescents: results of the DONALD study". Acta Paediatrica. 93 (12): 1583–7. doi:10.1111/j.1651-2227.2004.tb00847.x. PMID 15841765. 
  14. ^ Victorian State Government. (2016). Water - a vital nutrient. https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/healthyliving/water-a-vital-nutrient