Weinstein effect

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The Weinstein effect[1][2] is a global trend in which allegations of sexual misconduct by famous or powerful men are disclosed.[3][4] The first of a worldwide wave of allegations were made in the United States in October 2017, when media outlets reported on the sexual abuse allegations made against film producer Harvey Weinstein. The allegations were described as a "tipping point" or "watershed moment" and precipitated a "national reckoning" against sexual harassment.[4][5]

The effect gave rise to the #MeToo movement, which encourages people to share their experiences of sexual harassment and assault, and the two events triggered a cascade of allegations that brought about the swift removal of many men in positions of power in the United States, holding men accountable for their actions across the globe. In the entertainment industry, allegations led to the dismissal of actors and directors alike.[3][4]

History[edit]

Background[edit]

In July 2016, Fox News television host Gretchen Carlson filed a lawsuit against the station's chairman Roger Ailes, which led to his removal and encouraged journalists to pursue rumors about the conduct of Weinstein and political commentator Bill O'Reilly. Similar revelations and a lawsuit led to O'Reilly being fired in April 2017. Both Ailes and O'Reilly denied wrongdoing.[6] Ailes died in May 2017.

Harvey Weinstein, the producer convicted of sexual misconduct.

On October 5, 2017, The New York Times broke the first reports of decades of sexual misconduct claims against film producer Harvey Weinstein. On October 10, 2017, journalist Ronan Farrow reported further allegations Weinstein had sexually assaulted or harassed thirteen women, and raped three.[7]

Weinstein was immediately dismissed from The Weinstein Company. Weinstein had suppressed these cases through confidential financial settlements and nondisclosure agreements, as was common for celebrity sexual harassment cases, before journalists aired the story. Over eighty accusers came forward against Weinstein, including many well-known actresses.[8]

Impact[edit]

Jim Rutenberg of The New York Times said the Weinstein scandal precipitated a "national reckoning" against sexual harassment and assault in the United States,[9] which became known as the Weinstein effect.[6] USA Today wrote that 2017 was the year in which "sexual misconduct became a fireable offense".[6]

Men and women aired claims of sexual misconduct in workplaces across multiple industries, leading to the swift international condemnation or removal of many men in positions of power. On Twitter, the #MeToo campaign also encouraged hundreds of thousands of people to share their stories.[6][10] Examples of the Weinstein effect are numerous, with actors such as Kevin Spacey, Jeffrey Tambor, Dustin Hoffman, Louis C.K., and Ben Affleck; filmmakers Brett Ratner and James Toback; Screen Junkies creator Andy Signore;[11] and animators John Lasseter, John Kricfalusi and Chris Savino all being affected.[4] In the journalism industry, allegations led to the firing of editors, publishers, executives, and hosts, including high-profile television figures such as Charlie Rose, Mark Halperin, and Matt Lauer.[4] In politics, accusations of varying degrees of severity were made against U.S. House Representative John Conyers (D-MI) and U.S. Senator Al Franken (D-MN), both of whom resigned their seats in Congress, and Roy Moore (R-AL), who lost his 2017 bid for election to the United States Senate.[4] Celebrity chefs Mario Batali and John Besh were also removed.[4]

Two supporters of the #MeToo movement were also accused. CBS chairman and CEO Leslie Moonves was one of Hollywood's most prominent supporters of the #MeToo Movement and a founding member of the "Commission on Sexual Harassment and Advancing Equality in the Workplace", formed in late 2017 to "tackle the broad culture of abuse and power disparity".[12][13][14][15][16] On July 27, 2018, six women, including actress Illeana Douglas, accused him of sexually harassing them.[12] On August 19, 2018, an article published in The New York Times detailed allegations that actress Asia Argento had raped Jimmy Bennett, a then-17-year-old actor and musician, in a California hotel in 2013, and arranged to pay $380,000 to her accuser as hush money.[17][18][19] Bennett was under the California age of consent, which is 18 years of age, and says he was given alcohol under the age of 21.[19][20][21] Argento was a leading Weinstein accuser and prominent #MeToo movement leader.[19][20][21]

The Weinstein effect was felt outside the United States, especially, but not solely, in the English-speaking world. In the United Kingdom, allegations of sexual misconduct against many British politicians became a public scandal involving dozens of women accusers across decades and political parties. It led to the resignations of Defence Secretary Michael Fallon, Cabinet Secretary Damian Green, and Welsh minister Carl Sargeant (who died by suicide four days after his dismissal).[22] In January 2018, reports of sexual harassment at the high-society Presidents Club charity dinner caused another scandal. In Canada, accusations against Just for Laughs comedy festival founder Gilbert Rozon led to his resignation, and 15 people accused Quebec radio host Éric Salvail of sexual misconduct. Broadcaster and former baseball player Gregg Zaun was fired.[23]

Analysis[edit]

American journalists in conversation at NPR spoke of the allegations feeling like a tipping point for societal treatment of sexual misconduct.[24] They distinguished the moment from prior sexual misconduct public debates by the public trust in the accusers, who in this case were celebrities familiar to the public, rather than the accusers in prior cases, in which the accusers were unknown and became famous for their testimony. Social media provides a platform for women to share their experiences and encouragement on a scale that had not existed during prior public debates.[24] The state of California is considering legislation to ban closed door sexual harassment settlements.[6]

Two columnists of the USA Today expressed doubt that the trend of public opinion would hold, citing open, public cases with few consequences, such as R. Kelly (the column was made before Surviving R. Kelly aired and Kelly's subsequent arrest.) and Donald Trump (see Donald Trump sexual misconduct allegations).[6] The Weinstein effect also caused some to question the place of Bill Clinton within the Democratic Party due to the sexual misconduct allegations against him.[25][26][27] Journalist Jenny Nordberg published a New York Times article in protest against the prosecution and conviction of actress Cissi Wallin, one of the many accusers of journalist Fredrik Virtanen, and her criticism of the difficulties the Me Too movement faces in Sweden.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Harvey Weinstein effect". USA Today (interactive graphic). Archived from the original on December 7, 2017. Retrieved January 27, 2018.
  2. ^ Graham, Renée (November 28, 2017). "The 'Weinstein effect' hits a wall". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on January 28, 2018. Retrieved January 27, 2018.
  3. ^ a b "Powerful men confronted as 'Weinstein effect' goes global". CBS News. Associated Press. November 14, 2017. Archived from the original on December 8, 2017. Retrieved December 8, 2017.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Worthen, Meredith (December 20, 2017). "100 Powerful Men Accused of Sexual Misconduct in 2017". Biography.com. Archived from the original on December 28, 2017. Retrieved December 30, 2017.
  5. ^ deJesus-Remaklus, Mariah (November 20, 2017). "Red Zone: 'Weinstein effect' sparks national reckoning against sexual assault and harassment". The Northern Light. Archived from the original on December 8, 2017. Retrieved December 8, 2017.
  6. ^ a b c d e f Guynn, Jessica; Della Cava, Marco (October 25, 2017). "Harvey Weinstein effect: Men are getting outed and some are getting fired as women speak up. And it's spreading". USA Today. Archived from the original on November 7, 2017. Retrieved November 11, 2017.
  7. ^ Farrow, Ronan (October 10, 2017). "From aggressive overtures to sexual assault: Harvey Weinstein's accusers tell their stories". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on October 10, 2017. Retrieved October 10, 2017.
  8. ^ Williams, Janice (October 30, 2017). "Harvey Weinstein accusers: Over 80 women now claim producer sexually assaulted or harassed them". Newsweek. Archived from the original on November 2, 2017. Retrieved November 2, 2017.
  9. ^ Rutenberg, Jim (October 22, 2017). "A long-delayed reckoning of the cost of silence on abuse". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on November 24, 2017.
  10. ^ Cook, Jesselyn; Simons, Ned (November 8, 2017). "The Weinstein effect: How a Hollywood scandal sparked a global movement against sexual misconduct". The Huffington Post. Archived from the original on November 12, 2017.
  11. ^ Couch, Aaron; Parker, Ryan (October 6, 2017). "Honest Trailers creator Andy Signore accused of sexual abuse". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on October 7, 2017. Retrieved October 6, 2017.
  12. ^ a b Farrow, Ronan (July 27, 2018). "Les Moonves and CBS face allegations of sexual misconduct". The New Yorker. A reporter at large. Archived from the original on May 25, 2019. Retrieved November 7, 2018.
  13. ^ Deerwester, Jayme; Mandell, Andrea (July 28, 2018). "Leslie Moonves accused of sexually harassing six women in New Yorker piece". USA Today. Archived from the original on September 14, 2018. Retrieved September 10, 2018. A public proponent of the #MeToo movement, Moonves
  14. ^ Lutz, Eric (July 28, 2018). "CBS exec Les Moonves accused of sexual misconduct in latest Ronan Farrow bombshell". Mic. Archived from the original on July 30, 2018. Retrieved September 10, 2018. Moonves has also been a vocal supporter of the #MeToo movement
  15. ^ Wattles, Jackie (December 16, 2017). "Hollywood execs name Anita Hill to lead anti-harassment effort". CNNMoney. Cable News Network. Archived from the original on December 20, 2018. Retrieved September 10, 2018. Among the list of the commission's members are: ... — Les Moonves, chairman/CEO of CBS Corp
  16. ^ Cara Buckley (December 15, 2017). "Anita Hill to lead Hollywood commission on sexual harassment". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on May 22, 2019. Retrieved September 10, 2018.
  17. ^ "Italian actress Asia Argento, who accused Weinsten of misconduct, slammed for payout to sexual assault accuser". The Economic Times. The India Times. ANI. August 20, 2018. Archived from the original on September 10, 2018. Retrieved November 7, 2018.
  18. ^ North, Anna (August 21, 2018). "The Asia Argento allegations reveal our damaging misconceptions about sexual assault survivors". Vox. Archived from the original on September 10, 2018. Retrieved November 7, 2018.
  19. ^ a b c Severson, Kim (August 19, 2018). "Asia Argento, who accused Weinstein, made deal with her own accuser". The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 20, 2018. Retrieved August 20, 2018.
  20. ^ a b Willis, Kim (August 19, 2018). "Report: #MeToo leader, Weinstein accuser Asia Argento paid off her sexual assault accuser". USA Today. Archived from the original on August 20, 2018. Retrieved November 7, 2018.
  21. ^ a b France, Lisa Respers; Cullinane, Susannah (August 22, 2018) [2018-08-20]. "New York Times: Asia Argento, #MeToo leader, paid sexual assault accuser". CNN. Archived from the original on August 20, 2018. Retrieved November 7, 2018.
  22. ^ "The death of Carl Sargeant: Timeline". BBC News. November 21, 2017. Archived from the original on December 1, 2017. Retrieved November 21, 2017.
  23. ^ Doherty, Brennan (November 30, 2017). "Former Blue Jays catcher Gregg Zaun fired from Sportsnet over 'inappropriate behaviour'". The Toronto Star. Archived from the original on December 7, 2017. Retrieved December 7, 2017. Sportsnet has fired Blue Jays broadcaster Gregg Zaun for "inappropriate behaviour." Rogers Media said "multiple female employees" complained about him. (The Canadian Press)
  24. ^ a b King, Noel (November 4, 2017). "Why 'The Weinstein effect' seems like a tipping point". NPR.org. Archived from the original on November 12, 2017. Retrieved November 11, 2017.
  25. ^ Tumulty, Karen; Mettler, Katie (November 17, 2017). "Abuse allegations have revived scrutiny of Bill Clinton — and divided Democrats". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on November 19, 2017. Retrieved November 19, 2017.
  26. ^ Flanagan, Caitlin (November 2017). "Bill Clinton: A reckoning". TheAtlantic.com. Archived from the original on November 18, 2017. Retrieved November 19, 2017.
  27. ^ Wolf, Z. Byron (November 17, 2017). "Are Democrats about to turn on Bill Clinton?". CNN.com. Kirsten Gillibrand. Archived from the original on November 19, 2017. Retrieved November 19, 2017.

Further reading[edit]