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Wenshan Zhuang and Miao Autonomous Prefecture

Coordinates: 23°24′N 104°13′E / 23.40°N 104.22°E / 23.40; 104.22
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Wenshan Prefecture
文山州 (Chinese)
Vwnzsanh Couh (Zhuang)
Wenx Shangb Zheub (Hmong)
Wenshan Zhuang and Miao Autonomous Prefecture
Vwnzsanh Bouxcuengh Myauzcuz Swcicouh
Wenx Shangb Langs Hmongb Zif Zhif Zheub
Clockwise: urban skyline of capital Wenshan City, Puzhehei Lake, Wenshan Notoginseng International Trading Center, Malipo Martyrs Cemetery, Nong's Tusi Office
Location of Wenshan Prefecture in Yunnan
Location of Wenshan Prefecture in Yunnan
Coordinates (Wenshan Prefecture government): 23°24′N 104°13′E / 23.40°N 104.22°E / 23.40; 104.22
CountryPeople's Republic of China
GB/T 2260 CODE[1]532600
Admin HQWenshan
Admin units
 • Total31,409.12 km2 (12,127.13 sq mi)
1,263 m (4,144 ft)
 • Total3,517,941
 • Density110/km2 (290/sq mi)
 • TotalCN¥ 140.5 billion
US$ 20.7 billion
 • Per capitaCN¥ 40,748
US$ 6,010
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
Area code0876[3]
ISO 3166 codeCN-YN-26
Licence plate prefixes云H
1Yunnan Statistics Bureau [1]
2Yunnan Portal [2]
Wenshan Zhuang and Miao Autonomous Prefecture
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese文山壮族苗族自治州
Traditional Chinese文山壯族苗族自治州
Zhuang name
ZhuangVwnzsanh Bouxcuengh Myauzcuz Swcicouh
West Hmongic name
West HmongicWenx Shangb Langs Hmongb Zif Zhif Zheub

Wenshan Zhuang and Miao Autonomous Prefecture is an autonomous prefecture in southeastern Yunnan Province, People's Republic of China, and is the easternmost prefecture-level division of the province. It borders Baise, Guangxi, to the east, Vietnam's Hà Giang Province to the south for 438 kilometres (272 mi), Honghe Hani and Yi Autonomous Prefecture to the west, and Qujing to the north.


Map including Wenshan (labeled as WEN-SHAN (KAIHWA) (Walled) 文山) (AMS, 1954)
Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Population
Area (km2) Density(/km2)
Wenshan City 文山市 Wénshān Shì 481,504 3,064 157
Yanshan County 砚山县 Yànshān Xiàn 463,264 3,888 119
Xichou County 西畴县 Xīchóu Xiàn 255,286 1,545 165
Malipo County 麻栗坡县 Málìpō Xiàn 277,960 2,395 116
Maguan County 马关县 Mǎguān Xiàn 367,507 2,755 133
Qiubei County 丘北县 Qiūběi Xiàn 477,441 5,150 93
Guangnan County 广南县 Guǎngnán Xiàn 787,449 7,983 99
Funing County 富宁县 Fùníng Xiàn 407,530 5,459 75

Ethnic groups[edit]

Wenshan is highly diverse. According to a local saying, "Han and Hui live by the market, Zhuang and Dai live by the water, Miao and Yi live on the mountains, and Yao live among the valleys." (汉族、回族住街头,壮族、傣族住水头,苗族、彝族住山头,瑶族住箐头。)

Some of Wenshan's ethnic groups include:

Yunnan (1979)[7] lists Jiazhou 甲州 (pop. 475), Longjiang 龙降 (pop. 54), Tusi 土司 (pop. 134), and Bendi 本地 (pop. 7) as Zhuang subgroups of unknown linguistic affiliation.


The Wenshan Prefecture Gazetteer (文山壮族苗族自治州志) (2000) and the Wenshan Prefecture Ethnic Gazetteer (文山壮族苗族自治州志) (2005) list the following Yi ethnic subdivisions in Wenshan Prefecture.

  • Luo ()
    • White Lolo (白倮倮) (autonyms: Suodu 所都, Luoluobu 罗罗布, Xiqima 洗其麻, Gaisipo 改斯泼)
      • Mokong (莫空) (Gaokujiao Luo 高裤脚倮) of Funing and Guangnan counties
      • Mudai (木歹) of Funing and Napo counties
    • Black Lolo (黑倮倮) (autonyms: Nuosupo 诺苏泼, Luoluopo 罗罗泼): in Qiubei, Yanshan, and Wenshan counties
    • Flowery Lolo (花倮倮) (autonyms: Hanluowu 含罗武, Luwu 鲁屋, Niesu 聂素): in Funing, Guangnan, Malipo, Xichou, Maguan, and Yanshan counties
  • Pu ()
    • Black Phula (黑仆拉) (autonym: Azha 阿扎)
    • White Phula (白仆拉) (autonym: Zuoke 作科)
    • Flowery Phula (花仆拉) (autonym: Abo 阿僰)
  • Sani (撒尼) (autonym: Sanipo 撒尼泼): in Qiubei County
  • Awu (阿武) (autonym: Awu 阿武; exonyms: Mengwu 孟武, Awu 阿吾, Mengwu 孟乌, Mengzu 孟族)
    • Lai () (autonym; a branch of the Awu 阿武, also called Mengwu 孟武):[8] in Xisa 西洒镇, Xichou; Daping 大坪镇 and Nanwenhe 南温河乡 of Malipo
  • Gepu (格仆) (autonyms: Gepo 葛泼, Alingpo 阿灵泼; exonyms: Geluoluo/duo 葛倮罗/多, Adu 阿度, Aga 阿嘎): in Tiechang 铁厂乡 and Donggan 董干镇 townships of Malipo County[8]
  • Axi (阿西): in Wenshan, Yanshan, and Qiubei counties[8]
  • Lalu (腊鲁) (Lalupu 腊鲁仆; exonym: Xiangtang 香堂): in Nanping 南屏镇[8]


The Wenshan Prefecture Gazetteer (文山壮族苗族自治州志) (2000) lists the following Yao ethnic subdivisions in Wenshan Prefecture.

  • Men () or Jinmen (金门) (exonym: Landian Yao 蓝靛瑶)
  • Mengmian (孟棉) or Youmian (尤勉) (exonyms: Daban Yao 大板瑶, Jiao Yao 角瑶)
  • Xiu () or Ya () (exonyms: Shan Yao 山瑶, Guoshan Yao 过山瑶): in Longmen (龙门) and Longshao (龙绍) of Funing County, and in Tiechang (铁厂), Jinchang (金厂), and other locations of Malipo County


Among the resident population, the Han population is 1,501,852, accounting for 42.69% of the total population; the ethnic minorities population is 2,016,089, accounting for 57.31% of the total population.

Ethnic Composition of Wenshan Zhuang and Miao Autonomous Prefecture (November 2010)[9]
National name Han Zhuang Hmong Yi Yao Hui Dai Bai Buyi Mongol Others
Population 1501848 1027282 481239 351597 87709 24774 15776 9130 7257 5655 5679
Proportion of total population (%) 42.69 29.20 13.68 9.99 2.49 0.70 0.45 0.26 0.21 0.16 0.16
Proportion of minority population (%) --- 50.95 23.87 17.44 4.35 1.23 0.78 0.45 0.36 0.28 0.28


The Wenshan Prefecture Gazetteer 文山壮族苗族自治州志 (2000) lists the following Gelao ethnic subdivisions in Wenshan Prefecture. The Gelao of Wenshan are also locally known as the Laobazi 老巴子 or Bazi 巴子.

  • White Gelao (白仡佬)
  • Green Gelao (青仡佬)
  • Red Gelao (红仡佬)
  • Flowery Gelao (花仡佬) (also known as the Wai Gelao (歪仡佬) or Pipao Gelao (披袍仡佬))


Neolithic painting at the 'Great King' painting site above Malipo.

The prefecture has been inhabited for at least 4000 years, as evidenced by surviving neolithic rock art in Malipo County. The seat of Guangnan, known today as Liancheng (莲城镇), was the heart of the Gouding Kingdom (句町) that lasted approximately 400 years, from 111 BC to 316 AD.



  1. ^ 中华人民共和国国家统计局 >> 行政区划代码. National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China. Archived from the original on 2009-02-21. Retrieved 2009-01-29.
  2. ^ 云南省统计局、国家统计局云南调查总队 (December 2023). 《云南统计年鉴-2023》. 中国统计出版社. ISBN 978-7-5037-9653-1.
  3. ^ a b Area Code and Postal Code in Yunnan Province
  4. ^ Kaup, Katherine Palmer. Creating the Zhuang: Ethnic Politics in China. Boulder, CO: L. Rienner, 2000.
  5. ^ a b c d Johnson, Eric C. 2011. "A Lexical and Phonological Comparison of the Central Taic Languages of Wenshan Prefecture, China: Getting More Out of Language Survey Wordlists Than Just Lexical Similarity Percentages." SIL Electronic Working Papers 2011-005: 170.
  6. ^ Castro, Andy & Gu Chawen. 2010. "Phonological innovation among Hmong dialects of Wenshan." Journal of the Southeast Asian Linguistics Society (JSEALS) 3.1:1-39.
  7. ^ 云南民族识别综合调查组编 [Yunnan Minority Recognition Comprehensive Group] (1979). 云南民族识别综合调查报告(1960年). Kunming: 云南民族学研究所印 [Yunnan Nationalities Research Institute Press].
  8. ^ a b c d Wenshan Prefecture Ethnic Gazetteer (文山壮族苗族自治州志) (2005)
  9. ^ Yunnan Provincial Census Office, Yunnan Provincial Bureau of Statistics (September 2012). "Yunnan Provincial Census Data in 2010". China Statistics Press. ISBN 978-7-5037-6548-3.

External links[edit]