City view of Wenzhou
Location of Wenzhou City jurisdiction in Zhejiang
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|• CPC Ctte Secretary||Chen Yixin (陈一新)|
|• Mayor||Chen Jinbiao (陈金彪)|
|• Land||12,255.74 km2 (4,731.97 sq mi)|
|• Urban||1,243.4 km2 (1,243.6 sq mi)|
|Population (2010 Census)|
|• Prefecture-level city||9,122,102|
|• Urban density||2,400/km2 (2,400/sq mi)|
|• Rank in China||15th|
|Time zone||China Standard (UTC+8)|
|GDP (2012)||CNY 365 billion
(USD 59.44 billion)
|GDP per capita||CNY 45,667
|Local Dialect||Wu (Wenzhou dialect)
and Min Nan
"Wenzhou" in Chinese
|Wu||Iu1ciou1 (Wenzhou dialect)
Uen1tseu1 (Shanghai dialect)
|Literal meaning||"Wen[qiao Mountains] Prefecture"|
Wenzhou (pronounced [wə́nʈʂóʊ] ( listen)); Wenzhounese pronunciation: [ʔy33-11 tɕiɤu33-32]) is a prefecture-level city in southeastern Zhejiang province in the People's Republic of China. Wenzhou is located at the extreme south east of Zhejiang Province with its borders connecting to Lishui on the west, Taizhou on the north, and Fujian to the south. It is surrounded by mountains, the East China Sea, and 436 islands, while its lowlands are almost entirely along its East China Sea coast, which is nearly 355 kilometres (221 miles) long. Most of Wenzhou's area is mountainous as almost 76 percent of its 11,784-square-kilometre (4,550 sq mi) surface area is classified as mountains and hills
At the time of the 2010 Chinese census, 3,039,500 people lived in Wenzhou's city proper; the area under its jurisdiction (which includes two satellite cities and six counties) held a population of 9,122,100 of which 31.16% are non-local residents from outside of Wenzhou.
Wenzhou, which translates to "a mild and pleasant land", derives its name from its climate, as it is neither extremely hot in summer nor extremely cold in the winter.
Originally known as Yongjia, Yung-chia or Yungkia (Chinese: 永嘉; pinyin: Yǒngjiā), Wenzhou was a prosperous foreign treaty port, which remains well-preserved today. It is situated in a mountainous region and, as a result, has been isolated for most of its history from the rest of the country, making the local culture and language very distinct not only from the rest of China but from neighbouring areas as well. It is also known for its emigrants who leave their native land for Europe and the United States, with a reputation for being entrepreneurs who start restaurants, retail and wholesale businesses in their adopted countries. People of Wenzhou origin make up a large number of ethnic Chinese residents of Italy, France, and Spain.
- 1 History
- 2 Design of Wenzhou City
- 3 Geography
- 4 Administration
- 5 Economy
- 6 Transport
- 7 Birthplace of Traditional Chinese Drama
- 8 Home of Mathematics in China
- 9 Culture and demographics
- 10 Education
- 11 Notable people
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 Sources
- 15 External links
Wenzhou has a history which goes back to about 2500 BC, when it became known for its pottery production as one of the cities of origin of celadon in ancient China. In early 2nd century BC, shortly after the destruction of Qin Dynasty, military and political leader Zou Yao(驺摇) of Wenzhou helped the emperor Gaozu of Han, the first emperor of Han Dynasty, defeat the prominent warlord Xiang Yu of Qin Dynasty. After the victory, emperor Hui of Han, the second emperor of Han Dynasty named Zhou Yao the King of Dongou(Wenzhou), and under the administration of emperor Hui, Wenzhou became the capital of the Kingdom of Dongou which is the now area of Southern Zhejiang Province. Around 760AD in Tang Dynasty, the founding emperor Emperor Gaozu of Tang named Yongkia(earlier as Dongou) by its current name Wenzhou because of its mild weather.
Throughout its history, Wenzhou's traditional economic role has been as a port giving access to the mountainous interior of southern Zhejiang Province. In early European sources, the name Wenzhou-Fu or -Foo was often transcribed Ouen-tcheou-fou after the accounts of French-speaking missionaries. In 1876, Wenzhou was opened for tea exports, but no foreign settlement was ever established there. Between 1937 and 1942, during the Second Sino-Japanese War (i.e., World War II), Wenzhou achieved importance as one of the few ports still under Chinese control. It declined in the later years of the war, but began to recover after coastal trade along the Zhejiang coast was re-established in 1955.
Design of Wenzhou City
The geographical establishment and development of the city of Wenzhou was designed by Guo Pu(郭璞), the father of Fengshui philosophical system in Jin Dynasty at the time in China, mainly on the basis of Fengshui philosophical system along with Twenty-Eight Mansions, and Five Elements which develop and manage architecture and geography as a whole in metaphoric terms of "invisible forces" that unite the universe, earth, and humanity together. Moreover, when Guo Pu climbed to the top of West Guo Mountain(西郭山) in Wenzhou, he saw the range of mountains of Wenzhou together shaped as dipper and the city itself aside from mountains shaped as key. Therefore, Wenzhou is now usually nicknamed as the "dipper city" based on the popular geographical saying of the city "mountains as dipper, city as key"(山如北斗城似锁). Legends have it that during the time when Wenzhou was being established and developed, a white deer was seen in the city with a flower in its mouth, therefore, Wenzhou is also nicknamed as "Deer City"(鹿城). Today, the "Deer City District"(Lu Cheng District) is the name of downtown Wenzhou.
Wenzhou is the only city in China designed by the father of Fengshui philosophical system Guo Pu. Nowadays, the local Wenzhounese people usually see Guo Pu as the architect and founder of the city of Wenzhou. The locals changed the original name of the mountain West Guo Mountain that Guo Pu stood on to observe the city into Guo Gong Mountain to honor Guo Pu; at the bottom of Guo Gong Mountain, a temple was also built and named Guo Gong Temple. In 2003, the local Wenzhou government built and put up a statue of Guo Pu in downtown Wenzhou. Being the only city in China and the world entirely designed by the pioneer of Fengshui, Wenzhou is usually considered as the city in China with the best Feng Shui condition and nature. Other cities in China that are usually considered to possess excellent Fengshui nature are Beijing, Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture, Kun Ming, Heng Yang, and Shen Zhen. However, none of these cities is designed entirely on the basis of philosophy of Fengshui or designed by the father of Fengshui Guo Pu. Moreover, Wenzhou has an enormous cultural impact and influence on the history of China. In the modern time, people from all over China usually refer to the accomplishments and influence of Wenzhounese as a result of Wenzhou's Fengshui development by Guo Pu. There is a popular saying in China that reflects this phenomenon which is "People of Excellence and Land of Wisdom"(人傑地靈) as the local Wenzhounese people are usually described in China as the people of excellence and the city of Wenzhou is usually praised as the city of wisdom.
Throughout its history, Wenzhou has avoided numerous militant activities that were originally set out to invade the city of Wenzhou. However, none of them was successful. For example, during Northern Song Dynasty, when Fangla Revolution took place in the now Zhejiang province where Wenzhou city is located in, the invading army that was planned to destroy the city of Wenzhou surrounded it for over 40 days in hope of managing to invade the city. However, because of the establishment of Wenzhou, the mountainous isolation blocked the army's movement and made them end up retreating. Such a phenomenon is now usually referred to as the result of the Fengshui development of the city.
With jurisdiction over three districts, two county-level cities and six counties, Wenzhou covers a land area of 11,784 km2 (4,550 sq mi) and sea area of 11,000 km2 (4,200 sq mi). The population of the prefectural level city is 9.12 million including 2.30 million urban residents, divided among 2 county-level cities and 3 districts.
Much of Wenzhou is mountainous, with many mountain tops reaching altitudes in excess of 1,000 m (3,300 ft), for example in the Yandang Mountains, a coastal mountain range dominating the eastern part of prefecture. Another dominating landscape element is the Ou River, the largest river in Wenzhou prefecture. There are some coastal plains, notably around the mouth of the Ou (where the city proper of Wenzhou is located), and further south, around the mouth of the Feiyun River (in Rui'an, a county-level city). Other notable rivers include the Nanxi River, a tributary of the Ou. Coastal plains are used intensively for agriculture but also host much of the population and industry.
The 339 kilometres (211 mi) long coastline gives the city abundant marine resources and many beautiful islands. Dongtou, one of the counties in Wenzhou, is also called the "County of one hundred islands".
Wenzhou boasts wonderful landscapes with rugged mountains and tranquil waters, including three state-level scenic spots, namely the Yandang Mountains, the Nanxi River and the Baizhangji Fall-Feiyun Lake, and two national nature reserves, namely the Wuyanling Ridge and the Nanji Islands, among which Yandang Mountain has been named as World Geopark, while Nanji Islands are listed as UNESCO’s Marine Nature Reserve of World Biosphere Reserves. Scenic area accounts for 25% of the city’s land space.
Wenzhou derives its present name from its climate, and has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen: Cfa) with short winters and long, hot, humid summers. Summers are similar to the remainder of the province (albeit slightly cooler during the daytime as compared to inland areas), but winter is much milder, partly due to the southerly location and partly due to the sheltering effect of the surrounding mountains. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from 8.0 °C (46.4 °F) in January to 28.0 °C (82.4 °F) in July and August, while the annual mean is 18.08 °C (64.5 °F). Heavy rainfalls occur in late spring and early summer due to the plum rains of the East Asian monsoon, while typhoons are commonly a threat in the second half of summer causing considerable damage and destruction. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 26% in March to 53% in August, the city receives 1,706 hours of bright sunshine annually.
|Climate data for Wenzhou (1971−2000)|
|Average high °C (°F)||12.2
|Daily mean °C (°F)||8.0
|Average low °C (°F)||5.0
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||58.3
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||13.5||14.8||19.0||18.4||18.4||18.1||14.7||16.6||13.4||10.3||9.4||8.1||174.7|
|Avg. relative humidity (%)||76||79||82||83||84||88||84||82||81||77||74||72||80.2|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||113.2||90.5||96.4||119.5||122.0||126.9||214.8||213.3||166.2||157.0||138.2||148.0||1,706|
|Percent possible sunshine||35||29||26||31||29||31||51||53||45||44||43||46||38.6|
|Source: China Meteorological Administration|
|1||Lucheng District||鹿城区||Lùchéng Qū|
|2||Longwan District||龙湾区||Lóngwān Qū|
|3||Ouhai District||瓯海区||Ōuhǎi Qū|
|4||Rui'an City||瑞安市||Ruì'ān Shì|
|5||Yueqing City||乐清市||Yuèqīng Shì|
|6||Dongtou County||洞头县||Dòngtóu Xiàn|
|7||Yongjia County||永嘉县||Yǒngjiā Xiàn|
|8||Pingyang County||平阳县||Píngyáng Xiàn|
|9||Cangnan County||苍南县||Cāngnán Xiàn|
|10||Wencheng County||文成县||Wénchéng Xiàn|
|11||Taishun County||泰顺县||Tàishùn Xiàn|
|District (区) Name||Population
|Lucheng District (鹿城区)||875,006||1,293,300||294.38|
|Longwan District (龙湾区)||204,935||749,300||279|
|Ouhai District (瓯海区)||835,607||996,900||614.5|
|Wenzhou urban area (市区) "city of Wenzhou"||1,915,548||3,039,500||1187.88|
|Ruian City (瑞安市)||1,207,788||1,424,700||1271|
|Yueqing City (乐清市)||1,162,765||1,389,300||1174|
|Yongjia County (永嘉县)||722,390||789,200||2674|
|Pingyang County (平阳县)||740,448||761,700||1042|
|Cangnan County (苍南县)||1,167,589||1,184,600||1272|
|Dongtou County (洞头县)||96,744||87,700||100|
|Wencheng County (文成县)||264,878||212,100||1271|
|Taishun County (泰顺县)||279,799||233,400||1762|
Wenzhou exports food, tea, wine, jute, timber, paper, Alunite (a non-metallic mineral used to make alum and fertilizer). Alunite is abundant and Wenzhou claims to be the "Alunite Capital of the World". Its 10 main industries each exceeding 1.5 billion dollars are electrical machinery, leather products, general equipment, power supply, plastic manufacturing, textile and garment, transport equipment, chemical products, metal products and metal processing.
From the 1990s, low-voltage electric appliances manufacturing became one of the major industries in Wenzhou, with some of the large private enterprises setting up joint ventures with GE and Schneider.
In 1994, exploration for oil and natural gas commenced in the East China Sea 100 km (62 mi) off the coast of Wenzhou. Companies such as Texaco, Chevron, Shell and JAPEX have started to drill for oil but the operations have been largely unsuccessful.
Wenzhou is a city full of vibrant business activities. When China began economic reforms in 1978, Wenzhou was the first city in China to set up individual and private enterprises as well as shareholder cooperatives. It has also taken the lead in carrying out financial system reform and structural reform in townships. Being a pioneer in utilizing marketing mechanism to develop urban constructions, Wenzhou has won a number of firsts in China and set many national records.
From 1978 through 2009, the GDP of Wenzhou, a third-tier city, has increased from 1.32 billion RMB to 252.8 billion RMB with the gross fiscal revenue increasing from 0.135 billion RMB to 36.1 billion RMB, and the net per capita income for rural residents increasing from 113.5 RMB to 10,100 RMB. The per capita disposable income for urban residents increased from 422.6 RMB in 1981 to 28,021 RMB in 2009, which is the third highest among Chinese cities, after first-tier cities Dongguan and Shenzhen.
GDP of the city in 2013 reached 400.386 billion RMB, a YOY growth of 7.7%. Per capita GDP reached 49,817 RMB, or USD 8,044 as per yearly average exchange rate, an 7.1% increase over the previous year.
Financial Reform Pilot Project
In late March 2012, China's State Council announced that Wenzhou would be the site of a pilot project for the reform of private investment rules. The city had been a significant source of illegal loans, and this project would legalize and provide a regulatory framework for such activities. It has been seen not only as an attempt to legitimize Wenzhou's private finance market, but also as a model for cleaning up underground lending in China as a whole.
Birthplace of China's private economy
In the early days of economic reforms, local Wenzhounese took the lead in China in developing a commodity economy, household industries and specialized markets. Many thousands of people and families were engaged in household manufacturing to develop individual and private economy (private enterprise). Up till now, Wenzhou has a total of 240,000 individually owned commercial and industrial units and 130,000 private enterprises of which 180 are group companies, 4 among China’s top 500 enterprises and 36 among national 500 top private enterprises. There are 27 national production bases such as "China’s Shoes Capital" and "China’s Capital of Electrical Equipment", China’s 40 famous trademarks and China’s famous-brand products and 67 national inspection-exempt products in the city. The development of private economy in Wenzhou has created the "Wenzhou Economic Model", which inspires the modernization drive in China.
The city of Wenzhou is a world leader in lighter manufacturing with over 500 such companies in the city. The plastic weaving cluster in Wenzhou comprised 1600 enterprises in 2001, employing 42,000 people with an annual output value of 20 billion Yuan. The Local cluster comprised 400 manufacturers in 2001 with a total output of 5 billion Yuan, representing 65 percent of the domestic market share. The cluster is the first in China in terms of market share and sold it products to 60 countries.
There are many areas in which people of Wenzhou opened the first example of private economy in post-1949 China. For instance, Juneyao Airlines started on July, 1991, which is the first private airline company in China. Jinwen Rail Way is also the first rail way company which is built with private capital.
- Wenzhou Economic & Technological Development Zone
Wenzhou Economic & Technological Development Zone was established and approved by State Council in 1992. The main traffic system around the zone include No.104 National Highway, Ningbo-Wenzhou Expressway and Wenzhou Bridge. It is located near to Wenzhou International Airport and Wenzhou Port. Industries encouraged in the zone include electrical equipment, electronic information, chemical medicine, building materials, and textiles.
The Wenzhou Yongqiang Airport serves the Wenzhou area, with scheduled flights to major cities in mainland China as well as Hong Kong and Macau. New direct air route to Taipei and Cheju Island of Korea have been opened in 2012. The Airport is situated on the southeast of Wenzhou city proper, 20 km (12 mi) away from the city center. It’s been graded as nation’s Category B civil airport, serving a population of 20 million spanning areas of Wenzhou, Taizhou and Lishui of Zhejiang and Ningde of the neighbouring Fujian. The correlated GDP of the area reaches 300 billion RMB.
The Airport started opening up in 1995 and direct flight to Macau was approved. Air route to Hong Kong was open in 1996. Linking 65 cities in the country with 34 permanently operating air routes, the Airport is among the fastest-growing and profitable among its peers in China.
The Airport ranks 1st in terms of passenger transit among cities of same level in China. In 2004, the Airport handled 29,700 landings, a passenger transit of 2.439 million, cargo throughput of 38,500 tons.
A new Terminal 2(T2) is being planned, with designed passenger throughput of 13 million per year, while the Terminal 1 will serve as international terminal.
Because of Wenzhou's geographic location, it is difficult to build a railway to connect it with other cities. Wenzhou's first railway, the Jinhua-Wenzhou Line, opened on June 11, 1998. The railway runs northwest to Jinhua and is operated by the Jinwen Railway Company. The railway has a total length of 251 km (156 mi), including 135 bridges of 14 km (8.7 mi) in length 96 tunnels of 35 km (22 mi) in length. The Jinwen Railway was the first in China to be built with local capital, and gave birth to China's first standardized joint-stock enterprise: Zhejiang Jinwen Rail Way Development Co., Ltd.
In September 2009, two high-speed railways opened in Wenzhou. The Hangzhou–Taizhou–Wenzhou Railway runs north to Hangzhou, and the Wenzhou–Xiamen Railway, runs south to Xiamen. Both lines accommodate high-speed CRH (China Railway High-speed) trains running at speeds of up to 200 km/h (120 mph) and have dramatically shortened rail travel time to neighboring cities. The city was the site of China's only major high-speed rail accident to date.
Birthplace of Traditional Chinese Drama
During Northern Song Dynasty in 12th century, Nan Drama, also called as the Wenzhou Drama and Yongjia Drama, was produced in Wenzhou as the earliest form of traditional drama in the history of China. In its early stage of development, Nan Drama developed and matured rapidly along with the prosperous economic activities that were taking place in Wenzhou influenced by Yongjia School of Thought. Wenzhou as a prosperous treaty port back in Southern Song Dynasty expanded the influence of Nan Drama greatly. Since then, Nan Drama gained its great influence in China and reached its peak in Yuan Dynasty and remained its prominent status in Ming Dynasty. Although Nan Drama is the first-ever form of traditional Chinese drama, throughout its history of development unlike that of many other later forms of drama, Nan Drama was generally disregarded and repelled by the officials in early Yuan Dynasty who held great contempt for the Southern Chinese people. Despite the great resistance, local Wenzhounese that kept on developing Nan Drama still managed to compose significant works such as "Jing Cha Tale", "Bai Tu Tale", "Bai Yue Ting", and "Sha Gou Ji", which were later known as the "Four Miracles" of Yuan Dynasty。 According to modern studies, at least half of the Four Miracles were entirely created local Wenzhounese artists.
In the time period of late Yuan Dynasty, the original rulers of the country significantly lost their political power and that gave Nan Drama of Wenzhou a period of time in which it faced almost no resistance in development. Therefore, in late Yuan Dynasty, Nan Drama of Wenzhou reached its highest peak historically and later in Ming Dynasty, its original Wenzhou tone of drama sung in Wenzhounese lost its influence and was mostly replaced by Kun Shan tone of drama. Later on, because of the replacement in tone, Nan Drama gradually transcended into its later form Legend, and remained its influence and became one of the major forms of drama in Ming Dynasty. Moreover, on the stage setting of a Nan Drama performance, there are generally 7 role distribution elements, (Life)「 生」、(Denier)「旦」、(Ugliness)「丑」、(Clarity)「淨」、(Finale)「末」、(Exterior)「外」、(Attachment)「貼」, with the main drama plot developed around (Life)「 生」and (Denier)「旦」complemented usually by (Ugliness)「丑」,(Clarity)「淨」, and (Finale)「末」. This stage setting system with seven-element role distribution principle is the earliest complete on-stage role distribution principle system in the history of Chinese traditional drama.
Tale of the Pipa
Tale of the Pipa(Tale of Lute) created by local Wenzhounese Gao Ming is a work of Nan Drama that represents its highest quality and essence in its highest peak of influence in mid-Yuan Dynasty. It is called as the connecting bridge of the time of Nan Drama and the time of Legend. The creation of Tale of the Pipa is among the greatest achievements of Chinese drama and has had an enormous impact on composition of traditional Chinese drama, and therefore, it is usually called as the "Ancestor of all Tales" in China along with Nan Drama being called as the "Ancestor of all Dramas" in China. In 19th century, Tale of the Pipa was translated into English, French, German and Latin. Ever since it was published in modern era, the Lute Song has been significant in the history of Western appreciation of Chinese literature.
The first translation of Lute Song was published in 1841 in Paris by Imprimerie Royale, written by Antoine (A. P. L.) Bazin titled Le Pi-pa-ki ou l'Histoire de Luth, making the history of the first Legend play published in a Western language In 1946, American musical comedy based on Tale of the Pipa, titled Lute Song written by Will Irwin, Sidney Howard and starred Yul Brenner and Mary Martin, was produced on Broadway. It is also the only Broadway appearance of then-future First Lady of the United States Nancy Reagan. In the play of Lute Song, Nancy Reagan "dyed her brown hair black and slanted her eyes like a real oriental girl",and the show's producer told her, "You look like you could be Chinese".
Like all the other Nan Drama plays written by local Wenzhounese artists majorly in the language of Wenzhounese, the Lute Song is known for its complex linguistic demands which has caused international scholars to mainly focus on the shorter, and more accessible version as to their own concepts of the drama.
Home of Mathematics in China
Wenzhou has a long cultural history of mathematics and many mathematical records in modern China are made by local Wenzhounese mathematicians and scholars. In 1896, the father of Oracle Bone Script decipherment, Wenzhounese scholar Sun Yirang, founded the first-ever mathematics academy in the history of China, Ruian Mathematics Academy(瑞安學計館) in Wenzhou. A year later, in 1897, local Wenzhounese Huang Qingcheng founded the first-ever periodical of mathematics in China, "Suan Xue Bao"(算學報). In 1899, a mathematical association was established in Wenzhou, named "Ruian Heaven Calculation Association"(瑞安天算學社), making the history of being the very first regional mathematical association in the history of China.
Wenzhou is renowned as the cradle of mathematicians in China; it has given births to over 200 mathematicians known both internationally and domestically in the past 100 years. According to numerous reports, in 20th century, over one-fourth to one-third of chairs of mathematics department of colleges and mathematical associations all over China were local Wenzhounese mathematicians and scholars. During 2002 International Mathematical Union conference in Beijing, a case study named "analysis of vast communal formation of Wenzhounese mathematicians"(溫籍數學家群體成因分析) was discussed by mathematicians from all over the world. The goal of analyzing the case study was to understand and acknowledge the significance cultural influence of Wenzhounese mathematicians and their contributions to mathematics. The case study was also brought up during the conference to analyze the future trend of cultivating a new generation of mathematicians in China and around the world. Such a rare phenomenon has never existed in the history of the world as throughout the history of the city, Wenzhou has given births to more mathematicians more than any other city in the world.
In an interview with local Wenzhounese mathematician, one of the pioneers of mathematics in modern China Su Buqing, conducted by Wenzhounese science fiction writer Ye Yonglie, many unknown details of the local Wenzhou mathematics culture were revealed. Ye Yonglie was told by Su Buqing that "many of the chairs of math departments of major universities in China were local Wenzhounese and in the conferences of International Mathematical Union, the local language of Wenzhounese is the unofficial and second language of the union besides official language English." Moreover, when Ye Yonglie asked Su Buqing whether"the commonly-shared Wenzhounese cuisine culture of consuming Large yellow croaker was one of the major reasons of the vast formation of local mathematicians", Su Buqing answered "No, no, no. It's rather because of the fact that the entire area of Wenzhou is too poor to do science, and it only takes the cost of a pencil to do math, therefore, most of the Wenzhounese people just started to do math, and then, generations of local mathematicians just kept coming out of the city."
Culture and demographics
Wenzhou natives speak a form of Wu Chinese, the language family shared by Hangzhou, Suzhou, and Shanghai; called Wenzhounese (simplified Chinese: 温州话; traditional Chinese: 溫州話; pinyin: wēnzhōuhuà p Wēnzhōuhuà, lit. "Wenzhou dialect"), also known as Oujiang (simplified Chinese: 瓯江话; traditional Chinese: 甌江話; pinyin: ōujiānghuà) or Dong'ou (東甌). Geographic isolation and the immigration of Southern Min speakers from nearby Fujian have caused Wenzhounese to evolve into a "notoriously eccentric" hybrid impossible to understand. As a result, people from all over China, including Wu speakers from neighboring regions of Zhejiang and Fujian, have trouble understanding or learning the local tongue.
Due to its high degree of eccentricity, the language is reputed to have been used during the Second Sino-Japanese War during wartime communication and in Sino-Vietnamese War for programming military cipher(code) Due to its unique grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation, the language is basically impossible for any non-local to understand.
There is a common "fearless" rhymed saying in China that reflect this comprehension difficulty: "Fear not the Heavens, fear not the Earth, but fear the Wenzhou man speaking Wenzhounese." (天不怕，地不怕，就怕温州人说温州话)
Most of the Wenzhou people practice Chinese folk religion as people in the rest of China, while a part of the population is non-religious. In addition, Buddhism, Taoism and Christianity also have a presence in the city.
Prior to 1949 there were 2,000 registered places of worship and 4,500 priests, pastors and monks in the city. But, the state officially designated Wenzhou as an experimental site for an "atheistic zone" (无宗教区) in 1958 and during the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976), religious buildings were either closed or converted for other uses. Religion revived quickly since the 1980s, and today there are more registered places of worship than before. Specifically, as of 2015 the city has 8,569 registered folk religious temples and 3,961 registered places of worship of the five institutional religions (Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, Catholicism and Protestantism). The city was the forefront in the registration and management of folk religious temples which was started in January 2015 and later extended to all Zhejiang.
The city has been for centuries a hub of Christian missionary activity; prior to 1949 it was home to 115,000 Christians, more than one-tenth of the total Christians in China at that time. Today it remains an important center of Christianity in China. In 2012, according to official data the city's Christians were at least one million (about 11% of the 2010 population). Because of its large concentration of Christians, the city has been dubbed the "Jerusalem of the East" or "China's Jerusalem" in some media reports.
CNN reported that "...local Communist Party authorities have demolished scores of churches and forcibly removed more than 300 church crosses". However, China denies that the demolition of churches is persecution of Christians. A Christian pastor was jailed who protested the removal of crosses and the beating of 50 Christians
With a history of over 120 million years, Yandang Mountains or Yandangshan Mountains, literally the wild goose pond mountain(s) is known for its natural beauty, arising from its many vertical rock faces and pinnacles, mountain slopes with lush forests and bamboo groves, streams with clear water, waterfalls and caves.
Nanxi River located in Yongjia County, Nanxi River was famous for its 36 bends and 72 beaches. The main scenic spots of the Nanxi River area include the Furong Triangle Rock, the Waterfall of Tengxi Pool, the Twelve Peaks, the Taogong Cave, the Warehouse Under The Cliff, the Furong Ancient Hamlet and the Lion Rock. It was named as one of the National Tourist Scenic Spots by the State Council and has been listed in Tentative Lists of UNESCO World Heritage.
Covered bridges, Taishun County has more than 900 covered bridges, Wuyanling National Nature Reserve in the west of the county represents significant natural values as well as being a touristic attraction.
Art and literature
Wenzhou is 1682 years old with a profound and brilliant cultural background. It has given birth to many outstanding people and great scholars. Among them were Wang Shipeng, Chen Fuliang, Ye Shi, Huang Gongwang and Liu Ji during the South Song Dynasty, as well as Sun Yirang, Xia Nai, Xia Chengtao and Su Buqing and others of the modern era. All of them have exerted significant influence in the history of Chinese philosophy, literature and science. Wenzhou is also the origin of China’s landscape poetry, the founder of which, Xie Lingyun, was the chief of Wenzhou’s Yongjia Prefecture in the Nan Dynasty. In Song Dynasty, there were 4 distinguished poets from Yongjia representing the River and Lake Poetry. Moreover, Wenzhou is the birthplace of Nan Drama of China, which is the origin of Chinese traditional drama of which includes drama forms such as Peking Opera and Yue Opera. "The Romance of a Hairpin", a tale about Wang Shipeng and Qian Yulian, is well known among locals and serves an inspiration for many who have endured life pains but still have faith in love. For instance, "Tale of Lute", a play by Gao Zecheng of Ming Dynasty, is renowned abroad as one of the most outstanding works of Chinese drama along with Kun Opera of Yongjia which is recognized as the verbal and non-material human heritage. Dancing in public is also part of the Wenzhou culture. Wenzhou, the birthplace of China's private economy, likewise is the birthplace of China’s Mercantilism. From the Southern Song Dynasty, in contrasted to the Confucianism represented by Zhu Xi and Lu Jiuyuan in China urging people to study to be officials in the future, the theory of Wenzhou’s Yongjia School represented by Ye Shi, emphasized the importance of business. The theory has an enduring impact on the mindset of Wenzhou natives and has become the "cultural gene" in the economic development of Wenzhou ever since.
Due to both Wenzhou's cultural and geographical remoteness and its lack of natural resources (land, minerals, etc.), the Chinese central government has left the people of Wenzhou relatively autonomous. Away from the center of the political and economic stage, its people are more independent, self-reliant, and generally more business and family oriented. Numerous books have been published about the business sense of people from Wenzhou. Hence, when China switched from its planned economy to its so-called capitalist economy with Chinese (socialist) characteristics in the late 1980s, its people adjusted well to the new system and took advantage of it. A popular common saying calls Wenzhounese the "Jews of the Orient" (东方的犹太人). Wenzhounese have been stereotyped by other Chinese as real estate speculators. China Daily notes that investments from Wenzhounese buyers play a disproportionately large role in the increase property prices all over China.
The people of Wenzhou are equipped with business sense and a commercial culture more dominant than anywhere else in China. Wenzhou has two economic characteristics: it was the first to launch a market economy, and it has the most active and developed private economy in China.
As of 2010, 650,300 people in Wenzhou hold a college degree; 1,150,400 people hold a high school degree; 3,344,400 people hold a middle school degree; 2,679,900 people hold an elementary school degree. In every 100,000 people in Wenzhou, 7128 people hold a college degree; 12611 people hold a high school degree; 36663 people hold a middle school degree and 29379 people hold an elementary school degree. The population of illiterate people in Wenzhou is 645,100, which is 7.07% of its whole population.
With most of its universities and colleges established after 1949, before 1949, there was not one single university or college in Wenzhou. The highest educational institution in Wenzhou at the time was senior high school.
There are two major universities in Wenzhou: Wenzhou University and Wenzhou Medical College.(Wenzhou Medical University) Wenzhou University resulted from the merger of the former University of Wenzhou, Wenzhou Normal College and other various normal colleges in the rural towns of Wenzhou. Its main campus is situated in the University Town, Cha Shan (茶山). The former campus of Wenzhou Normal College on Xueyuan Road (学院路) is still in use, while the former main campus of the University of Wenzhou now serves as the campus of the Wenzhou Foreign Language School and the Second Experimental Middle School of Wenzhou (No.13 Middle School).
Wenzhou Medical College is a well-known college specializing in ophthalmology (national level key discipline), as well as the provision of other medical courses. Several of Wenzhou's major hospitals are affiliated to this college.In 2013, the Chinese Ministry of Higher Education china upgraded WMC's status to that of a medical university; it has thus been renamed the Wenzhou Medical University.
The Ministry of Education of the People’s Republic of China approved the establishment of Wenzhou-Kean University on November 16, 2011. It is one of the first two Chinese-American cooperatively run universities with legal person status, the other one being NYU Shanghai inaugurated on Oct. 15, 2012.
There are also a few vocational colleges, including:
- Sun Yirang 孫詒讓 (1848–1908), pioneer of decipherment of Oracle Bone Script, founder of the first mathematical academy in the history of China, mentor of Huang Qingcheng
- Huang Qingcheng 黄庆澄 (1863-1904), uncle of Jiang Lifu, founder of the first periodical of mathematics in the history of China, student of Sun Yirang
- Jiang Lifu 姜立夫 (1890-1978), father of mathematics in modern China, first president of Academia Sinica of Mathematics, mentor of Su Buqing, Shiing-Shen Chern, Hua Luogeng, father of Jiang Boju, nephew and student of Huang Qingcheng
- Su Buqing 苏步青 (1902–2003), mathematician, president and honorary president of Fudan University, honorary chairman of the Chinese Mathematical Society, first geometer in the Orient, renowned as "King of Math" in China, student of Jiang Lifu
- Li Ruifu 李锐夫(1903-1987), prominent mathematician and astronomer, author of Solar System, former vice president of Shanghai Mathematical Society and Shanghai Astronomical Society
- Shu Shien-Siu 徐賢修 (1912—2002), former prime minister of Ministry of Science and Technology of Republic of China, president of National Tsing Hua University, father of Hsinchu Science and Industrial Park, renowned as the father of high-tech industry in Taiwan
- Xiang Fuchen 项黼宸 (1916-1990), former chair of the Department of Mathematics at National Taiwan University, former president of Academia Sinica of Mathematics
- Bai Zhengguo 白正國 (1916-2015), one of the pioneers of geometry in China, student of Su Buqing, mentor of Gu Chaohao
- Chung Tao Yang 杨忠道 (1923-2005), president of Academia Sinica of Mathematics from 1992 to 2004, chair of the Department of Mathematics at University of Pennsylvania from 1978 to 1983, student of Su Buqing
- Zhang Mingyong 张鸣镛 (1926-1986), vice chair of Department of Mathematics at Xiamen University, mentor of Chen Jingrun, student of Su Buqing
- Gu Chaohao 谷超豪 (1926–2012), vice president of Fudan University, president of University of Science and Technology of China, student of Su Buqing, Bai Zhengguo
- Wu-Chung Hsiang 项武忠 (1935-), chair of the Department of Mathematics at University of Princeton from 1982 to 1985, son of Xiang Changquan
- Wu-Yi Hsiang 项武义 (1937-), prominent mathematician in geometry and topology, professor emeritus at University of California, Berkley, one of the provers of Kepler Conjecture
- Jiang Boju 姜伯驹 (1937-), first president of School of Mathematical Sciences at Peking University, former chairman of Beijing Mathematical Society, son of Jiang Lifu
- Li Bingyi 李秉彝 (1938-), former president of Southeast Asian Mathematical Society, former vice president of International Commission on Mathematical Instruction
- Lu Shanzhen 陆善镇 (1939-), prominent mathematician, president of Beijing Normal University, former professor at Washington University in St. Louis
- Li Banghe 李邦河 (1942-), prominent mathematician in differential topology, low-dimension topology and invariable quantum, solver of Minimal Genus Problem
- T. Tony Cai 蔡天文 (1967-), 2008 COPSS Presidents' Award winner, Dorothy Silberberg professor at Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania
- Bao Yizhong 鲍一中(1500-1566), Go chess player, most prominent chess player of China in Ming Dynasty, renowned as the "highest echelon of Ming Dynasty"
- Xie Xiaxun 谢侠逊 (1887-1987), father of Chinese chess, renowned as the "Supreme Commander of Chess" and "King of Chess" in China
- Ye Rongguang 葉榮光(1963-), coach of Zhu Chen, first-ever chess grandmaster in the history of China
- Zhu Chen 诸宸 (1976–), female chess international grandmaster and world champion
- Ding Liren 丁立人(1992-), chess Grandmaster, youngest-ever winner of Chinese Chess Championship at age 16, ranked 1st nationally and 11th internationally as of May 2015
- Wang Xizhi 王羲之 (303–361), sage of Chinese calligraphy, former governor of Yongjia
- Xie Lingyun (Duke of Kangle)謝靈運 (385–433), poet, founder of landscape poetry in China
- Ye Shi 葉適 (1150–1223), philosopher, most important figure of the neo-Confucianism Yongjia School
- Wu Xianwen 伍献文 (1900-1985), one of the pioneers of Ichthyology and Nematology in China
- Xia Chendao 夏承焘 (1900-1986), father and pioneer of Morphology[disambiguation needed] in modern China
- Fang Jiekan 方介堪 (1901-1987), prominent calligrapher, former honorary chairman of Chinese Calligraphers Association
- Cheng Man-ch'ing (Zheng Manqing) 鄭曼青 (1902–1975), t'ai chi ch'uan master, calligrapher, painter, poet, doctor of Chinese medicine, called the "Master of Five Excellences"
- Xia Nai 夏鼐 (1910–1985), archaeologist, pioneer of archaeology in modern China, one of the most honored scholars in archaeology
- Qi Jun 琦君 (1917-2006), author, best-selling female author of Taiwan, one of the most significant female authors in the history of China
- Chen Cheng-siang (Chen Zhengxiang) 陳正祥 (1922-2003), first prominent geographer in the history of China, one of the most prominent geographers in the world, renowned as the Alexander von Humboldt of the Orient
- Chen Guangzhong 陳光中 (1930-), jurist, renowned as the father of Criminal procedure of China
- Frank Shu 徐遐生 (1943-), chair of astronomy department of University of California, Berkeley from 1984 to 1988, former president of American Astronomical Society, president of National Tsing Hua University, son of Shu Shien-Siu
- Hsiao Cheng 萧政 (1943-), editor and member of executive council of Journal of Econometrics
- Jin Henghui 金恒煒 (1944-), journalist, author, pundit, former vice president of Taiwan Society
- Shen Zhixun 沈志勋 (1962-), one of the pioneers in materials physics, winner of E.O. Lawrence Award, Advisor for Science and Technology of SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory
- Wu Chaohui 吴朝晖 (1966-), educator, president of Zhejiang University
- Cai Tianxi 蔡天西 (1977-), youngest-ever vice professor at Harvard University at age 26, professor of Biostatistics at Harvard University since age 35
- Liu Ji 劉基 (1311–1375), one of the greatest military strategists and statesmen in the history of China, founding father of Ming Dynasty alongside with founding emperor Zhu Yuanzhang, renowned as the Divine Chinese Nostradamus, author of Shaobing Song
- Huang Huai 黃淮 (1367-1449), Grand Secretariat of Ming Dynasty
- Zhang Cong 张璁 (1475–1539), Ming Dynasty prime minister, reformer, founder of Ming Dynasty Revolution
- Dai Ren 戴任 (1862-1937), revolutionist of Democracy in China, prominent politician during Republic of China, friend and partner of Sun Yat-sen
- Yi Wenya 倪文亞(1902-2006), former president of the Legislative Yuan of Republic of China
- Xiang Changquan 項昌權(1903-2000), former vice president of Department of Civil Affairs of Republic of China, former mayor of Taipei, father of Wu-Chung Hsiang
- Wu Qidi 吴启迪 (1947-), educator, former vice prime minister of Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China, former president of Tongji University, first collegiate president appointed through election in the history of China
- Jean Ping 讓平 (1942-), former Chairperson of the Commission of the African Union, former President of the United Nations General Assembly, son of Wenzhounese businessman Cheng Zhiping
- Huang Jiannan 黃建南(1945-), former chief fundraiser for Democratic National Committee in 1996
- Yongjia Xuanjue 永嘉玄覺 (655–713), Chán master, Tiantai Buddhist monk, author of the Song of Enlightenment
- Miu Tianrui 繆天瑞(1908-2009), pioneer of Musical temperament in China, "father of Music journalism" in China
- Zeng Liansong 曾聯松 (1917-1999), creator of Flag of the People's Republic of China
- Nan Huai-Chin 南懷瑾 (1918-2012), spiritual teacher of contemporary China, most important figure of Chinese Buddhism in modern China
- Sheun Mingling 林訓明 (1921-), billionaire, founder of Evora SA, one of the world's biggest nonwoven manufacturer, biggest aluminum can manufacturer in Brazil
- Wang Zhaofan 王昭藩 (1931-), architect, one of the designers along with Minoru Yamasaki of original World Trade Center
- Nina Wang 龔如心(1937-2007), billionaire, businesswoman, former Asia's richest woman, founder of Nina Tower, wife of Teddy Wang
- Kung Yan-sum 龔仁心(1942-), billionaire, brother of Nina Wang, chairman of Chinachem Group, one of the biggest property developers in Hong Kong
- Jason Chang 张虔生 (1944-), billionaire, founder and president of ASE group, world's largest provider of independent semiconductor manufacturing services
- Feng Zhenghu 馮正虎(1954–), economist, activist, reputed as the "prominent human rights defender" in China
- Lin Jianhai 林建海(1955-), economist, secretary-general of International Monetary Fund
- Nita Ing (Yin Qi) 殷琪(1955-), business magnate, billionaire, first lady of construction business in Taiwan, president of Continental Engineering Corporation
- James Chu 朱家良 (1957-), founder and president of Viewsonic, world's first-ever manufacturer of Smart Display
- Jen-Hsun Huang 黃仁勳 (1963-), co-founder, president and CEO of Nvidia, founder of Jen-Hsun Huang Engineering Center of Stanford University
- Cai Tianwu 蔡天武 (1970-), Ph.D. Physics, former Vice President of Goldman Sachs
- Tang Wei 汤唯 (1982–), actress, main actress in Lust, Caution
- Ho-Pin Tung 董荷斌 (1982–), first Formula 1 racer in the history of China
- Zhu Qinan 朱启南 (1984–), Games of the XXVIII Olympiad Gold Medalist in sport shooting
- Sui He (1989–) 何穗, Victoria's Secret fashion model, supermodel
- 温州市2010年第六次全国人口普查主要数据公报 (in Chinese). Wenzhou Municipal Statistic Bureau. 2011-05-10. Retrieved 2011-08-24.
- 浙江第六次全国人口普查数据公布 温州常住人口最多-浙江|第六次全国人口普查|数据-浙江在线-浙江新闻. Zjnews.zjol.com.cn. Retrieved on 2011-08-28.
- "Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection: Historical Maps of China". Retrieved 2010-08-24.
- zh:搖 (東甌王)
- Emperor Xuanzong of Tang
- E.g.: An historical, geographical, and philosophical view of the Chinese empire: comprehending a description of the fifteen provinces of China, Chinese Tartary; tributary states; natural history of China; government, religion, laws, manners and customs, literature, arts, sciences, manufactures, &c (2 ed.). p. 83.
- Feng shui
- "郭璞為溫州佈局". zxyfs.com. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
- 中国地面国际交换站气候标准值月值数据集（1971－2000年） (in Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2010-05-27.
- China Tests Financial Relaxation in Wenzhou (2012-3-28). Retrieved on 2012-04-30.
- Wenzhou Lighter Makers Await EU Decision. Japanese.10thnpc.org.cn (2002-04-26). Retrieved on 2011-08-28.
- Chandra, Pankaj. "Networks of Small Producers for Technological Innovations: Some Models" (PDF). IIM Ahmedabad Working Paper No. 2006-03-02, March 2006. IIM Ahmedabad. Retrieved 10 March 2012.
- Wenzhou Economic & Technological Development Zone. RightSite.asia. Retrieved on 2011-08-28.
- 金温铁路_百度百科. Baike.baidu.com (2011-06-29). Retrieved on 2011-08-28.
- Xiamen-Shenzhen Railway to open by end of next year. Whatsonxiamen.com. Retrieved on 2011-08-28.
- "元代的南戲". 大紀元文化網. 大紀元文化網. Retrieved 29 March 2015.
- "南戲的活化石：婺劇高腔". 中國婺劇網. 中國婺劇網. Retrieved 29 March 2015.
- "温州南戏的研究". 温州戏曲史话. 温州戏曲史话. Retrieved 29 March 2015.
- "溫州南戲：佰戲之祖". 浙江省非物質文化遺產. 浙江省非物質文化遺產. Retrieved 29 March 2015.
- "《南曲戏文八百年》之三". cctv.com戲曲. cctv.com戲曲. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
- "南戏八百年之二". 世界溫州人. 世界溫州人. Retrieved 9 March 2015.
- "京剧人物画家施昌秀今年"转行" 南戏系列演绎"中国戏剧祖宗"". 浙江文化信息網. 浙江文化信息網. Retrieved 9 March 2015.
- Tale of the Pipa
- Das traditionelle chinesische Theater, p. 293.
- "Nancy Reagan". White House history. The White House Historical Association. Retrieved 5 June 2015.
- Loizeau, Pierre-Marie (2003). Nancy Reagan : the woman behind the man. New York: Nova History Publications. p. 26. ISBN 1-59033-759-X. Retrieved 6 June 2015.
- Reagan, Nancy (1989), p. 85
- Strassberg, Richard. "Review The Lute: Kao Ming's P'i-p'a chi by Jean Mulligan". JSTOR. Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies. Retrieved 5 June 2015.
- "浙 江 温 州 成 "数 学 家 之 乡"". 全球華人專業人士網絡. 全球華人專業人士網絡. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
- "温州得开风气之先 "数学家摇篮"名副其实". 中國數學網. 中國數學網. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
- "解读温州数学家群体的科学文化意义". 科學社. 科學社. Retrieved 19 May 2015.
- "温州是我国"数学家之乡"". 溫州教育網. 溫州教育網. Retrieved 18 May 2015.
- "涌现教授200余人 温州何以成"数学家之乡"引人关注". 新華網. 新華網. Retrieved 18 May 2015.
- "温州何以成"数学家之乡"引人关注". 新浪網. 新華網. Retrieved 18 May 2015.
- "南塘河畔，展现"数学家摇篮"". 印象南塘. 印象南塘. Retrieved 10 May 2015.
- "涌現教授200余人 溫州何以成"數學家之鄉"引人關注". 中國網. 中國網. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
- "苏步青: 中国微分几何学派的创立者". 復旦大學校友網. 復旦大學. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
- 葉, 永烈. "葉永烈：折翼的温州文化". 新浪網. 葉永烈. Retrieved 27 May 2015.
- 关于越南战争期间中方使用的密码语言，有一说认为并不是温州话，而是来自温州苍南县（当时仍属平阳县）钱库一带的蛮话，参见 访今寻古之三：扑朔迷离说蛮话，苍南广电网
- Nanlai Cao. Constructing China's Jerusalem: Christians, Power and Place in the City of Wenzhou. Stanford, Stanford University Press, 2010, 232 pp., Chapter One
- Joseph Fewsmith. The Logic and Limits of Political Reform in China. p. 111
- Katharina Wenzel-Teuber, Katharina Feith. News Update on Religion and the Church in China. On: Religions & Christianity in Today's China, Vol. V, 2015, No. 2. China-Zentrum. p. 17
- Christianity in Wenzhou rose from humble beginnings to one million adherents, South China Morning Post
- Rivers of Natural Scenery
- Nanxi River
- "Chinese speculators eye property overseas".
- zh:温州市#cite note-69
- Wenzhou Medical College
- Economic profile for Wenzhou at HKTDC
- Nanlai Cao, Constructing China's Jerusalem: Christians, Power and Place in the City of Wenzhou, Stanford, Stanford University Press, 2010, 232 pp.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Wenzhou.|
- Government website of Wenzhou (Chinese)
- Government website of Wenzhou
- Wenzhou Foreign Affairs Office
- China, China's Boomtowns - National Geographic Magazine
- US Army Service Map of Wenzhou from 1945
- Manufacturing a China crisis - stratfor.com, reprinted by Business Spectator