County of Werdenberg
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Werdenberg was a county of the Holy Roman Empire, within the Duchy of Swabia, situated on either side of the Alpine Rhine, including parts of what is now St. Gallen (Switzerland), Liechtenstein, and Vorarlberg (Austria). It was partitioned from Montfort in 1230. In 1260, it was divided into Werdenberg and Sargans.
It is named for Werdenberg Castle, today located in the municipality of Grabs in the Swiss canton of St. Gallen, seat of the counts of Werdenberg (Werdenberger), The family was descended from count Hugo II of Tübingen (d. 1180), who married Elisabeth, daughter of the last count of Bregenz, thus inheriting substantial territory along the Alpine Rhine. His son was Hugo I of Montfort (d. 1228), whose son Rudolf I is considered the founder of the Werdenberg line. Rudolf's sons Hugo I of Werdenberg-Heiligenberg and Hartmann I of Werdenberg divided the southern territory of the Montfort inheritance, establishing the two lines of Werdenberg-Heiligenberg and Werdenberg-Sargans.
In 1308 Werdenberg was further divided into Werdenberg-Heiligenberg (Linzgau) and Werdenberg-Werdenberg. The Vaduz line of Counts of Werdenberg died out in 1406 and Vaduz passed to the Barons of Brandis.
The family fractured further into a number of cadet branches. The line of Werdenberg-Heiligenberg-Sigmaringen-Trochtelfingen remained influential in the early 16th century in the context of the Swabian League but was extinct in 1534.
The Werdenberg feud (Werdenbergfehde) was a major series of feuds between the Werdenberg and their neighbours in the late 15th century, most notably their conflict with the von Zimmern family of Swabia. The feud between the lords of Werdenberg and of Zimmern escalated in 1488, rising to an importance above merely regional concerns, influencing the imperial policy of Frederick III and Maximilian I regarding the formation of the Swabian League, the Imperial Reforms and the history of the Old Swiss Confederacy.
Counts of Werdenberg
Below, a list of the counts of Werdenberg, numbered by order of ascension:
House of Tübingen
Partitions of Werdenberg under Tübingen rule
|County of Werdenberg |
|County of Sargans
|County of Vaduz
|County of Alpeck
|County of Trochtelfingen |
|County of Werdenberg
|County of Bludenz
|County of Rheineck|
|Annexed to Ulm|
|Annexed to Austria||Pawned to the Counts of Toggenburg|
|Pawned to the Counts of Montfort until 1485, then annexed by Switzerland|
|Passed to the Lords of Brandis|
|County of Sargans|
|Annexed by Switzerland|
|Divided between Fürstenberg and Austria (1534) and then Hohenzollern (1535)|
Table of rulers
(Note: Here the numbering of the counts is the same for all counties, as all were titled Counts of Werdenberg, despite of the different parts of land or particular numbering of the rulers. The counts are numbered by the year of their succession.)
|Rudolph I||c.1190||1230-1244/7/8||September 1244, 7 October 1247 or 19 May 1248||Montfort||Clementia of Kyburg
|Abdicated from Montfort to inherit Werdenberg. For his brother's descendants see Counts of Montfort. After his death Werdenberg was divided.|
|Hartmann I||c.1230||1244/7/8-1271||3 April 1271||Werdenberg-Sargans||Elisabeth of Ortenburg
26 June 1256 or 11 July 1258
|Son of Rudolph I, inherited Sargans.|
|Hugo I||1231||1247-1280||7 December 1280||Werdenberg-Heiligenberg||Matilda of Neuffen
11 February 1263
|Son of Rudolph I, inherited Heiligenberg.|
|Hugo II the One-Eyed||c.1265||1280-1307||25 March 1305/7||Werdenberg-Heiligenberg||Euphemia of Ortenburg
3 June 1281
|Rudolph II||c.1257||1271-1323||18 March 1323||Werdenberg-Sargans||Adelaide of Burgau
|Sons of Hartmann I, probably ruled jointly. Hugo became Knight Hospitaller, and Hartmann a canon at Bamberg.|
|Hugo III||c.1260||After 1332||Werdenberg-Sargans||Unmarried|
|Hartmann II||c.1260||1271-c.1282?||After 1282||Werdenberg-Sargans|
|Albert I||c.1283||1307-1365||16 May 1364 or 1 October 1367||Werdenberg-Heiligenberg||Catherine of Habsburg-Kyburg
|Sons of Hugo II, ruled jointly.|
|Hugo IV Cocles||c.1280||1307-1329/34||16 August 1329 or 16 October 1334||Werdenberg-Heiligenberg||Anna of Wildenberg|
|Henry I||c.1280||1307-1323||16 October 1323||Werdenberg-Heiligenberg||Unmarried|
|Rudolph III||c.1293||1323-1325||1325||Werdenberg-Sargans||Unmarried||Sons of Rudolph II, ruled jointly. Rudolph IV assume alone the rulership of Sargans after the death of his older brother and namesake. In 1338, after the death of Count Donat of Vaz, he could inherit a part of his domains, as husband of Ursula.|
|Rudolph IV||c.1310||1323-1361||21 January or 15 March 1361||Werdenberg-Sargans||Ursula of Vaz|
15 August 1337
|Hartmann III||c.1300||1323-1353/55||15 July 1353 or 21 May 1355||Werdenberg-Vaduz||Agnes of Montfort-Feldkirch
|Son of Rudolph II, inherited Vaduz.|
|Henry II||c.1300||1323-1332/34||2 March 1332 or 27 June 1334||Werdenberg-Alpeck||Agnes of Württemberg
|Son of Rudolph II, inherited Alpeck. After his death, the county was once more divided.|
|Eberhard I||c.1315?||1332/34-1383||27/8 May 1383||Werdenberg-Trochtelfingen||Luitgard of Berg-Schelklingen
Sophie of Geroldseck
|Sons of Henry II, inherited Trochtelfingen, where they ruled together. Hugo became Knight Hospitaller.|
|Hugo V||c.1315?||1332/4-1373||16 February 1373||Werdenberg-Trochtelfingen||Unmarried|
|Rudolph V||c.1315?||1332/4-1342/9||18 December 1342 or 27 March 1349||Werdenberg-Trochtelfingen|
|Henry III||c.1315?||1332/34-1366/70||14 March 1366/70||Werdenberg-Alpeck||Bertha of Kirchberg I
|Son of Henry II, kept Alpeck.|
|Henry IV||c.1320||1353/5-1397||23 January 1397||Werdenberg-Vaduz||Katharina of Werdenberg-Heiligenberg-Bludenz
|Sons of Hartmann III, probably ruled jointly. In 1389 Hartmann IV became Bishop at Chur.|
|Rudolph VI||c.1320||1353/5-1365/7||7 July 1365/7||Werdenberg-Vaduz||Unmarried|
|Hartmann IV||c.1320||1353/5-1389||6 September 1416||Werdenberg-Vaduz||Unmarried|
|John I||c.1340||1361-1396||16 October 1400||Werdenberg-Sargans||Anna of Rhazuns (I)
5 April 1367
|In 1396, highly endebted, John pawned Sargans to the Habsburgs, who resold it to the Counts of Toggenburg.|
|In 1396 Sargans was annexed to the County of Toggenburg|
|Albert II||c.1330||1365-1371/3||22 July 1371 or 6 January 1373||Werdenberg-Heiligenberg||Matilda of Montfort-Tettnang
Agnes of Nuremberg
3 August 1343 or 5 July 1344
|Son of Albert I. After his death, the county was once more divided.|
|Henry V||c.1350||1366-1383||c.1390||Werdenberg-Alpeck||Elisabeth of Oettingen
Agnes of Helfenstein
|In 1383 sold his county to the city of Ulm.|
|In 1383 Alpeck was annexed to Ulm|
|Albert III the Elder||c.1360||1371/3-1394||23 February 1418/20||Werdenberg-Heiligenberg-Bludenz||Ursula of Schaunberg
|Son of Albert II, received Bludenz. In 1394 he sold his lands to the Habsburgs.|
|In 1394 Bludenz was annexed to Austria|
|Henry VI||c.1364||1371/3-1392/3||24 December 1392 or 24 July 1393||Werdenberg-Heiligenberg-Rheineck||Anna of Montfort-Feldkirch
|Sons of Albert II, ruled jointly in Rheineck.|
|Hugo VI||c.1360||1371/3-1387/90||1 November 1387 or 15 March 1390||Werdenberg-Heiligenberg-Rheineck||Bertha of Kirchberg II|
|Albert IV the Younger||c.1360||1371/3-1402||30 July 1416 or 4 May 1418||Werdenberg-Heiligenberg||Agnes of Montfort-Bregenz
|Son of Albert II, kept Heiligenberg. In 1402 his lands were pawned to his cousins, the Counts of Montfort.|
|In 1402 Heiligenberg was annexed to Montfort, and in 1485 to Switzerland|
|Henry VII||c.1360?||1383-1393||1393||Werdenberg-Trochtelfingen||Agnes of Teck
Ida of Toggenburg
|Sons of Eberhard I, ruled jointly.|
|Hugo VII||c.1380||1392-1395||c.1428||Werdenberg-Heiligenberg-Rheineck||Agnes of Abensberg
|Son of Henry VI, ruled jointly with his brothers Rudolph and Henry, but the trio lost their lands to the Habsburgs in 1395. However, Hugo was able to recover power by inheriting his cousins county of Vaduz, losing it, however, in 1416, to the Lords of Brandis.|
|In 1416 Vaduz was annexed to the Lordship of Brandis, and, after many inheritances, eventually became part of Liechtenstein in 1699.|
|Rudolph VII||c.1388||1392-1395||c.1419||Werdenberg-Heiligenberg-Rheineck||Beatrix of Fürstenberg-Haslach
|Brothers of Hugo VII, co-ruled with him in Rheineck.|
|In 1395 Rheineck was annexed to Austria|
|Eberhard III||c.1380?||1393-1416||1416||Werdenberg-Trochtelfingen||Anna of Zimmern
|Eberhard IV||c.1400?||1416-1475||1475||Werdenberg-Trochtelfingen||Unmarried||Sons of Eberhard III, ruled jointly.|
|John IV||c.1400?||1416-1465||27 April 1465||Werdenberg-Trochtelfingen||Elisabeth of Württemberg|
|In 1436, with the extinction of the Toggenburgs, Sargans returned to Werdenberg family.|
|Henry X||c.1385||1436-1447||1447||Werdenberg-Sargans||Agnes of Matsch
before or c.1440
|Son of John I, he was restored to the county.|
|William II||before or c.1440?||1447-1467||1467||Werdenberg-Sargans||Erentrude of Stauffen
|Left no descendants. He was succeeded by his brother.|
|George II||c.1442||1467-1483||23 February 1504||Werdenberg-Sargans||Anna of Rhazuns (II)
Barbara of Waldburg-Sonnenburg
|Left no descendants. Highly endebted, sold the county to the Swiss Confederation.|
|In 1483 Sargans was definitely annexed to Switzerland|
|Hugo XI||c.1450?||1475-1508||8 August 1508||Werdenberg-Trochtelfingen||Unmarried||Sons of John IV, ruled jointly. John V became Bishop at Augsburg.|
|George III||c.1450?||1475-1500||12 March 1500||Werdenberg-Trochtelfingen||Katharina of Baden|
|Ulrich||c.1450?||1475-1503||17 July 1503||Werdenberg-Trochtelfingen||Unmarried|
|Rudolph X||c.1450?||1475-1505||2 September 1505||Werdenberg-Trochtelfingen|
|Christoph||1494||1508-1534||29 January 1534||Werdenberg-Trochtelfingen||Eleonora Gonzaga
Johanna van Borselen
|Sons of George II, ruled jointly.|
|Felix||c.1495||1508-1530||12 July 1530||Werdenberg-Trochtelfingen||Elisabeth of Neuchâtel|
|John VI||c.1495||1508-1522||8 July 1522||Werdenberg-Trochtelfingen||Katharina of Gundelfingen|
|In 1534 Trochtelfingen became divided between Fürstenberg and Austria, but was annexed to Hohenzollern in the following year.|
Successor houses in Werdenberg-Vaduz
(Note: Numbering restarts)
House of Brandis
- 1416-1456: Wolfhard, son-in-law of Albert III the Elder;
- 1456-1486: Ulrich;
- 1486-1507: Ludwig and Sigismund, brothers.
House of Sulz
- 1507-1535: Rudolf I, maternal grandson of Ulrich of Brandis;
- 1535-1556: John Louis;
- 1556-1569: William and Alwig, brothers;
- 1569-1572: Alwig;
- 1572-1611: Rudolf II;
- 1611-1613: John, sold Vaduz to the House of Hohenems.
House of Hohenems
- 1613-1640: Kaspar;
- 1640-1646: Jacob Hannibal;
- 1646-1662: Franz Wilhelm I;
- 1662-1686: Ferdinand Carl;
- 1686-1691: Jacob Hannibal Frederick and Franz Wilhelm II, brothers;
- 1691-1712: Jacob Hannibal Frederick, with Franz Wilhelm III (son of Franz Wilhelm I);
- 1712: To the Prince of Liechtenstein.
- ^ I. Mladjow: Germany (Deutschland) and Holy Roman Empire (Heiliges Rämisches Reich). Page 1/188.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac Cawley 2001.
- ^ The pawning of the county didn't stop, however, the succession of the then titular counts: John I (1396-1400) was succeeded by his sons: Henry X (1400-1447, who recovered the county in 1436), ruled with: John II (1400-1405), George I (1400-1412), William I (1400-1412), Hugo VIII (1400-1421) and Rudolph VIII (1400-1434, was bishop of Chur).
- ^ The annexation of the county didn't stop, however, the succession of the then titular counts: Henry V (1383-1390) was succeeded by his sons: Conrad (1390-1415) and (probably, because he's not documented after 1374) his brother, Henry VIII (at least in 1390).
- ^ This count John is officially known as IV, albeit the fact that there's no known John III in the family tree of the Werdenbergs.
- ^ This count Hugo is officially known as XI, albeit the fact that there's not enough members of this name in the family tree of the Werdenbergs to fit this number. The last one was Hugo VIII, titular count of Sargans (1400-1421).
- ^ This count Rudolph is officially known as X, albeit the fact that there's no known Rudolph IX in the family tree of the Werdenbergs.
- Cawley, Charles (2001). "Medieval Lands - Foundation for Medieval Genealogy". fmg.ac.
- Gerhard Köbler, 'Werdenberg (Grafschaft)', in: Historisches Lexikon der deutschen Länder. Die deutschen Territorien vom Mittelalter bis zur Gegenwart 2nd edition Munich 1989, p. 605.
- Fritz Rigendinger: Das Sarganserland im Spätmittelalter. Lokale Herrschaften, die Grafschaft Sargans und die Grafen von Werdenberg-Sargans. Chronos, Zürich 2007.
- Carl Borromäus Alois Fickler: Heiligenberg in Schwaben. Mit einer Geschichte seiner alten Grafen und des von ihnen beherrschten Linzgaues. Macklot, Karlsruhe 1853 
- Gerhard Köbler: Werdenberg (Grafschaft), in: Historisches Lexikon der deutschen Länder. Die deutschen Territorien vom Mittelalter bis zur Gegenwart. 2. verbesserte Auflage, München 1989, S. 605
- Martin Leonhard: Werdenberg, von in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
- Johann Nepomuk von Vanotti: Geschichte der Grafen von Montfort und von Werdenberg. Belle-Vue bei Konstanz 1845  209ff.
- Hermann Wartmann (1896), "Werdenberg, Grafen von", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB) (in German), vol. 41, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 749–759
- Media related to House of Werdenberg at Wikimedia Commons