Werner Streib

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Werner Streib
Werner Streib.jpg
Werner Streib
Born (1911-06-13)13 June 1911
Pforzheim
Died 15 June 1986(1986-06-15) (aged 75)
Munich
Buried Munich, Ostfriedhof
Plot 41—Row 1—Grave 5
Allegiance  Nazi Germany (to 1945)
 West Germany
Service/branch Army (1934–35)
Luftwaffe (1935–45)
German Air Force (1956–66)
Years of service 1934–45
1956–66
Rank Oberst
Brigadegeneral
Unit NJG 1
Commands held NJG 1
Battles/wars

World War II

Awards Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords
Other work Bundeswehr

Werner Streib (13 June 1911 – 15 June 1986) was a German Luftwaffe military aviator during World War II, a night fighter ace credited with 68—one daytime and 67 nighttime—enemy aircraft shot down in about 150 combat missions. All of his nocturnal victories were claimed over the Western Front in Defense of the Reich missions against the Royal Air Force's Bomber Command.

Born in Pforzheim, Streib grew up in the Weimar Republic and Third Reich. Following graduation from school, he began military service in the Reichswehr in 1934 and in 1936, transferred to the Luftwaffe. After training at various postings, he served with Zerstörergeschwader 1 (ZG 1—1st Destroyer Wing) flying a Messerschmitt Bf-110 heavy fighter at the outbreak of World War II. On 10 May 1940, Streib claimed his first aerial victory. In June 1940, he was appointed Staffelkapitän (squadron leader) of the 2. Staffel (2nd squadron) of ZG 1. Shortly later, this squadron became 2. Staffel of Nachtjagdgeschwader 1 (NJG 1—1st Night Fighter Wing). On the night of 19/20 July, Streib claimed his first nocturnal aerial victory. In October 1940, he was appointed Gruppenkommandeur (group commander) of the I. Gruppe of NJG 1 and by end-1940 was credited with nine aerial victories. In 1943, Streib was involved in evaluating the then new Heinkel He 219. Flying the He 219, he claimed five aircraft destroyed on 11/12 June 1943. Streib was appointed Geschwaderkommodore (wing commander) of NJG 1 on 1 July 1943. On 11 March 1944, he was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords, the highest award in the military and paramilitary forces of Nazi Germany during World War II, for 66 confirmed victories. In March 1944, he was made Inspector of Night Fighters and he would stay in this post until the end of the war.

Early life[edit]

Streib, the son of a merchant, was born on 13 June 1911 in Pforzheim, at the time located in the Grand Duchy of Baden of the German Empire. Following graduation from school with his Abitur (university-preparatory high school diploma) and a commercial education in 1934, Streib joined the military service in the Reichswehr with Infanterie-Regiment 14, a regiment of the 5. Infanterie-Division based in Konstanz, as a Fahnenjunker (officer cadet). On 1 October 1935, then an Oberfähnrich (officer candidate), Streib transferred to the newly emerging Luftwaffe (air force) and was promoted to Leutnant (second lieutenant) on 1 April 1936. Streib first served as an air observer with an aerial reconnaissance unit before in 1938, he was posted to the II. Gruppe (2nd group) of Jagdgeschwader 132 "Richthofen", named after the World War I fighter ace Manfred von Richthofen.[Note 1] This unit was later renamed to I. Gruppe (1st group) of Zerstörergeschwader 1 (ZG 1—1st Destroyer Wing).[1]

World War II[edit]

On Friday 1 September 1939, German forces invaded Poland starting World War II in Europe. At the time, Streib was serving with the Flughafenbetriebskompanie (airport operational company) of I./ZG 1 before becoming a pilot. On 10 May 1940, the first day of the Battle of France, Streib claimed his first aerial victory. Flying a Messerschmitt Bf-110 heavy fighter, he was credited with shooting down a Royal Air Force (RAF) Bristol Blenheim bomber. For this achievement he was awarded the Iron Cross 2nd Class (Eisernes Kreuz zweiter Klasse) on 17 May 1940.[1] On 6 June 1940, he was appointed Staffelkapitän (squadron leader) of the 2. Staffel (2nd squadron) of ZG 1. This squadron became 2. Staffel of Nachtjagdgeschwader 1 (NJG 1—1st Night Fighter Wing) on 26 June 1940.[2]

Night fighter career[edit]

In May 1940 the creation of the Nachtjagd (night fighter force) had commenced and I. Gruppe of NJG 1 flew out of Gütersloh airfield. On the night of 19/20 July, Streib claimed his first nocturnal aerial victory over a RAF Armstrong Whitworth Whitley shot down at 02:15 near Saerbeck.[3][Note 2] Two nights later at 01:22, Streib claimed his second nocturnal, his third overall, victory over another Whitley shot down 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) north of Münster.[Note 3] On 30/31 August 1940, Streib claimed two aerial victories. He was credited with shooting down a Vickers Wellington at 23:24 north-northeast of Emmerich am Rhein and a Handley Page Hampden at 00:32 near Arnhem.[3][Note 4] On the night of 30 September to 1 October, Streib was victorious over two Wellington and one Hampden bombers. He claimed the first Wellington at 22:49 near Bersenbruck and the second at 23:35 near Menslage. The Hampden was shot down at 23:19 near Badbergen.[8][Note 5] This took his total to eight victories in overall, including seven by night and one by day. For this achievement, Streib was mentioned in the Wehrmachtbericht, a propaganda radio report, the first of four such mentions, on 1 October 1941.[10] He was also awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross (Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes) on 6 October 1940 as Oberleutnant (first lieutenant) and Staffelkapitän of the 2./NJG 1. Streib was the first night fighter pilot to receive this distinction.[1] On 7 October, he was promoted to Hauptmann (captain) and appointed Gruppenkommandeur (group commander) of the I. Gruppe of NJG 1.[2]

On the night of 14/15 October, Streib was credited with the destruction of another Hampden at 03:05 northeast of Calbe, this was also his last of 1940 and ninth overall.[8][Note 6] For these achievements he received the German Cross in Gold (Deutsches Kreuz in Gold), awarded on 26 February 1941.[1] At 22:18 on 10/11 March 1941, Streib claimed his ninth nocturnal victory when he shot down a Hampden 15 km (9.3 mi) southwest of Venlo.[12] Four nights later, on 14/15 March 1941, a Wellington shot down at 22:32 near Helenaveen became his tenth, eleventh overall, aerial victory, earning him his second mention in the Wehrmachtbericht.[13][14] On 10/11 April 1941, he was credited with shooting down a Hampden at 22:49 west of Roggel and a second Hampden at 23:02 near Ittervoort. A Wellington claimed at 23:39 on 17/18 April 1941 10 km (6.2 mi) east of Weert became his 13th, 14th overall, victory.[15] One Whitley shot down on each night of 30 June to 1 July and 3/4 July 1941 respectively, took his total to 16 aerial victories overall. The first Whitley was claimed at 01:19 2 km (1.2 mi) northwest of Waldfeucht while the second was recorded at 02:33 3 km (1.9 mi) east of Asten.[16] The next day, he was again mentioned in the Wehrmachtbericht radio report, his third of such mentions.[17] Two Wellington's fell to his guns on the night of 15/16 July. The first aircraft was claimed at 00:54 near Someren and the second at 01:45 near Geyspers.[18]

Kammhuber Line[edit]

A map of part of the Kammhuber Line. The 'belt' and night fighter 'boxes' are shown.

By mid-1940 by Generalmajor (Brigadier General) Josef Kammhuber had established a night air defense system dubbed the Kammhuber Line. It consisted of a series of control sectors equipped with radars and searchlights and an associated night fighter. Each sector named a Himmelbett (canopy bed) would direct the night fighter into visual range with target bombers. At 02:19 on the night of 6/7 August, Streib claimed his 18th nocturnal victory over a Whitley shot down 10 km (6.2 mi) northeast of Eindhoven.[19][Note 7] Streib claimed his 20th nocturnal victory on the night of 16/17 August. At 02:05 he claimed an Avro Manchester bomber shot down 10 km (6.2 mi) northeast of Sittard and at 02:52 a Whitley bomber 2 km (1.2 mi) north of Roermond.[21] On the night of 27/28 December, Streib claimed his last victories of 1941 taking his total to 23, including one daytime victory. At 20:15 and at 20:45, he claimed a Wellington and a Whitley, both over the Zuiderzee.[22]

Two Wellington's claimed on 26/27 March 1942, were his first on 1942. The first Wellington was shot down at 23:51 in the vicinity of Enkhuizen and the second at 23:58 southeast of Zutphen.[23] He again claimed two Wellington's two weeks later. On 10/11 April at 00:41, a first Wellington was shot down 15 km (9.3 mi) south Nijmegen, the second at 12 km (7.5 mi) southwest of Venlo.[24] At 00:56, 8 km (5.0 mi) southeast of Tilburg, and at 02:05, near 's-Hertogenbosch, on the night of 30/31 May, Streib was credited with two Whitleys shot down.[25] This achievement was again mentioned in the Wehrmachtmachtbericht, his fourth and last of such mentions.[26]

Streib claimed his last victory of 1942 on the night of 20/21 December. He shot down a Wellington at 20:13, 25 km (16 mi) southeast of 's-Hertogenbosch.[27] His first victory of 1943, his 40th nocturnal, was claimed on the night of 9/10 January when he shot down a Avro Lancaster bomber at 19:15, 8 km (5.0 mi) west of Venlo. Four nights later, he claimed two further Lancasters shot down, the first at 19:16 southwest of Apeldoorn and the second at 19:44, 15 km (9.3 mi) southwest of Hoog Soeren.[28] On the night of 2/3 February 1943, Streib was credited with shooting down a Lancaster bomber at 21:12, 20 km (12 mi) south of Eindhoven followed by four-engines bomber of unknown type at 21:30, 15 km (9.3 mi) south of Venlo. These two claims took his total to 45 aerial victories, including one by day.[29] On 26 February 1943, Streib was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves (Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes mit Eichenlaub) as Major and Gruppenkommandeur of the I./NJG 1. He was the 197th member of the German armed forces to be so honored. He received the Oak Leaves from Adolf Hitler personally at his office in the New Reich Chancellery in Berlin on 11 May 1943.[30] During the night of the 29/30 March he shot down Wellington HE545 from No. 166 Squadron RAF. Pilot Officer James Robert Arthur Hodgson and his crew were posted missing.[31]]][32] On the night of the 3/4 April 1943 Streib claimed a trio of Halifax bombers on an operation to attack Essen. One of the bombers was Halifax II DT723, LQ-F, crewed by Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) personnel from No. 504 Squadron RAF and piloted by Pilot Officer L. Lago. All the crew with the exception of Flight Sergeant W. S. Beaty survived to be taken prisoner of war.[33][34]

Testing the Heinkel He 219[edit]

Streib was involved in evaluating the then new Heinkel He 219 for its suitability as night fighter. On 25 March 1943, Streib flew He 219 V1 in mock combat against a Junkers Ju 188 E-1, piloted by Oberst Viktor von Loßberg, at the Erprobungstelle Rechlin, the Luftwaffe test facility at Rechlin. In this test the He 219 proved itself to be more than 25 kilometers per hour (16 miles per hour) faster than the Ju 188. The He 219 also easily outmaneuvered the Ju 188 in this test. The theoretically greater rate of climb of the Ju 188 proved to be incorrect.[35]

Heinkel He 219

On the night of 11/12 June 1943, Streib, together with radio operator (Bordfunker) Unteroffizier Helmut Fischer, flew the prototype version He 219 V9, with the pre-production label A-0/R2 "G9+FB" (Werknummer 190009—factory number), in combat against the RAF and claimed five aerial victories. That night, Bomber Command had sent a force of 783 heavy bombers on an attack against Düsseldorf. Of this attack force, made up of Wellington, Handley Page Halifax, Short Stirling and Avro Lancaster bombers, 693 aircraft actually hit the target.[36] His five victory claims included a Halifax shot down at 01:05 in location 14 km (8.7 mi) southeast of Roermond, a second Halifax shot down at 01:20 in location 2 km (1.2 mi) southwest of Rheinberg, a third Halifax shot down at 01:55 in location 3 km (1.9 mi) north of Mook, a Lancaster shot down at 02:16 in location 18 km (11 mi) southwest of Nijmegen, and a fourth Halifax shot down at 02:22 in location 3 km (1.9 mi) west of Sambeek. This "ace-in-a-day" achievement took his total to 55 nocturnal aerial victories.[37]

However, when returning to Venlo, Streib crashed the He 219 during landing. Low on fuel, Streib reported that during the landing approach the cockpit iced up, impairing his vision, necessitating an instrument approach. He activated the electrically controlled flaps and lowered the landing gear. Unnoticed by Streib, the flaps did not lock down and the electrically controlled flaps retracted themselves. Subsequently, his airspeed was too high during the final approach. Streib, misjudging his airspeed, flared the aircraft and slammed it into the runway. The resulting shockwave ruptured the tires; the starboard engine and cockpit were torn off the aircraft. Both Streib and Fischer escaped with minor injuries.[38]

High command[edit]

At 01:30 on the night of 12/13 June, Streib was credited with the destruction of a Lancaster 45 km (28 mi) south of Doetinchem.[39] A Stirling claimed at 01:30 on 22 June 35 km (22 mi) northwest of Venlo took his total to 57 nocturnal victories.[40] On 24/25 June 1943, he was credited with a victory over Halifax claimed at 00:51 near Kempen.[41] Streib was appointed Geschwaderkommodore (wing commander) of NJG 1 on 1 July 1943.[42] On the night of 25/26 July 1943, Streib claimed four aerial victories, the second of which his 60th nocturnal. At 00:28, he claimed to have shot down a Stirling bomber approximately 11 km (6.8 mi) northeast of Eindhoven. His second of the night and 60th nocturnal overall was claimed over a Lancaster at 00:46 about 10 km (6.2 mi) north of Helmond. The third claim that night, a Halifax was made at 01:20 in a position 6 km (3.7 mi) southeast of Oisterwijk, and the fourth, another Lancaster, at 01:42 approximately 17 km (11 mi) northeast of 's-Hertogenbosch. [43] One of the bombers was Halifax JA855, PM-A, from No. 103 Squadron RAF. Squadron leader G. R. Carpenter was captured but only three other members survived.[44]

On 11 March 1944, he was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords (Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes mit Eichenlaub und Schwertern) for 66 confirmed victories. On 23 March 1944, he was made Inspector of Night Fighters and he would stay in this post as Oberst until the end of the war.

Often called 'Father of the Nachtjagd' Streib helped develop the operational tactics used by the Nachtjagd during the early to mid-war years, and along with the likes of Wolfgang Falck made the Luftwaffe's night fighter force an effective fighting force against the RAF Bomber Command offensive.[4] He is mentioned in the book Almost a Lifetime by John McMahon when he shot down John's Lancaster, killing all but John. Streib was officially credited with shooting down 68 enemy aircraft, with 67 claimed at night.[Note 8] He was the first night fighter pilot to be honored with the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross.

Later life[edit]

After the war he worked in the grocery business before joining the Bundeswehr on 16 March 1956. Streib was asked to testify in the aftermaths of the 1961 F-84 Thunderstreak incident.[45] For three years he commanded the pilot school A in Landsberg am Lech, equipped with the T-6 Texan. He was responsible for training the beginner pilots in the German Air Force. Brigadegeneral Streib's military career ended with his retirement on 31 March 1966. His last position was Inspizient Fliegende Verbände (Inspector of Flying Forces).

He died on 15 June 1986 and is buried in Munich, Germany.

Aerial victory claims[edit]

Streib was credited with 68—one daytime and 67 nighttime—aerial victories, claimed in about 150 combat missions.[2]

  This and the ♠ (Ace of spades) indicates those aerial victories which made Streib an "ace-in-a-day", a term which designates a fighter pilot who has shot down five or more airplanes in a single day.

Chronicle of aerial victories
Victory
(total)
Victory
(nocturnal)
Date Time Type Location Serial No./Squadron No.
– I./Zerstörergeschwader 1 –
1 10 May 1940
Blenheim[1]
– 2./Nachtjagdgeschwader 1 –
2 1 20 July 1940 02:15 Whitley[3] Saerbeck
3 2 22 July 1940 01:22 Whitley[3] 10 km (6.2 mi) north Münster
4 3 30 August 1940 01:22 Wellington[3] 20 km (12 mi) north-northeast Emmerich am Rhein T2559/No. 214 Squadron
5 4 30 August 1940 23:24 Hampden[3] Arnhem L4079/No. 50 Squadron
6 5 30 September 1940 22:49 Wellington[8] Bersenbruck
7 6 30 September 1940 23:19 Hampden[8] Badbergen
8 7 30 September 1940 23:35 Wellington[8] Menslage
9 8 15 October 1940 03:05 Hampden[8] northeast Calbe X42993/No. 50 Squadron
Stab I./Nachtjagdgeschwader 1 –
10 9 10 March 1941 22:18 Hampden[12] 15 km (9.3 mi) southwest Venlo
11 10 14 March 1941 22:32 Wellington[12] Helenaveen
12 11 10 April 1941 22:49 Hampdon[15] west Roggel
13 12 10 April 1941 23:02 Hampdon[15] Ittervoort
14 13 17 April 1941 23:39 Hampdon[15] 10 km (6.2 mi) east Weert
15 14 1 July 1941 01:19 Whitley[16] 2 km (1.2 mi) northwest Waldfeucht
16 15 4 July 1941 01:19 Whitley[16] 3 km (1.9 mi) east Asten
17 16 16 July 1941 01:19 Wellington[18] Someren
18 17 16 July 1941 01:45 Wellington[18] Geyspers
19 18 7 August 1941 02:19 Whitley[19] 10 km (6.2 mi) northeast Eindhoven Z6488/No. 51 Squadron
20 19 17 August 1941 02:19 Manchester[21] 10 km (6.2 mi) northeast Sittard
21 20 17 August 1941 02:19 Whitley[21] 2 km (1.2 mi) north Roermond
22 21 27 December 1941 20:15 Wellington[22] Zuiderzee
23 22 27 December 1941 20:45 Whitley[22] Zuiderzee
24 23 26 March 1942 23:51 Wellington[23] Enkhuizen
25 24 26 March 1942 23:58 Wellington[23] southeast Zutphen
26 25 11 April 1942 00:41 Wellington[24] 15 km (9.3 mi) south Nijmegen
27 26 11 April 1942 00:49 Wellington[24] 12 km (7.5 mi) southwest Venlo
28 27 31 May 1942 00:56 Whitley[25] 15 km (9.3 mi) southeast Tilburg
29 28 31 May 1942 02:05 Whitley[25] 's-Hertogenbosch
30 29 2 June 1942 00:46 Wellington[25] 5 km (3.1 mi) south-southeast Venlo
31 30 3 June 1942 00:46 Wellington[46] 5 km (3.1 mi) west Viersen
32 31 1 August 1942 00:35 Blenheim[47] 15 km (9.3 mi) south-southeast Kevelaer V6432/No. 18 Squadron[48]
33 32 1 August 1942 01:44 Wellington[47] north Stokkem
34 33 1 August 1942 02:28 Wellington[49] 12 km (7.5 mi) southwest Venlo
35 34 6 August 1942 01:18 Halifax[50] 15 km (9.3 mi) north Eindhoven
36 35 27 August 1942 23:57 Wellington[51] Eindhoven
37 36 28 August 1942 01:04 Stirling[51] Eichem
38 37 11 September 1942 00:34 Wellington[52] 20 km (12 mi) east 's-Hertogenbosch
39 38 17 September 1942 01:12 Wellington[53] 7 km (4.3 mi) southeast Eindhoven
40 39 20 December 1942 20:13 Wellington[27] 25 km (16 mi) southeast 's-Hertogenbosch
41 40 9 January 1943 19:15 Lancaster[28] 8 km (5.0 mi) west Venlo
42 41 13 January 1943 19:16 Lancaster[28] southwest Apeldoorn
43 42 13 January 1943 19:44 Lancaster[28] 15 km (9.3 mi) southwest Hoog Soeren
44 43 2 February 1943 21:12 Lancaster[29] 20 km (12 mi) south Eindhoven
45 44 2 February 1943 21:30 four-engined bomber[29] 15 km (9.3 mi) southwest Venlo
46 45 29 March 1943 23:15 Wellington[54] north Arnhem
47 46 3 April 1943 22:52 Halifax[54] 20 km (12 mi) west Arnhem
48 47 3 April 1943 23:00 Halifax[54] northwest Kleve
49 48 3 April 1943 23:30 Halifax[54] 43 km (27 mi) north Roermond
50 49 9 April 1943 23:25 Halifax[55] 17 km (11 mi) northeast 's-Hertogenbosch
51 50 28 May 1943 23:25 Lancaster[56] 18 km (11 mi) northwest Arnhem
52 51♠ 12 June 1943 01:05 Halifax[37] 14 km (8.7 mi) southeast Roermond
53 52♠ 12 June 1943 01:20 Halifax[37] 2 km (1.2 mi) southwest Rheinberg
54 53♠ 12 June 1943 01:55 Halifax[37] 3 km (1.9 mi) north Mook
55 54♠ 12 June 1943 02:16 Lancaster[37] 18 km (11 mi) southwest Nijmegen
56 55♠ 12 June 1943 02:22 Halifax[37] 3 km (1.9 mi) west Sambeek
57 56 13 June 1943 01:30 Lancaster[39] 45 km (28 mi) south Doetinchem
58 57 22 June 1943 01:30 Stirling[40] 35 km (22 mi) northwest Venlo
59 58 25 June 1943 00:51 Halifax[41] Kempen
Stab Nachtjagdgeschwader 1 –
60 59 26 July 1943 00:28 Stirling[43] 11 km (6.8 mi) northeast Eindhoven
61 60 26 July 1943 00:46 Lancaster[43] 10 km (6.2 mi) north Helmond
62 61 26 July 1943 01:20 Halifax[43] 6 km (3.7 mi) southeast Oisterwijk
63 62 26 July 1943 01:42 Lancaster[43] 17 km (11 mi) northeast 's-Hertogenbosch
64 63 30 July 1943 01:45 Halifax[57] 25 km (16 mi) northwest Stade
65 64 24 August 1943 01:23 Halifax[58] Heiligensee
66 65 20 September 1943 01:01 Halifax[59] Zenderen southeast Eindhoven
67 66 4 December 1943 02:15 Lancaster[60] Braunschweig
68 67 4 December 1943 02:50 Lancaster[61] near Lingen

Awards[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ For an explanation of Luftwaffe unit designations see Organization of the Luftwaffe during World War II.
  2. ^ According to Donnelly, this aircraft may have been Vickers Wellington L7795 from No. 9 Squadron which crashed near Osnabrück, alternative this may also have been Whitley V P5007 from No. 51 Squadron.[4] In both cases all members of the crew were killed.[5]
  3. ^ According to Donnelly, this aircraft was Whitley N1487 from No. 78 Squadron targeting the marshalling yards at Hamm and Soest. All members of the crew were killed.[6]
  4. ^ According to Donnelly, one aircraft was Wellington T2559 from No. 214 Squadron, the other aircraft was Hampden L4079 from No. 50 Squadron. All members of the crews were killed.[7]
  5. ^ According to Donnelly the aircraft claimed as a Hampden was Whitley T4130 from No. 10 Squadron on a mission to bomb Berlin. Two members of the crew were killed and two were taken prisoner of war.[9]
  6. ^ According to Donnelly, this aircraft was Hampden X42993 from No. 50 Squadron on a mission to bomb Berlin. Two members of the crew were killed and two were taken prisoner of war.[11]
  7. ^ According to Bowman, this aircraft was Whitley V Z6488 from No. 51 Squadron.[20]
  8. ^ For a list of Luftwaffe night fighter aces see List of German World War II night fighter aces

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Stockert 2012, p. 381.
  2. ^ a b c Obermaier 1989, p. 36.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Foreman, Matthews & Parry 2004, p. 10.
  4. ^ a b Bowman 2016, p. 15.
  5. ^ Donnelly 2004, p. 42.
  6. ^ Donnelly 2004, p. 47.
  7. ^ Donnelly 2004, p. 121.
  8. ^ a b c d e f Foreman, Matthews & Parry 2004, p. 11.
  9. ^ Donnelly 2004, p. 176.
  10. ^ The Wehrmacht Reports 1939–1945 Volume 1, p. 317.
  11. ^ Donnelly 2004, p. 195.
  12. ^ a b c Foreman, Matthews & Parry 2004, p. 16.
  13. ^ Foreman, Matthews & Parry 2004, p. 17.
  14. ^ The Wehrmacht Reports 1939–1945 Volume 1, p. 446.
  15. ^ a b c d Foreman, Matthews & Parry 2004, p. 18.
  16. ^ a b c Foreman, Matthews & Parry 2004, p. 24.
  17. ^ The Wehrmacht Reports 1939–1945 Volume 1, p. 607.
  18. ^ a b c Foreman, Matthews & Parry 2004, p. 25.
  19. ^ a b Foreman, Matthews & Parry 2004, p. 28.
  20. ^ Bowman 2016, p. 48.
  21. ^ a b c Foreman, Matthews & Parry 2004, p. 29.
  22. ^ a b c Foreman, Matthews & Parry 2004, p. 33.
  23. ^ a b c Foreman, Matthews & Parry 2004, p. 36.
  24. ^ a b c Foreman, Matthews & Parry 2004, p. 38.
  25. ^ a b c d Foreman, Matthews & Parry 2004, p. 42.
  26. ^ a b The Wehrmacht Reports 1939–1945 Volume 2, p. 146.
  27. ^ a b Foreman, Matthews & Parry 2004, p. 63.
  28. ^ a b c d Foreman, Matthews & Parry 2004, p. 64.
  29. ^ a b c Foreman, Matthews & Parry 2004, p. 66.
  30. ^ Stockert 2012, pp. 381–382.
  31. ^ Chorley 1996, p. 85.
  32. ^ Cooper 1992, p. 154.
  33. ^ Cooper 1992, pp. 151-154.
  34. ^ Chorley 1996, p. 91.
  35. ^ Remp 2000, p. 55.
  36. ^ Remp 2000, p. 65.
  37. ^ a b c d e f Foreman, Matthews & Parry 2004, p. 84.
  38. ^ Remp 2000, pp. 65–67.
  39. ^ a b Foreman, Matthews & Parry 2004, p. 85.
  40. ^ a b Foreman, Matthews & Parry 2004, p. 87.
  41. ^ a b Foreman, Matthews & Parry 2004, p. 89.
  42. ^ Stockert 2012, p. 382.
  43. ^ a b c d e Foreman, Matthews & Parry 2004, p. 97.
  44. ^ Chorley 1996, p. 242.
  45. ^ Der Spiegel Volume 12/1963.
  46. ^ Foreman, Matthews & Parry 2004, p. 43.
  47. ^ a b Foreman, Matthews & Parry 2004, p. 52.
  48. ^ Bowman 2016, pp. 92–93.
  49. ^ Foreman, Matthews & Parry 2004, p. 53.
  50. ^ Foreman, Matthews & Parry 2004, p. 54.
  51. ^ a b Foreman, Matthews & Parry 2004, p. 56.
  52. ^ Foreman, Matthews & Parry 2004, p. 58.
  53. ^ Foreman, Matthews & Parry 2004, p. 59.
  54. ^ a b c d Foreman, Matthews & Parry 2004, p. 72.
  55. ^ Foreman, Matthews & Parry 2004, p. 73.
  56. ^ Foreman, Matthews & Parry 2004, p. 82.
  57. ^ Foreman, Matthews & Parry 2004, p. 99.
  58. ^ Foreman, Matthews & Parry 2004, p. 106.
  59. ^ Foreman, Matthews & Parry 2004, p. 114.
  60. ^ Foreman, Matthews & Parry 2004, p. 131.
  61. ^ Foreman, Matthews & Parry 2004, p. 132.
  62. ^ a b c Berger 1999, p. 351.
  63. ^ a b Thomas 1998, p. 361.
  64. ^ Patzwall & Scherzer 2001, p. 464.
  65. ^ a b c Scherzer 2007, p. 730.
  66. ^ Fellgiebel 2000, p. 414.
  67. ^ Von Seemen 1976, p. 332.
  68. ^ Fellgiebel 2000, p. 66.
  69. ^ Von Seemen 1976, p. 33.
  70. ^ Fellgiebel 2000, p. 42.
  71. ^ Von Seemen 1976, p. 16.
  72. ^ The Wehrmacht Reports 1939–1945 Volume 1, pp. 317, 446, 607.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Berger, Florian (1999). Mit Eichenlaub und Schwertern. Die höchstdekorierten Soldaten des Zweiten Weltkrieges [With Oak Leaves and Swords. The Highest Decorated Soldiers of the Second World War] (in German). Vienna, Austria: Selbstverlag Florian Berger. ISBN 978-3-9501307-0-6. 
  • Bowman, Martin (2016). Nachtjagd, Defenders of the Reich 1940–1943. Barnsley, South Yorkshire: Pen and Sword Books. ISBN 978-1-4738-4986-0. 
  • Chorley, William R (1996). Royal Air Force Bomber Command Losses of the Second World War: Aircraft and crew losses: 1943. Midland Counties Publications. ISBN 978-0-90459-790-5. 
  • Cooper, Allan (1992). Air Battle of the Ruhr. London: Airlife Publishing Ltd. ISBN 978-1-85310-201-1. 
  • Donnelly, Larry (2004). The Other Few: The Contribution Made by Bomber and Coastal Aircrew to the Winning of the Battle of Britain. Walton on Thames: Red Kite/Air Research. ISBN 978-0-9546201-2-7. 
  • Fellgiebel, Walther-Peer (2000) [1986]. Die Träger des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939–1945 — Die Inhaber der höchsten Auszeichnung des Zweiten Weltkrieges aller Wehrmachtteile [The Bearers of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939–1945 — The Owners of the Highest Award of the Second World War of all Wehrmacht Branches] (in German). Friedberg, Germany: Podzun-Pallas. ISBN 978-3-7909-0284-6. 
  • Foreman, John; Matthews, Johannes; Parry, Simon W. (2004). Luftwaffe Night Fighter Combat Claims, 1939–1945. Walton on Thames: Red Kite. ISBN 978-0-9538061-4-0. 
  • Obermaier, Ernst (1989). Die Ritterkreuzträger der Luftwaffe Jagdflieger 1939 – 1945 [The Knight's Cross Bearers of the Luftwaffe Fighter Force 1939 – 1945] (in German). Mainz, Germany: Verlag Dieter Hoffmann. ISBN 978-3-87341-065-7. 
  • Patzwall, Klaus D.; Scherzer, Veit (2001). Das Deutsche Kreuz 1941 – 1945 Geschichte und Inhaber Band II [The German Cross 1941 – 1945 History and Recipients Volume 2] (in German). Norderstedt, Germany: Verlag Klaus D. Patzwall. ISBN 978-3-931533-45-8. 
  • Remp, Roland (2000). Der Nachtjäger Heinkel He 219 [The Night Fighter Heinkel He 219] (in German). Oberhaching, Germany: AVIATIC Verlag GmbH. ISBN 978-3-925505-51-5. 
  • Scherzer, Veit (2007). Die Ritterkreuzträger 1939–1945 Die Inhaber des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939 von Heer, Luftwaffe, Kriegsmarine, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm sowie mit Deutschland verbündeter Streitkräfte nach den Unterlagen des Bundesarchives [The Knight's Cross Bearers 1939–1945 The Holders of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939 by Army, Air Force, Navy, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm and Allied Forces with Germany According to the Documents of the Federal Archives] (in German). Jena, Germany: Scherzers Militaer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-938845-17-2. 
  • Scutts, Jerry (1998). German Night Fighter Aces of World War 2. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-85532-696-5. 
  • Stockert, Peter (2012) [1997]. Die Eichenlaubträger 1939–1945 Band 2 [The Oak Leaves Bearers 1939–1945 Volume 2] (in German) (4th ed.). Bad Friedrichshall, Germany: Friedrichshaller Rundblick. ISBN 978-3-9802222-9-7. 
  • Von Seemen, Gerhard (1976). Die Ritterkreuzträger 1939–1945 : die Ritterkreuzträger sämtlicher Wehrmachtteile, Brillanten-, Schwerter- und Eichenlaubträger in der Reihenfolge der Verleihung : Anhang mit Verleihungsbestimmungen und weiteren Angaben [The Knight's Cross Bearers 1939–1945 : The Knight's Cross Bearers of All the Armed Services, Diamonds, Swords and Oak Leaves Bearers in the Order of Presentation: Appendix with Further Information and Presentation Requirements] (in German). Friedberg, Germany: Podzun-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-7909-0051-4. 
  • Thomas, Franz (1998). Die Eichenlaubträger 1939–1945 Band 2: L–Z [The Oak Leaves Bearers 1939–1945 Volume 2: L–Z] (in German). Osnabrück, Germany: Biblio-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-7648-2300-9. 
  • "Der Fall Barth Die Geschichte der "Bier-Order 61"". Der Spiegel (in German). 12. 1963. ISSN 0038-7452. Retrieved 27 December 2013. 
  • Die Wehrmachtberichte 1939–1945 Band 1, 1. September 1939 bis 31. Dezember 1941 [The Wehrmacht Reports 1939–1945 Volume 1, 1 September 1939 to 31 December 1941] (in German). München, Germany: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag GmbH & Co. KG. 1985. ISBN 978-3-423-05944-2. 
  • Die Wehrmachtberichte 1939–1945 Band 2, 1. Januar 1942 bis 31. Dezember 1943 [The Wehrmacht Reports 1939–1945 Volume 2, 1 January 1942 to 31 December 1943] (in German). München, Germany: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag GmbH & Co. KG. 1985. ISBN 978-3-423-05944-2. 

Further reading[edit]

  • McMahon, John (1995). Almost a Lifetime. Lantzville, B.C., Canada: Oolichan Books. ISBN 978-0-88982-143-9. 

External links[edit]

Military offices
Preceded by
Oberst Wolfgang Falck
Commander of Nachtjagdgeschwader 1
1 July 1943 – March 1944
Succeeded by
Oberleutnant Hans-Joachim Jabs