Jump to content

West Antarctic Ice Sheet

Coordinates: 78°44′03″S 133°16′41″W / 78.73417°S 133.27806°W / -78.73417; -133.27806
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

78°44′03″S 133°16′41″W / 78.73417°S 133.27806°W / -78.73417; -133.27806

West Antarctic ice sheet
TypeIce sheet
Area<1,970,000 km2 (760,000 sq mi)[1]
Thickness~1.05 km (0.7 mi) (average),[2] ~2 km (1.2 mi) (maximum)[1]

The West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) is the segment of the continental ice sheet that covers West Antarctica, the portion of Antarctica on the side of the Transantarctic Mountains that lies in the Western Hemisphere. It is classified as a marine-based ice sheet, meaning that its bed lies well below sea level and its edges flow into floating ice shelves. The WAIS is bounded by the Ross Ice Shelf, the Ronne Ice Shelf, and outlet glaciers that drain into the Amundsen Sea.[1]

As a smaller part of Antarctica, WAIS is also more strongly affected by climate change. There has been warming over the ice sheet since the 1950s,[3][4] and a substantial retreat of its coastal glaciers since at least the 1990s.[5] Estimates suggest it added around 7.6 ± 3.9 mm (1964 ± 532 in) to the global sea level rise between 1992 and 2017,[6] and has been losing ice in the 2010s at a rate equivalent to 0.4 millimetres (0.016 inches) of annual sea level rise.[7] While some of its losses are offset by the growth of the East Antarctic ice sheet, Antarctica as a whole will most likely lose enough ice by 2100 to add 11 cm (4.3 in) to sea levels. Further, marine ice sheet instability may increase this amount by tens of centimeters, particularly under high warming.[8] Fresh meltwater from WAIS also contributes to ocean stratification and dilutes the formation of salty Antarctic bottom water, which destabilizes Southern Ocean overturning circulation.[8][9][10]

In the long term, the West Antarctic Ice Sheet is likely to disappear due to the warming which has already occurred.[11] Paleoclimate evidence suggests that this has already happened during the Eemian period, when the global temperatures were similar to the early 21st century.[12][13] It is believed that the loss of the ice sheet would take place between 2,000 and 13,000 years in the future,[14][15] although several centuries of high emissions may shorten this to 500 years.[16] 3.3 m (10 ft 10 in) of sea level rise would occur if the ice sheet collapses but leaves ice caps on the mountains behind. Total sea level rise from West Antarctica increases to 4.3 m (14 ft 1 in) if they melt as well,[2] but this would require a higher level of warming.[17] Isostatic rebound of ice-free land may also add around 1 m (3 ft 3 in) to the global sea levels over another 1,000 years.[16]

The preservation of WAIS may require a persistent reduction of global temperatures to 1 °C (1.8 °F) below the preindustrial level, or to 2 °C (3.6 °F) below the temperature of 2020.[18] Because the collapse of the ice sheet would be preceded by the loss of Thwaites Glacier and Pine Island Glacier, some have instead proposed interventions to preserve them. In theory, adding thousands of gigatonnes of artificially created snow could stabilize them,[19] but it would be extraordinarily difficult and may not account for the ongoing acceleration of ocean warming in the area.[11] Others suggest that building obstacles to warm water flows beneath glaciers would be able to delay the disappearance of the ice sheet by many centuries, but it would still require one of the largest civil engineering interventions in history.


A map of West Antarctica

The total volume of the entire Antarctic ice sheet is estimated at 26.92 million km3 (6.46 million cu mi),[2] while the WAIS contains about 2.1 million km3 (530,000 cu mi) in ice that is above the sea level, and ~1 million km3 (240,000 cu mi) in ice that is below it.[20] The weight of the ice has caused the underlying rock to sink by between 0.5 and 1 kilometre (0.31 and 0.62 miles)[21] in a process known as isostatic depression.

Under the force of its own weight, the ice sheet deforms and flows slowly over rough bedrock. Ice ridges are the areas where ice sheet movement is slow because it is frozen to the bed, while ice streams flow much faster because there is liquid water in the sediments beneath them. Those are either the marine sediments which used to cover the ocean floor before the ice sheet froze above them, or they have been created due to erosion from the constant friction of ice against the bedrock. The water in these sediments stays liquid because the Earth's crust below the ice streams is thin and conducts heat from geothermal activity, and because the friction also generates heat, particularly at the margins between ice streams and ice ridges.[22]

When ice reaches the coast, it either calves or continues to flow outward onto the water. The result is a large, floating ice shelf affixed to the continent. These ice shelves restrain the flow of ice into the ocean for as long as they are present.[23]

West Antarctic Rift System[edit]

The West Antarctic Rift System (WARS) is one of the major active continental rifts on Earth.[24] It is believed to have a major influence on ice flows in West Antarctica. In western Marie Byrd Land, active glaciers flow through fault-bounded valleys (grabens) of the WARS.[25] Sub-ice volcanism has been detected and is known to influence ice flows.[26][24] In 2017, geologists from Edinburgh University discovered 91 volcanoes located two kilometres below the icy surface, making it the largest volcanic region on Earth.[27]

Fast-moving ice streams in the Siple Coast adjacent to the east edge of the Ross Ice Shelf are influenced by the lubrication provided by water-saturated till within fault-bounded grabens within the rift,[28][29] which would act to accelerate ice-sheet disintegration at more intense levels of climate change.[30]

A topographic and bathymetric map of Antarctica without its ice sheets, assuming constant sea levels and no post-glacial rebound


Like the other ice sheets, West Antarctic Ice Sheet had undergone significant changes in size during its history. Until around 400,000 years ago, the state of WAIS was largely governed by the effects of solar variation on heat content of the Southern Ocean, and it waxed and waned in accordance with a 41,000-year-long cycle.[31] Around 80,000 years ago, its size was comparable to now, but then it grew substantially larger, until its extent reached the margins of Antarctica's continental shelves during the Last Glacial Maximum ~30,000 years ago.[32] It then shrunk to around its preindustrial state some 3,000 years ago.[33] It also at times shrunk to a point where only minor and isolated ice caps remained, such as during the Marine isotope stage 31 ~1.07 million years ago,[33] or the Eemian period ~130,000 years ago.[12][13]

Climate change[edit]


1957–2007 Antarctic surface temperature trends, in °C/decade.[3]

West Antarctica has experienced statistically significant warming in recent decades, although there is some uncertainty about its magnitude. In 2015, the warming of the WAIS between 1976 and 2012 was calculated as a range between 0.08 °C (0.14 °F) per decade and 0.96 °C (1.73 °F) per decade.[34] In 2009, the warming of the region since 1957 was estimated as exceeding 0.1 °C (0.18 °F) per decade.[3] This warming is strongest in the Antarctic Peninsula. In 2012, research found that the West Antarctic ice sheet had warmed by 2.4 °C (4.3 °F) since 1958 – around 0.46 °C (0.83 °F) per decade, which was almost double the 2009 estimate.[35] In 2022, Central WAIS warming between 1959 and 2000 was estimated at 0.31 °C (0.56 °F) per decade, with this change conclusively attributed to increases in greenhouse gas concentrations.[4]

Distribution of meltwater hotspots caused by ice losses in Pine Island Bay, the location of both Thwaites (TEIS refers to Thwaites Eastern Ice Shelf) and Pine Island Glaciers.[36]

The continually increasing ocean heat content forces the melting and retreat of ice sheet's coastal glaciers.[7] Normally, glacier mass balance offsets coastal losses through gains from snowfall at the surface, but between 1996 and 2006, Antarctic ice mass loss had already increased by 75%.[37] Between 2005 and 2010, WAIS melting was thought to have added 0.28 millimetres (0.011 inches) to global sea levels every year.[38] Around 2012, the total mass loss from the West Antarctic Ice Sheet was estimated at 118 ± 9 gigatonnes per year.[39] Subsequent satellite observations revealed that the West Antarctic ice loss increased from 53 ± 29 gigatonnes per year in 1992 to 159 ± 26 gigatonnes per year in 2017, resulting in 7.6 ± 3.9 mm (1964 ± 532 in) of Antarctica sea level rise.[6] By 2023, ~150 gigatonnes per year became the average annual rate of mass loss since 2002, equivalent to 0.4 millimetres (0.016 inches) of annual sea level rise.[7]

Coastal glaciers are typically buttressed by ice shelves, which are massive blocks of floating ice next to a glacier. Yet, the ice shelves melt relatively quickly, as they are constantly in contact with the warming ocean water. Glacier retreat accelerates substantially once they collapse and stop providing structural support to the glacier, and once warm water can flow to the glacier unimpeded.[40][41] Most ice losses occur at the Amundsen Sea Embayment[38] and its three most vulnerable glaciers – Thwaites Glacier, Pine Island Glacier and Smith Glacier.[42][43] Around 2005, they were thought to lose 60% more mass than what they have gained, and to contribute about 0.24 millimetres (0.0094 inches) per year to global sea level rise.[44]

The comparison of current rates of retreat on the eastern side of Thwaites Glacier (left) and ones projected after the collapse of the Thwaites Ice Shelf.[41] This projection was challenged the following year.[45]

Of the three, Thwaites Glacier is the best-known, to the point of being nicknamed the "Doomsday Glacier" by some in the press,[46][47] although many scientists consider it alarmist and inaccurate.[48] The reason for concern about Thwaites is because it had been experiencing substantial mass loss since at least the early 1990s,[5] while its local seabed topography provides no obstacles to rapid retreat,[49] with its most vulnerable parts located 1.5 mi (2.4 km) below the sea level.[50] Further, it had been shown in 2021 that the Thwaites Ice Shelf, which restrains the eastern portion of the Thwaites Glacier, could start to collapse within five years.[41][51][52] The glacier would start to see major losses "within decades" after the ice shelf's failure, and its annual contribution to sea level rise would increase from the current 4% to 5%, although it would still take centuries to disappear entirely.[53]

Projected 21st century ice loss[edit]

Thwaites Glacier, with its vulnerable bedrock topography visible.

As the West Antarctic Ice Sheet loses ice due to the warming ocean water melting its coastal glaciers, it inevitably contributes to sea level rise. However, projections are complicated by additional processes that are difficult to model, such as meltwater from the ice sheet itself changing local circulation due to being warmer and fresher than the ocean water.[54][55] Another complicated process is hydrofracturing, where meltwater collecting atop the ice sheet may pool into fractures and force them open, further damaging its integrity.[56] Climate change alters winds above Antarctica, which can also affect surface current circulation,[57][58] but the importance of this process has been disputed.[11]

An illustration of the theory behind marine ice sheet and marine ice cliff instabilities.[56]

Most importantly, the WAIS has a complex topography which magnifies its vulnerability. The grounding lines of its glaciers are below the sea level by several hundred metres or more, and the bed only deepens upstream.[33] This means that as the ice sheet loses mass to melting, an increasing fraction of its height becomes exposed to warm water flows that are no longer displaced by its mass. This hypothesis is known as marine ice sheet instability (MISI) and it has the potential to greatly accelerate ice losses. The lack of knowledge about its specifics introduces substantial uncertainty into projections of 21st century sea level rise.[59] WAIS could be even more vulnerable under the so-called marine ice cliff instability hypothesis (MICI). It suggests that when a glacier's ice shelf melts, it would not just retreat faster, but rapidly collapse under its own weight if the height of its cliffs was greater than 100 m (330 ft).[60][61] This particular process has never been observed and was even ruled out by some of the more detailed modelling, but it still adds to the uncertainty in sea level projections.[62]

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has wrestled with the limited information about MISI for a long time. In 2001, IPCC Third Assessment Report mentioned the possibility of such disintegration and provided a vague long-term estimate for what it then described as a hypothetical. In 2007, the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report omitted any mention of it due to increased uncertainty, and a number of scientists criticized that decision as excessively conservative.[63][64] The 2013/2014 IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) was again unable to describe the risk, but it stated with medium confidence that MISI could add up to several tens of centimeters to 21st century sea level rise. The report projected that in the absence of instability, WAIS would cause around 6 cm (2.4 in) of sea level rise under the low-emission scenario RCP2.6. High emission scenario RCP8.5 would have slightly lower retreat of WAIS at 4 cm (1.6 in), due to calculations that the surface would be gaining mass. This is possible because effects of climate change on the water cycle would add more snow to the surface of the ice sheet, which is soon compressed into more ice, and this could offset some of the losses from the coasts.[65]

In 2020, experts considered 2016 research on marine ice cliff instability[60] even more influential than the IPCC AR5.[66]

Afterwards, several major publications in the late 2010s (including the Fourth United States National Climate Assessment in 2017) suggested that if instability was triggered, then the overall sea level rise (combining the melting of West Antarctica with that of the Greenland ice sheet and mountain glaciers, as well as the thermal expansion of seawater) from the high-emission climate change scenario could double, potentially exceeding 2 m (5 ft) by 2100 in the worst case.[67][68][69][70] A 2016 study led by Jim Hansen presented a hypothesis of vulnerable ice sheet collapse leading to near-term exponential sea level rise acceleration, with a doubling time of 10, 20 or 40 years, which would then lead to multi-meter sea level rise in 50, 100 or 200 years.[71][72] However, it remains a minority view amongst the scientific community.[73] For comparison, a 2020 survey of 106 experts found that their 5%–95% confidence interval of 2100 sea level rise for the high-emission scenario RCP8.5 was 45–165 cm (17+12–65 in). Their high-level projections also included both ice sheet and ice cliff instability: the experts found ice cliff instability research to be just as, or even more influential, as the IPCC Fifth Assessment report.[66]

If countries cut greenhouse gas emissions significantly (lowest trace), then sea level rise by 2100 can be limited to 0.3–0.6 m (1–2 ft).[74] If the emissions instead accelerate rapidly (top trace), sea levels could rise 5 m (16+12 ft) by the year 2300.[74]

Consequently, when the IPCC Sixth Assessment Report (AR6) was published in 2021–2022, it estimated that while the median increase in sea level rise from the West Antarctic ice sheet melt by 2100 would be ~11 cm (5 in) under all emission scenarios (since the increased warming would intensify the water cycle and increase snowfall accumulation over the ice sheet at about the same rate as it would increase ice loss), it can conceivably contribute up to 41 cm (16 in) by 2100 under the low-emission scenario and up to 57 cm (22 in) under the highest-emission one, due to the aforementioned uncertainties. It had also been suggested that by the year 2300, Antarctica's role in sea level rise would only slightly increase from 2100 if the low-emission RCP2.6 scenario was followed, only contributing a median of 16 cm (5 in). On the other hand, even the minimum estimate of West Antarctica melting under the high-emission scenario would be no less than 60 cm (0 ft), while the median would amount to 1.46 m (5 ft) and the maximum to 2.89 m (10 ft).[8]

Impacts of melting on ocean currents[edit]

Since the 1970s, the upper cell of the circulation has strengthened, while the lower cell weakened.[75]

Ice loss from the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (along with much smaller losses from the East Antarctic Ice Sheet adds meltwater to the Southern Ocean, at a total rate of 1100–1500 billion tons (GT) per year.[8]: 1240  This meltwater is fresh, and when it mixes with ocean water, the ocean becomes fresher (less salty) as well.[76] This results in the increased stratification and stabilization of the ocean layers,[77][8]: 1240  which has a significant impact on Southern Ocean overturning circulation.[9][10] It is one half of the global thermohaline circulation, with the better-known Atlantic meridional overturning circulation being the other. Southern Ocean absorbs by far the most heat and is also the strongest carbon sink of any ocean.[78][79][80] Both properties are affected by the strength of the overturning circulation.[81]

The overturning circulation consists of two parts – the smaller upper cell, which is most strongly affected by winds and precipitation, and the larger lower cell, which is defined by the temperature and salinity of Antarctic bottom water.[82] Since the 1970s, the upper cell has strengthened by 50–60%, while the lower cell has weakened by 10–20%.[83][75] Some of this was as the result of the natural cycle of Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation, but large flows of meltwater also had a clear effect,[84][85][9][76] The circulation may lose half of its strength by 2050 under the worst climate change scenario,[10] and decline even more afterwards.[86] In the long run, the circulation could collapse entirely: potentially between 1.7 °C (3.1 °F) and 3 °C (5.4 °F), though this is much less certain than with the other tipping points in the climate system.[81] This collapse would likely require multiple centuries to unfold: it is not expected to diminish Southern Ocean heat and carbon uptake during the 21st century,[87] but is likely to weaken its carbon sink once it is complete, which would be closer to 2300.[88] Other likely impacts include a decline in precipitation in the Southern Hemisphere countries like Australia (with a corresponding increase in the Northern Hemisphere), and an eventual decline of fisheries in the Southern Ocean, which could lead to a potential collapse of certain marine ecosystems.[86] Due to limited research to date, few specifics are currently known.[81]

Long-term thinning and collapse[edit]

A collage of footage and animation to explain the changes that are occurring on the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, narrated by glaciologist Eric Rignot

The same ice sheet topography which makes marine ice sheet instability possible in the short term,[33] also leaves it vulnerable to disappearing in response to even seemingly limited changes in temperature. This suggestion had first been presented in a 1968 paper by glaciologist J. H. Mercer.[89][50] In the 1970s, radar measurements from research flights revealed that glacier beds in Pine Island Bay slope downwards at an angle, well below the sea level. Thus, even a limited warming of ocean currents ice would effectively undermine the ice.[90][50][36] In 1981, the Amundsen Sea region had first been described by the researchers as "the weak underbelly" of the WAIS, with the hypothesis that the collapse of Thwaites Glacier and Pine Island Glacier would trigger the collapse of the entire ice sheet.[91][50] This had been supported by subsequent research.[92]

Now, the potential for the West Antarctic Ice Sheet to disappear after a certain temperature is exceeded is considered one of the tipping points in the climate system. Earlier research suggested it may withstand up to 3 °C (5.4 °F) before it would melt irreversibly,[8] but 1.5 °C (2.7 °F) was eventually considered a more likely threshold.[14][15] By 2023, multiple lines of evidence suggested that the real tipping point was around 1 °C (1.8 °F), which has already been reached in the early 21st century. This includes paleoclimate evidence from the Eemian period, such as analysis of silt isotopes in the Bellingshausen Sea, or the genomic history of Antarctica's Turquet's octopus. The former shows specific patterns in silt deposition and the latter genetic connections between currently separate subpopulations; both are impossible unless there was no ice outside of mountain caps in the West Antarctica around 125,000 years ago, during Marine Isotope Stage 5. Since that period was only 0.5 °C (0.90 °F) to 1.5 °C (2.7 °F) warmer than the preindustrial period, the current levels of warming are also likely to be sufficient to eventually melt the ice sheet.[93][94][12][13][95] Further, oceanographic research explains how this irreversible melting would occur, by indicating that water temperatures in the entire Amundsen Sea are already committed to increase at triple the historical rate throughout the 21st century.[11][96][97]

Contribution to sea level rise from a modelled area of Thwaites Glacier under high- and low warming (HSO and LSO) and high (m1) and low (m8) friction. Top shows both warming scenarios in a high-detail model, while middle and bottom graphics show the HSO and LSO scenarios in low-resolution models.[98]

However, while the West Antarctic Ice Sheet is likely to be committed to disappearance, it would take a long time. Its most vulnerable parts like Thwaites Glacier, which holds about 65 cm (25+12 in) of sea level rise equivalent, are believed to require "centuries" to collapse entirely.[53] Thwaites' ice loss over the next 30 years would likely be around 5 mm of sea level rise between 2018 and 2050, and between 14 and 42 mm over 100 years.[40] Other research also suggests that Thwaites Glacier would add less than 0.25 mm of global sea level rise per year over the 21st century, although it would increase to over 1 mm per year during its "rapid collapse" phase, which it expected to occur between 200 and 900 years in the future.[99][100][101] 2023 research had also shown that much of the glacier may survive 500 years into the future.[98]

Consequently, the entire WAIS would most likely take around 2,000 years to disintegrate entirely once it crosses its tipping point. Under the highest warming scenario RCP8.5, this may be shortened to around 500 years,[16] while the longest potential timescale for its disappearance is around 13,000 years.[14][15] In 1978, it was believed that the loss of the ice sheet would cause around 5 m (16 ft 5 in) of sea level rise,[90] Later improvements in modelling had shown that the collapse of the ice grounded below the sea level would cause ~3.3 m (10 ft 10 in) of sea level rise,[102] The additional melting of all the ice caps in West Antarctica that are not in contact with water would increase it to 4.3 m (14 ft 1 in).[2] However, those ice caps have been continuously present for at least the past 1.4 million years, and so their melting would require a larger level of warming.[17]

2021 research indicates that isostatic rebound, after the loss of the main portion of the ice sheet, would ultimately add another 1.02 m (3 ft 4 in) to global sea levels. While this effect would start to increase sea levels before 2100, it would take 1000 years for it to cause 83 cm (2 ft 9 in) of sea level rise – at which point, West Antarctica would be 610 m (2,001 ft 4 in) higher than now.[16] Because the ice sheet is so reflective, its loss would also have some effect on the ice-albedo feedback. A total loss would increase the global temperatures by 0.05 °C (0.090 °F), while the local temperatures would increase by around 1 °C (1.8 °F).[14][15]

Reversing or slowing ice sheet loss[edit]

While it would take a very long time from start to end for the ice sheet to disappear, some research indicates that the only way to stop its complete meltdown once triggered, is by lowering the global temperature to 1 °C (1.8 °F) below the preindustrial level; i.e. 2 °C (3.6 °F) below the temperature of 2020.[18] Other researchers have proposed engineering interventions to stabilize Thwaites and Pine Island Glaciers before they are lost. For instance, 2019 research estimated that moving some ocean water from the Amundsen Sea to the top of the Thwaites and Pine Island Glacier area and freezing it to create at least 7400 billion tonnes of snow would stabilize the ice sheet. This would be enormously expensive, as an equivalent of 12,000 wind turbines would be required to provide power just to move the water to the ice sheet, even before desalinating it (to avoid enhancing surface melt with salt) and turning it to snow.[19] It also assumed local water temperature remaining at early 21st century levels, rather than tripling unavoidably by 2100 as was discovered by later research.[11]

A proposed "underwater sill" blocking 50% of warm water flows heading for the glacier could have the potential to delay its collapse and the resultant sea level rise by many centuries.[103]

Some engineering interventions have been proposed for Thwaites Glacier and the nearby Pine Island Glacier to physically stabilize its ice, or to preserve it by blocking the flow of warm ocean water, which currently renders the collapse of these two glaciers practically inevitable even without further warming.[104][105] A proposal from 2018 included building sills at the Thwaites' grounding line to either physically reinforce it, or to block some fraction of warm water flow. The former would be the simplest intervention, yet equivalent to "the largest civil engineering projects that humanity has ever attempted": it is also only 30% likely to work. Constructions blocking even 50% of the warm water flow are expected to be far more effective, yet far more difficult as well.[103] Further, some researchers argued that this proposal could be ineffective, or even accelerate sea level rise.[106] The original authors suggested attempting this intervention on smaller sites, like the Jakobshavn Glacier in Greenland, as a test,[103][105] as well as acknowledging that this intervention cannot prevent sea level rise from the increased ocean heat content, and would be ineffective in the long run without greenhouse gas emission reductions.[103]

In 2023, a modified proposal was tabled. It was proposed that an installation of underwater "curtains", made of a flexible material and anchored to the Amundsen Sea floor would be able to interrupt warm water flow while reducing costs and increasing their longevity (conservatively estimated at 25 years for curtain elements and up to 100 years for the foundations) relative to more rigid structures. With them in place, Thwaites Ice Shelf and Pine Island Ice Shelf would presumably regrow to a state they last had a century ago, thus stabilizing these glaciers.[107][108][105] To achieve this, the curtains would have to be placed at a depth of around 600 metres (0.37 miles) (to avoid damage from icebergs which would be regularly drifting above) and be 80 km (50 mi) long. The authors acknowledged that while work on this scale would be unprecedented and face many challenges in the Antarctic (including polar night and the currently insufficient numbers of specialized polar ships and underwater vessels), it would also not require any new technology and there is already experience of laying down pipelines at such depths.[107][108]

Diagram of a proposed "curtain".[107]
The authors estimated this project would take a decade to construct, at $40–80 billion initial cost, while the ongoing maintenance would cost $1–2 billion a year.[107][108] Yet, a single seawall capable of protecting the entire New York City may cost twice as much on its own,[105] and the global costs of adaptation to sea level rise caused by the glaciers' collapse are estimated to reach $40 billion annually:[107][108] The authors also suggested that their proposal would be competitive with the other "climate engineering" proposals like stratospheric aerosol injection (SAI) or carbon dioxide removal (CDR), as while those would stop a much larger spectrum of climate change impacts, their estimated annual costs range from $7–70 billion for SAI to $160–4500 billion for CDR powerful enough to help meet the 1.5 °C (2.7 °F) Paris Agreement target.[107][108]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c Davies, Bethan (21 October 2020). "West Antarctic Ice Sheet". AntarcticGlaciers.org.
  2. ^ a b c d Fretwell, P.; et al. (28 February 2013). "Bedmap2: improved ice bed, surface and thickness datasets for Antarctica" (PDF). The Cryosphere. 7 (1): 390. Bibcode:2013TCry....7..375F. doi:10.5194/tc-7-375-2013. S2CID 13129041. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 February 2020. Retrieved 6 January 2014.
  3. ^ a b c Steig, E. J.; Schneider, D. P.; Rutherford, S. D.; Mann, M. E.; Comiso, J. C.; Shindell, D. T. (2009). "Warming of the Antarctic ice-sheet surface since the 1957 International Geophysical Year". Nature. 457 (7228): 459–462. Bibcode:2009Natur.457..459S. doi:10.1038/nature07669. PMID 19158794. S2CID 4410477.
  4. ^ a b Dalaiden, Quentin; Schurer, Andrew P.; Kirchmeier-Young, Megan C.; Goosse, Hugues; Hegerl, Gabriele C. (24 August 2022). "West Antarctic Surface Climate Changes Since the Mid-20th Century Driven by Anthropogenic Forcing" (PDF). Geophysical Research Letters. 49 (16). Bibcode:2022GeoRL..4999543D. doi:10.1029/2022GL099543. hdl:20.500.11820/64ecd5a1-af19-43e8-9d34-da7274cc4ae0. S2CID 251854055.
  5. ^ a b Rignot, Eric (2001). "Evidence for rapid retreat and mass loss of Thwaites Glacier, West Antarctica". Journal of Glaciology. 47 (157): 213–222. Bibcode:2001JGlac..47..213R. doi:10.3189/172756501781832340. S2CID 128683798.
  6. ^ a b The IMBIE Team (13 June 2018). "Mass balance of the Antarctic Ice Sheet from 1992 to 2017". Nature Geoscience. 558 (7709): 219–222. Bibcode:2018Natur.558..219I. doi:10.1038/s41586-018-0179-y. hdl:1874/367877. PMID 29899482. S2CID 49188002.
  7. ^ a b c NASA (7 July 2023). "Antarctic Ice Mass Loss 2002–2023".
  8. ^ a b c d e f Fox-Kemper, B.; Hewitt, H. T.; Xiao, C.; Aðalgeirsdóttir, G.; Drijfhout, S. S.; Edwards, T. L.; Golledge, N. R.; Hemer, M.; Kopp, R. E.; Krinner, G.; Mix, A. (2021). Masson-Delmotte, V.; Zhai, P.; Pirani, A.; Connors, S. L.; Péan, C.; Berger, S.; Caud, N.; Chen, Y.; Goldfarb, L. (eds.). "Chapter 9: Ocean, Cryosphere and Sea Level Change" (PDF). Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK and New York, New York, USA: 1270–1272.
  9. ^ a b c Silvano, Alessandro; Rintoul, Stephen Rich; Peña-Molino, Beatriz; Hobbs, William Richard; van Wijk, Esmee; Aoki, Shigeru; Tamura, Takeshi; Williams, Guy Darvall (18 April 2018). "Freshening by glacial meltwater enhances the melting of ice shelves and reduces the formation of Antarctic Bottom Water". Science Advances. 4 (4): eaap9467. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aap9467. PMC 5906079. PMID 29675467.
  10. ^ a b c Li, Qian; England, Matthew H.; Hogg, Andrew McC.; Rintoul, Stephen R.; Morrison, Adele K. (29 March 2023). "Abyssal ocean overturning slowdown and warming driven by Antarctic meltwater". Nature. 615 (7954): 841–847. Bibcode:2023Natur.615..841L. doi:10.1038/s41586-023-05762-w. PMID 36991191. S2CID 257807573.
  11. ^ a b c d e Naughten, Kaitlin A.; Holland, Paul R.; De Rydt, Jan (23 October 2023). "Unavoidable future increase in West Antarctic ice-shelf melting over the twenty-first century". Nature Climate Change. 13 (11): 1222–1228. Bibcode:2023NatCC..13.1222N. doi:10.1038/s41558-023-01818-x. S2CID 264476246.
  12. ^ a b c Carlson, Anders E.; Walczak, Maureen H.; Beard, Brian L.; Laffin, Matthew K.; Stoner, Joseph S.; Hatfield, Robert G. (10 December 2018). Absence of the West Antarctic ice sheet during the last interglaciation. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting.
  13. ^ a b c Lau, Sally C. Y.; Wilson, Nerida G.; Golledge, Nicholas R.; Naish, Tim R.; Watts, Phillip C.; Silva, Catarina N. S.; Cooke, Ira R.; Allcock, A. Louise; Mark, Felix C.; Linse, Katrin (21 December 2023). "Genomic evidence for West Antarctic Ice Sheet collapse during the Last Interglacial". Science. 382 (6677): 1384–1389. Bibcode:2023Sci...382.1384L. doi:10.1126/science.ade0664. PMID 38127761. S2CID 266436146.
  14. ^ a b c d Armstrong McKay, David; Abrams, Jesse; Winkelmann, Ricarda; Sakschewski, Boris; Loriani, Sina; Fetzer, Ingo; Cornell, Sarah; Rockström, Johan; Staal, Arie; Lenton, Timothy (9 September 2022). "Exceeding 1.5 °C global warming could trigger multiple climate tipping points". Science. 377 (6611): eabn7950. doi:10.1126/science.abn7950. hdl:10871/131584. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 36074831. S2CID 252161375.
  15. ^ a b c d Armstrong McKay, David (9 September 2022). "Exceeding 1.5 °C global warming could trigger multiple climate tipping points – paper explainer". climatetippingpoints.info. Retrieved 2 October 2022.
  16. ^ a b c d Pan, Linda; Powell, Evelyn M.; Latychev, Konstantin; Mitrovica, Jerry X.; Creveling, Jessica R.; Gomez, Natalya; Hoggard, Mark J.; Clark, Peter U. (30 April 2021). "Rapid postglacial rebound amplifies global sea level rise following West Antarctic Ice Sheet collapse". Science Advances. 7 (18). Bibcode:2021SciA....7.7787P. doi:10.1126/sciadv.abf7787. PMC 8087405. PMID 33931453.
  17. ^ a b Hein, Andrew S.; Woodward, John; Marrero, Shasta M.; Dunning, Stuart A.; Steig, Eric J.; Freeman, Stewart P. H. T.; Stuart, Finlay M.; Winter, Kate; Westoby, Matthew J.; Sugden, David E. (3 February 2016). "Evidence for the stability of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet divide for 1.4 million years". Nature Communications. 7: 10325. Bibcode:2016NatCo...710325H. doi:10.1038/ncomms10325. PMC 4742792. PMID 26838462.
  18. ^ a b Garbe, Julius; Albrecht, Torsten; Levermann, Anders; Donges, Jonathan F.; Winkelmann, Ricarda (2020). "The hysteresis of the Antarctic Ice Sheet". Nature. 585 (7826): 538–544. Bibcode:2020Natur.585..538G. doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2727-5. PMID 32968257. S2CID 221885420.
  19. ^ a b Feldmann, Johannes; Levermann, Anders; Mengel, Matthias (17 July 2019). "Stabilizing the West Antarctic Ice Sheet by surface mass deposition". Science Advances. 5 (7): eaaw4132. Bibcode:2019SciA....5.4132F. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aaw4132. PMC 6636986. PMID 31328165.
  20. ^ Lythe, Matthew B.; Vaughan, David G. (10 June 2001). "BEDMAP: A new ice thickness and subglacial topographic model of Antarctica" (PDF). Journal of Geophysical Research. 106 (B6): 11335–11352. Bibcode:2001JGR...10611335L. doi:10.1029/2000JB900449.
  21. ^ Anderson, John B. (1999). Antarctic marine geology. Cambridge University Press. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-521-59317-5.
  22. ^ Bindschadler, Robert (25 May 2006). "The environment and evolution of the West Antarctic ice sheet: setting the stage". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A. 364 (1844). doi:10.1098/rsta.2006.1790.
  23. ^ Miles, Bertie W. J.; Bingham, Robert G. (21 February 2024). "Progressive unanchoring of Antarctic ice shelves since 1973". Nature. 626: 785–791. doi:10.1038/s41586-024-07049-0. PMC 10881387.
  24. ^ a b Schroeder, Dustin M.; Blankenship, Donald D.; Young, Duncan A.; Quartini, Enrica (9 June 2014). "Evidence for elevated and spatially variable geothermal flux beneath the West Antarctic Ice Sheet". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 111 (25): 9070–9072. Bibcode:2014PNAS..111.9070S. doi:10.1073/pnas.1405184111. PMC 4078843. PMID 24927578.
  25. ^ Luyendyk, Bruce P.; Wilson, Douglas S.; Siddoway, Christine S. (29 October 2003). "Eastern margin of the Ross Sea Rift in western Marie Byrd Land, Antarctica: Crustal structure and tectonic development". Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems. 4 (10): 1090. Bibcode:2003GGG.....4.1090L. doi:10.1029/2002GC000462. ISSN 1525-2027.
  26. ^ Blankenship, Donald D.; Bell, Robin E.; Hodge, Steven M.; Brozena, John M.; Behrendt, John C.; Finn, Carol A. (11 February 1993). "Active volcanism beneath the West Antarctic ice sheet and implications for ice-sheet stability". Nature. 361 (6412): 526–529. Bibcode:1993Natur.361..526B. doi:10.1038/361526a0. ISSN 1476-4687. S2CID 4267792.
  27. ^ "Scientists discover 91 volcanoes below Antarctic ice sheet". The Guardian. 12 August 2017. Retrieved 13 August 2017.
  28. ^ Studinger, Michael; Bell, Robin E.; Blankenship, Donald D.; Finn, Carol A.; Arko, Robert A.; Morse, David L.; Joughin, Ian (15 September 2001). "Subglacial sediments: A regional geological template for ice flow in West Antarctica". Geophysical Research Letters. 28 (18): 3493–3496. Bibcode:2001GeoRL..28.3493S. doi:10.1029/2000GL011788. ISSN 1944-8007.
  29. ^ Peters, Leo E.; Anandakrishnan, Sridhar; Alley, Richard B.; Winberry, J. Paul; Voigt, Donald E.; Smith, Andrew M.; Morse, David L. (1 January 2006). "Subglacial sediments as a control on the onset and location of two Siple Coast ice streams, West Antarctica". Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth. 111 (B1). Bibcode:2006JGRB..111.1302P. doi:10.1029/2005JB003766. ISSN 2156-2202.
  30. ^ Van Der Veen, C. J.; Whillans, I. M. (1993). "New and improved determinations of velocity of Ice Streams B and C, West Antarctica". Journal of Glaciology. 39 (133): 483–590. doi:10.3189/S0022143000016373. hdl:1808/17424. ISSN 1727-5652.
  31. ^ Ohneiser, Christian; Hulbe, Christina L.; Beltran, Catherine; Riesselman, Christina R.; Moy, Christopher M.; Condon, Donna B.; Worthington, Rachel A. (5 December 2022). "West Antarctic ice volume variability paced by obliquity until 400,000 years ago". Nature Geoscience. 16: 44–49. doi:10.1038/s41561-022-01088-w. S2CID 254326281.
  32. ^ Gowan, Evan J.; Zhang, Xu; Khosravi, Sara; Rovere, Alessio; Stocchi, Paolo; Hughes, Anna L. C.; Gyllencreutz, Richard; Mangerud, Jan; Svendsen, John-Inge; Lohmann, Gerrit (23 February 2021). "A new global ice sheet reconstruction for the past 80 000 years". Nature Communications. 12 (1): 1199. Bibcode:2021NatCo..12.1199G. doi:10.1038/s41467-021-21469-w. hdl:10278/3747429. PMC 7902671. PMID 33623046.
  33. ^ a b c d Pollard, David; DeConto, Robert M. (19 March 2009). "Modelling West Antarctic ice sheet growth and collapse through the past five million years". Nature. 458 (7236): 329–332. Bibcode:2009Natur.458..329P. doi:10.1038/nature07809. PMID 19295608. S2CID 4427715.
  34. ^ Ludescher, Josef; Bunde, Armin; Franzke, Christian L. E.; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim (16 April 2015). "Long-term persistence enhances uncertainty about anthropogenic warming of Antarctica". Climate Dynamics. 46 (1–2): 263–271. Bibcode:2016ClDy...46..263L. doi:10.1007/s00382-015-2582-5. S2CID 131723421.
  35. ^ McGrath, Matt (23 December 2012). "West Antarctic Ice Sheet warming twice earlier estimate". BBC News. Retrieved 16 February 2013.
  36. ^ a b Dotto, Tiago S.; Heywood, Karen J.; Hall, Rob A.; et al. (21 December 2022). "Ocean variability beneath Thwaites Eastern Ice Shelf driven by the Pine Island Bay Gyre strength". Nature Communications. 13 (1): 7840. Bibcode:2022NatCo..13.7840D. doi:10.1038/s41467-022-35499-5. PMC 9772408. PMID 36543787.
  37. ^ Rignot, Eric; Bamber, Jonathan L.; van den Broeke, Michiel R.; Davis, Curt; Li, Yonghong; van de Berg, Willem Jan; van Meijgaard, Erik (13 January 2008). "Recent Antarctic ice mass loss from radar interferometry and regional climate modelling". Nature Geoscience. 1 (2): 106–110. Bibcode:2008NatGe...1..106R. doi:10.1038/ngeo102. S2CID 784105.
  38. ^ a b ESA (11 December 2013). "Antarctica's ice loss on the rise".
  39. ^ King, M. A.; Bingham, R. J.; Moore, P.; Whitehouse, P. L.; Bentley, M. J.; Milne, G. A. (2012). "Lower satellite-gravimetry estimates of Antarctic sea-level contribution". Nature. 491 (7425): 586–589. Bibcode:2012Natur.491..586K. doi:10.1038/nature11621. PMID 23086145. S2CID 4414976.
  40. ^ a b Yu, Hongju; Rignot, Eric; Seroussi, Helene; Morlighem, Mathieu (11 December 2018). "Retreat of Thwaites Glacier, West Antarctica, over the next 100 years using various ice flow models, ice shelf melt scenarios and basal friction laws". The Cryosphere. 12 (12): 3861–3876. Bibcode:2018TCry...12.3861Y. doi:10.5194/tc-12-3861-2018.
  41. ^ a b c Wild, Christian T.; Alley, Karen E.; Muto, Atsuhiro; Truffer, Martin; Scambos, Ted A.; Pettit, Erin C. Pettit (3 February 2022). "Weakening of the pinning point buttressing Thwaites Glacier, West Antarctica". The Cryosphere. 16 (2): 397–417. Bibcode:2022TCry...16..397W. doi:10.5194/tc-16-397-2022. hdl:20.500.12613/9340.
  42. ^ Rignot, E. (2008). "Changes in West Antarctic ice stream dynamics observed with ALOS PALSAR data". Geophysical Research Letters. 35 (12): L12505. Bibcode:2008GeoRL..3512505R. doi:10.1029/2008GL033365.
  43. ^ Rignot, E.; Mouginot, J.; Morlighem, M.; Seroussi, H.; Scheuch, B. (May 12, 2014). "Widespread, rapid grounding line retreat of Pine Island, Thwaites, Smith and Kohler glaciers, West Antarctica from 1992 to 2011". Geophysical Research Letters. 41 (10): 3502–3509. Bibcode:2014GeoRL..41.3502R. doi:10.1002/2014GL060140. S2CID 55646040.
  44. ^ Jenny Hogan, "Antarctic ice sheet is an 'awakened giant'", New Scientist, February 2, 2005.
  45. ^ Gudmundsson, G. H.; Barnes, J. M. A.; Goldberg, D. N.; Morlighem, M. (31 May 2023). "Limited Impact of Thwaites Ice Shelf on Future Ice Loss From Antarctica". Geophysical Research Letters. 50 (11). Bibcode:2023GeoRL..5002880G. doi:10.1029/2023GL102880. S2CID 259008792.
  46. ^ Goodell, Jeff (9 May 2017). "The Doomsday Glacier". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 8 July 2023.
  47. ^ Rowlatt, Justin (28 January 2020). "Antarctica melting: Climate change and the journey to the 'doomsday glacier'". BBC News.
  48. ^ Ryan, Jackson (6 September 2022). "Please Stop Calling It the 'Doomsday Glacier'". CNET.
  49. ^ Rignot, Eric; Thomas, Robert H.; Kanagaratnam, Pannir; Casassa, Gino; Frederick, Earl; Gogineni, Sivaprasad; Krabill, William; Rivera, Andrès; Russell, Robert; Sontag, John (2004). "Improved estimation of the mass balance of glaciers draining into the Amundsen Sea sector of West Antarctica from the CECS/NASA 2002 campaign". Annals of Glaciology. 39: 231–237. doi:10.3189/172756404781813916. S2CID 129780210.
  50. ^ a b c d "The "Unstable" West Antarctic Ice Sheet: A Primer". NASA. 12 May 2014. Retrieved 8 July 2023.
  51. ^ Weeman, Katie; Scambos, Ted (13 December 2021). "The Threat from Thwaites: The Retreat of Antarctica's Riskiest Glacier". cires.colorado.edu (Press release). Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder. Retrieved 14 December 2021.
  52. ^ Kaplan, Sarah (December 13, 2021). "Crucial Antarctic ice shelf could fail within five years, scientists say". The Washington Post. Washington DC. Retrieved 14 December 2021.
  53. ^ a b Voosen, Paul (13 December 2021). "Ice shelf holding back keystone Antarctic glacier within years of failure". Science Magazine. Retrieved 22 October 2022. Because Thwaites sits below sea level on ground that dips away from the coast, the warm water is likely to melt its way inland, beneath the glacier itself, freeing its underbelly from bedrock. A collapse of the entire glacier, which some researchers think is only centuries away, would raise global sea level by 65 centimeters.
  54. ^ Golledge, Nicholas R.; Keller, Elizabeth D.; Gomez, Natalya; Naughten, Kaitlin A.; Bernales, Jorge; Trusel, Luke D.; Edwards, Tamsin L. (2019). "Global environmental consequences of twenty-first-century ice-sheet melt". Nature. 566 (7742): 65–72. Bibcode:2019Natur.566...65G. doi:10.1038/s41586-019-0889-9. ISSN 1476-4687. PMID 30728520. S2CID 59606358.
  55. ^ Moorman, Ruth; Morrison, Adele K.; Hogg, Andrew McC (1 August 2020). "Thermal Responses to Antarctic Ice Shelf Melt in an Eddy-Rich Global Ocean–Sea Ice Model". Journal of Climate. 33 (15): 6599–6620. Bibcode:2020JCli...33.6599M. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-19-0846.1. ISSN 0894-8755. S2CID 219487981.
  56. ^ a b Pattyn, Frank (16 July 2018). "The paradigm shift in Antarctic ice sheet modelling". Nature Communications. 9 (1): 2728. Bibcode:2018NatCo...9.2728P. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-05003-z. PMC 6048022. PMID 30013142.
  57. ^ Thoma, M.; Jenkins, A.; Holland, D.; Jacobs, S. (18 September 2008). "Modelling Circumpolar Deep Water intrusions on the Amundsen Sea continental shelf, Antarctica" (PDF). Geophysical Research Letters. 35 (18): L18602. Bibcode:2008GeoRL..3518602T. doi:10.1029/2008GL034939. S2CID 55937812.
  58. ^ Holland, Paul R.; O'Connor, Gemma K.; Bracegirdle, Thomas J.; Dutrieux, Pierre; Naughten, Kaitlin A.; Steig, Eric J.; Schneider, David P.; Jenkins, Adrian; Smith, James A. (22 December 2022). "Anthropogenic and internal drivers of wind changes over the Amundsen Sea, West Antarctica, during the 20th and 21st centuries". The Cryosphere. 16 (12): 5085–5105. Bibcode:2022TCry...16.5085H. doi:10.5194/tc-16-5085-2022.
  59. ^ Robel, Alexander A.; Seroussi, Hélène; Roe, Gerard H. (23 July 2019). "Marine ice sheet instability amplifies and skews uncertainty in projections of future sea-level rise". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 116 (30): 14887–14892. Bibcode:2019PNAS..11614887R. doi:10.1073/pnas.1904822116. PMC 6660720. PMID 31285345.
  60. ^ a b DeConto, Robert M.; Pollard, David (30 March 2016). "Contribution of Antarctica to past and future sea-level rise". Nature. 531 (7596): 591–597. Bibcode:2016Natur.531..591D. doi:10.1038/nature17145. PMID 27029274. S2CID 205247890.
  61. ^ Gillis, Justin (30 March 2016). "Climate Model Predicts West Antarctic Ice Sheet Could Melt Rapidly". The New York Times.
  62. ^ Perkins, Sid (June 17, 2021). "Collapse may not always be inevitable for marine ice cliffs". ScienceNews. Retrieved 9 January 2023.
  63. ^ O'Reilly, Jessica; Oreskes, Naomi; Oppenheimer, Michael (26 June 2012). "The Rapid Disintegration of Projections: The West Antarctic Ice Sheet and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change". Social Studies of Science. 42 (5): 709–731. doi:10.1177/0306312712448130. PMID 23189611.
  64. ^ "Statement: Thinning of West Antarctic Ice Sheet Demands Improved Monitoring to Reduce Uncertainty over Potential Sea-Level Rise". Jsg.utexas.edu. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
  65. ^ Church, J. A.; Clark, P. U. (2013). "Sea Level Change". In Stocker, T. F.; et al. (eds.). Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, New York, US: Cambridge University Press.
  66. ^ a b Horton, Benjamin P.; Khan, Nicole S.; Cahill, Niamh; Lee, Janice S. H.; Shaw, Timothy A.; Garner, Andra J.; Kemp, Andrew C.; Engelhart, Simon E.; Rahmstorf, Stefan (2020-05-08). "Estimating global mean sea-level rise and its uncertainties by 2100 and 2300 from an expert survey". npj Climate and Atmospheric Science. 3 (1): 18. Bibcode:2020npjCA...3...18H. doi:10.1038/s41612-020-0121-5. hdl:10356/143900. S2CID 218541055.
  67. ^ USGCRP (2017). "Climate Science Special Report. Chapter 12: Sea Level Rise". science2017.globalchange.gov: 1–470. Retrieved 2018-12-27.
  68. ^ Mooney, Chris (October 26, 2017). "New science suggests the ocean could rise more – and faster – than we thought". The Chicago Tribune. Chicago, Illinois.
  69. ^ Nauels, Alexander; Rogelj, Joeri; Schleussner, Carl-Friedrich; Meinshausen, Malte; Mengel, Matthias (1 November 2017). "Linking sea level rise and socioeconomic indicators under the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways". Environmental Research Letters. 12 (11): 114002. Bibcode:2017ERL....12k4002N. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/aa92b6. hdl:20.500.11850/230713.
  70. ^ Bamber, Jonathan L.; Oppenheimer, Michael; Kopp, Robert E.; Aspinall, Willy P.; Cooke, Roger M. (May 2019). "Ice sheet contributions to future sea-level rise from structured expert judgment". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 116 (23): 11195–11200. Bibcode:2019PNAS..11611195B. doi:10.1073/pnas.1817205116. PMC 6561295. PMID 31110015.
  71. ^ Hansen, James; Sato, Makiko; Hearty, Paul; Ruedy, Reto; Kelley, Maxwell; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Russell, Gary; Tselioudis, George; Cao, Junji; Rignot, Eric; Velicogna, Isabella; Tormey, Blair; Donovan, Bailey; Kandiano, Evgeniya; von Schuckmann, Karina; Kharecha, Pushker; Legrande, Allegra N.; Bauer, Michael; Lo, Kwok-Wai (22 March 2016). "Ice melt, sea level rise and superstorms: evidence from paleoclimate data, climate modeling, and modern observations that 2 °C global warming could be dangerous". Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 16 (6): 3761–3812. arXiv:1602.01393. Bibcode:2016ACP....16.3761H. doi:10.5194/acp-16-3761-2016. S2CID 9410444.
  72. ^ Gillis, Justin (22 March 2016). "Scientists Warn of Perilous Climate Shift Within Decades, Not Centuries". The New York Times.
  73. ^ "James Hansen's controversial sea level rise paper has now been published online". The Washington Post. 2015. There is no doubt that the sea level rise, within the IPCC, is a very conservative number," says Greg Holland, a climate and hurricane researcher at the National Center for Atmospheric Research, who has also reviewed the Hansen study. "So the truth lies somewhere between IPCC and Jim.
  74. ^ a b "Anticipating Future Sea Levels". EarthObservatory.NASA.gov. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). 2021. Archived from the original on 7 July 2021.
  75. ^ a b "NOAA Scientists Detect a Reshaping of the Meridional Overturning Circulation in the Southern Ocean". NOAA. 29 March 2023.
  76. ^ a b Pan, Xianliang L.; Li, Bofeng F.; Watanabe, Yutaka W. (10 January 2022). "Intense ocean freshening from melting glacier around the Antarctica during early twenty-first century". Scientific Reports. 12 (1): 383. Bibcode:2022NatSR..12..383P. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-04231-6. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 8748732. PMID 35013425.
  77. ^ Haumann, F. Alexander; Gruber, Nicolas; Münnich, Matthias; Frenger, Ivy; Kern, Stefan (September 2016). "Sea-ice transport driving Southern Ocean salinity and its recent trends". Nature. 537 (7618): 89–92. Bibcode:2016Natur.537...89H. doi:10.1038/nature19101. hdl:20.500.11850/120143. ISSN 1476-4687. PMID 27582222. S2CID 205250191.
  78. ^ Stewart, K. D.; Hogg, A. McC.; England, M. H.; Waugh, D. W. (2 November 2020). "Response of the Southern Ocean Overturning Circulation to Extreme Southern Annular Mode Conditions". Geophysical Research Letters. 47 (22): e2020GL091103. Bibcode:2020GeoRL..4791103S. doi:10.1029/2020GL091103. hdl:1885/274441. S2CID 229063736.
  79. ^ Long, Matthew C.; Stephens, Britton B.; McKain, Kathryn; Sweeney, Colm; Keeling, Ralph F.; Kort, Eric A.; Morgan, Eric J.; Bent, Jonathan D.; Chandra, Naveen; Chevallier, Frederic; Commane, Róisín; Daube, Bruce C.; Krummel, Paul B.; Loh, Zoë; Luijkx, Ingrid T.; Munro, David; Patra, Prabir; Peters, Wouter; Ramonet, Michel; Rödenbeck, Christian; Stavert, Ann; Tans, Pieter; Wofsy, Steven C. (2 December 2021). "Strong Southern Ocean carbon uptake evident in airborne observations". Science. 374 (6572): 1275–1280. Bibcode:2021Sci...374.1275L. doi:10.1126/science.abi4355. PMID 34855495. S2CID 244841359.
  80. ^ Terhaar, Jens; Frölicher, Thomas L.; Joos, Fortunat (28 April 2021). "Southern Ocean anthropogenic carbon sink constrained by sea surface salinity" (PDF). Science Advances. 7 (18): 1275–1280. Bibcode:2021Sci...374.1275L. doi:10.1126/science.abi4355. PMID 34855495. S2CID 244841359.
  81. ^ a b c Lenton, T. M.; Armstrong McKay, D. I.; Loriani, S.; Abrams, J. F.; Lade, S. J.; Donges, J. F.; Milkoreit, M.; Powell, T.; Smith, S. R.; Zimm, C.; Buxton, J. E.; Daube, Bruce C.; Krummel, Paul B.; Loh, Zoë; Luijkx, Ingrid T. (2023). The Global Tipping Points Report 2023 (Report). University of Exeter.
  82. ^ Pellichero, Violaine; Sallée, Jean-Baptiste; Chapman, Christopher C.; Downes, Stephanie M. (3 May 2018). "The southern ocean meridional overturning in the sea-ice sector is driven by freshwater fluxes". Nature Communications. 9 (1): 1789. Bibcode:2018NatCo...9.1789P. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-04101-2. PMC 5934442. PMID 29724994.
  83. ^ Lee, Sang-Ki; Lumpkin, Rick; Gomez, Fabian; Yeager, Stephen; Lopez, Hosmay; Takglis, Filippos; Dong, Shenfu; Aguiar, Wilton; Kim, Dongmin; Baringer, Molly (13 March 2023). "Human-induced changes in the global meridional overturning circulation are emerging from the Southern Ocean". Communications Earth & Environment. 4 (1): 69. Bibcode:2023ComEE...4...69L. doi:10.1038/s43247-023-00727-3.
  84. ^ Zhou, Shenjie; Meijers, Andrew J. S.; Meredith, Michael P.; Abrahamsen, E. Povl; Holland, Paul R.; Silvano, Alessandro; Sallée, Jean-Baptiste; Østerhus, Svein (12 June 2023). "Slowdown of Antarctic Bottom Water export driven by climatic wind and sea-ice changes". Nature Climate Change. 13 (6): 701–709. Bibcode:2023NatCC..13..537G. doi:10.1038/s41558-023-01667-8.
  85. ^ Silvano, Alessandro; Meijers, Andrew J. S.; Zhou, Shenjie (17 June 2023). "Slowing deep Southern Ocean current may be linked to natural climate cycle—but melting Antarctic ice is still a concern". The Conversation.
  86. ^ a b Logan, Tyne (29 March 2023). "Landmark study projects 'dramatic' changes to Southern Ocean by 2050". ABC News.
  87. ^ Bourgeois, Timothée; Goris, Nadine; Schwinger, Jörg; Tjiputra, Jerry F. (17 January 2022). "Stratification constrains future heat and carbon uptake in the Southern Ocean between 30°S and 55°S". Nature Communications. 13 (1): 340. Bibcode:2022NatCo..13..340B. doi:10.1038/s41467-022-27979-5. PMC 8764023. PMID 35039511.
  88. ^ Liu, Y.; Moore, J. K.; Primeau, F.; Wang, W. L. (22 December 2022). "Reduced CO2 uptake and growing nutrient sequestration from slowing overturning circulation". Nature Climate Change. 13: 83–90. doi:10.1038/s41558-022-01555-7. OSTI 2242376. S2CID 255028552.
  89. ^ Mercer, J. H. "ANTARCTIC ICE AND SANGAMON SEA LEVEL" (PDF). International Association Of Hydrological Sciences. Retrieved 8 July 2023.
  90. ^ a b Mercer, J. H. (1 January 1978). "West Antarctic ice sheet and CO2 greenhouse effect: a threat of disaster". Nature. 271 (5643): 321–325. Bibcode:1978Natur.271..321M. doi:10.1038/271321a0. S2CID 4149290.
  91. ^ Hughes, T. J. (1981). "The weak underbelly of the West Antarctic ice sheet". Journal of Glaciology. 27 (97): 518–525. doi:10.3189/S002214300001159X.
  92. ^ Feldmann, J.; Levermann, A. (17 November 2015). "Collapse of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet after local destabilization of the Amundsen Basin". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 112 (46): 14191–14196. Bibcode:2015PNAS..11214191F. doi:10.1073/pnas.1512482112. PMC 4655561. PMID 26578762.
  93. ^ Voosen, Paul (2018-12-18). "Discovery of recent Antarctic ice sheet collapse raises fears of a new global flood". Science. Retrieved 2018-12-28.
  94. ^ Turney, Chris S. M.; Fogwill, Christopher J.; Golledge, Nicholas R.; McKay, Nicholas P.; Sebille, Erik van; Jones, Richard T.; Etheridge, David; Rubino, Mauro; Thornton, David P.; Davies, Siwan M.; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk (2020-02-11). "Early Last Interglacial ocean warming drove substantial ice mass loss from Antarctica". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 117 (8): 3996–4006. Bibcode:2020PNAS..117.3996T. doi:10.1073/pnas.1902469117. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 7049167. PMID 32047039.
  95. ^ Ahmed, Issam. "Antarctic octopus DNA reveals ice sheet collapse closer than thought". phys.org. Retrieved 2023-12-23.
  96. ^ Poynting, Mark (24 October 2023). "Sea-level rise: West Antarctic ice shelf melt 'unavoidable'". BBC. Retrieved 26 October 2023.
  97. ^ Holland, Paul R.; Bevan, Suzanne L.; Luckman, Adrian J. (11 April 2023). "Strong Ocean Melting Feedback During the Recent Retreat of Thwaites Glacier". Geophysical Research Letters. 50 (8). Bibcode:2023GeoRL..5003088H. doi:10.1029/2023GL103088.
  98. ^ a b Schwans, Emily; Parizek, Byron R.; Alley, Richard B.; Anandakrishnan, Sridhar; Morlighem, Mathieu M. (9 May 2023). "Model insights into bed control on retreat of Thwaites Glacier, West Antarctica". Journal of Glaciology. 69 (277): 1241–1259. Bibcode:2023JGlac..69.1241S. doi:10.1017/jog.2023.13. S2CID 258600944.
  99. ^ Joughin, I. (16 May 2014). "Marine Ice Sheet Collapse Potentially Under Way for the Thwaites Glacier Basin, West Antarctica". Science. 344 (6185): 735–738. Bibcode:2014Sci...344..735J. doi:10.1126/science.1249055. PMID 24821948. S2CID 206554077.
  100. ^ "Irreversible collapse of Antarctic glaciers has begun, studies say". Los Angeles Times. 12 May 2014. Retrieved 13 May 2014.
  101. ^ "Scientists warn of rising sea levels as huge Antarctic ice sheet slowly melts". Ctvnews.ca. 12 May 2014. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
  102. ^ Bamber, J. L.; Riva, R. E. M.; Vermeersen, B. L. A.; LeBrocq, A. M. (14 May 2009). "Reassessment of the Potential Sea-Level Rise from a Collapse of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet". Science. 324 (5929): 901–903. Bibcode:2009Sci...324..901B. doi:10.1126/science.1169335. PMID 19443778. S2CID 11083712.
  103. ^ a b c d Wolovick, Michael J.; Moore, John C. (20 September 2018). "Stopping the flood: could we use targeted geoengineering to mitigate sea level rise?". The Cryosphere. 12 (9): 2955–2967. Bibcode:2018TCry...12.2955W. doi:10.5194/tc-12-2955-2018. S2CID 52969664.
  104. ^ Joughin, I. (16 May 2014). "Marine Ice Sheet Collapse Potentially Under Way for the Thwaites Glacier Basin, West Antarctica". Science. 344 (6185): 735–738. Bibcode:2014Sci...344..735J. doi:10.1126/science.1249055. PMID 24821948. S2CID 206554077.
  105. ^ a b c d Temple, James (14 January 2022). "The radical intervention that might save the "doomsday" glacier". MIT Technology Review. Retrieved 19 July 2023.
  106. ^ Moon, Twila A. (25 April 2018). "Geoengineering might speed glacier melt". Nature. 556 (7702): 436. Bibcode:2018Natur.556R.436M. doi:10.1038/d41586-018-04897-5. PMID 29695853.
  107. ^ a b c d e f Wolovick, Michael; Moore, John; Keefer, Bowie (27 March 2023). "Feasibility of ice sheet conservation using seabed anchored curtains". PNAS Nexus. 2 (3): pgad053. doi:10.1093/pnasnexus/pgad053. PMC 10062297. PMID 37007716.
  108. ^ a b c d e Wolovick, Michael; Moore, John; Keefer, Bowie (27 March 2023). "The potential for stabilizing Amundsen Sea glaciers via underwater curtains". PNAS Nexus. 2 (4): pgad103. doi:10.1093/pnasnexus/pgad103. PMC 10118300. PMID 37091546.

External links[edit]