West Caldwell, New Jersey
|West Caldwell, New Jersey|
|Township of West Caldwell|
West Caldwell Civic Center
Location in Essex County and the state of New Jersey.
Census Bureau map of West Caldwell, New Jersey
|Coordinates: Coordinates: |
|Incorporated||February 24, 1904|
|• Body||Township Council|
|• Mayor||Joseph Tempesta Jr. (R, term ends December 31, 2018)|
|• Administrator||Adam W. Brewer|
|• Municipal clerk||Mary Donovan|
|• Total||5.070 sq mi (13.129 km2)|
|• Land||5.055 sq mi (13.091 km2)|
|• Water||0.015 sq mi (0.038 km2) 0.29%|
|Area rank||274th of 566 in state
8th of 22 in county
|Elevation||177 ft (54 m)|
|Population (2010 Census)|
|• Estimate (2016)||10,928|
|• Rank||227th of 566 in state
16th of 22 in county
|• Density||2,128.5/sq mi (821.8/km2)|
|• Density rank||282nd of 566 in state
18th of 22 in county
|Time zone||Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||Eastern (EDT) (UTC-4)|
|Area code(s)||201 (cell) and 862/973|
|GNIS feature ID||1729717|
West Caldwell is a township located in the West Essex area in northwestern Essex County, New Jersey. It is located approximately 16 miles (26 km) west of Manhattan and 6 miles (9.7 km) northwest of Newark. As of the 2010 United States Census, the township's population was 10,759, reflecting a decline of 474 (-4.2%) from the 11,233 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 811 (+7.8%) from the 10,422 counted in the 1990 Census.
West Caldwell was originally incorporated as a borough by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on February 24, 1904, from portions of Caldwell Township (now known as Fairfield Township). In 1981, the borough was one of seven Essex County municipalities to pass a referendum to become a township, joining four municipalities that had already made the change, of what would ultimately be more than a dozen Essex County municipalities to reclassify themselves as townships in order take advantage of federal revenue sharing policies that allocated townships a greater share of government aid to municipalities on a per capita basis. The borough was named for Caldwell Township, which in turn was named for Presbyterian minister James Caldwell.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Government
- 5 Education
- 6 Transportation
- 7 Popular culture
- 8 Notable people
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Caldwell, West Caldwell, and several neighboring communities were all originally one combined area known as the Horseneck Tract. In the early 18th century, a group of settlers left Newark and purchased a large tract of land northwest of their home city for the equivalent of a few hundred dollars from the Lenape Native Americans. This piece of land extended west and north to the Passaic River, south to the town center of what would become Livingston, and east to the First Watchung Mountain, and was called Horseneck by the natives because it resembled the neck and head of a horse.
What was then known as Horseneck contained most of the present day northern Essex County towns: West Caldwell, along with Caldwell, Cedar Grove, Essex Fells, Fairfield, North Caldwell, Roseland, and Verona are all located entirely in Horseneck, and parts of what are today Livingston, Montclair, and West Orange also were contained in the Horseneck tract. After the Revolutionary War, Horseneck changed its name to "Caldwell Township" in honor of a local war hero and pastor, James Caldwell, who used burning pages from his church's bibles to ignite the ammo in soldiers' cannons and helped to drive the British out of Horseneck.
By the late 1880s, Caldwell had become quite a developed and populated town, however the vast majority of the development, residents, and businesses were located in the center of the town along Bloomfield Avenue, its main connecting route with Newark and New York City. The outskirts of town remained farms and swampland in many places. This bothered the people living in the center of town and in 1892, Caldwell's center area decided to form its own municipality, naming itself Caldwell Borough and leaving the outskirts of town remaining as Caldwell Township.
Caldwell Borough contained what is today the towns of West Caldwell and Caldwell. Soon after, the area of Caldwell Township just to the east of Caldwell Borough between Caldwell Borough and Montclair (present-day Verona and Cedar Grove) decided to follow Caldwell's lead and incorporated itself as its own borough, Verona. Some of the already-developed eastern neighborhoods of Caldwell Township chose to become part of Montclair, as it was a rapidly developing suburb of Newark and Paterson. At around the same time, the area north of Caldwell Borough became its own town, North Caldwell. The ritzy, wooded area directly to the south of downtown Caldwell Borough became Essex Fells. Meanwhile, the farmland to the south of the western portion of Caldwell township attempted to become its own municipality known as South Caldwell. This failed, as much of developed sections of that area lied on its southernmost and easternmost borders, along the expanding Newark suburbs of Livingston and West Orange respectively. Those areas were engulfed by those two towns once they became incorporated municipalities of several small villages and developments. This left only the most rural farmland south of Caldwell Borough and Essex Fells to become its own township, Roseland. At this point, all that remained of the original Caldwell Township was a large piece of undeveloped land in the northwestern-most part of Essex County; eventually, in the early 1950s, Caldwell Township changed its name to Fairfield in order to avoid being confused with Caldwell Borough.
Immediately following the separation of the original Caldwell, the western part of Caldwell Borough generally remained less developed than downtown Caldwell Borough and contained several farms and a large area of undeveloped swampland known as Hatfield Swamp. However, two individual settlements, known as Franklin and Westville, soon formed in the western part of Caldwell Borough. As development increased and population grew in the western part of Caldwell, the town's more rural western population and more urban east often could not reconcile their differences. This led to the areas of Franklin and Westville consolidating into their own borough known as West Caldwell in 1904, leaving only the one square mile of original downtown Horseneck development as the borough of Caldwell. Caldwell Borough became Caldwell Township in the 1980s. To this day, the towns of Caldwell and West Caldwell remain by far the most urbanized, densely populated, and ethnically, racially, and income-diverse in the West Essex area. The town is home Grover Cleveland Park (also partially located in Caldwell and Essex Fells), a county park named in honor of the President of the United States who was born in the neighboring town of Caldwell.
Additionally, West Caldwell contains a number of smaller parks and land preserves, such as Memorial Park and Francisco Park. Hatfield Swamp, located in the western section of the town along its borders with the towns of Fairfield, Roseland, and East Hanover, is a protected preservation that usually very little building is allowed to be done on.
Though today the Caldwell area is considered to be a suburb of both Newark and New York, the area originally developed as its own individual, self-contained town and economy rather than as urban sprawl from a larger city. When it was formed, a few miles of woods separated downtown Caldwell from Newark or any of its developing suburbs. Bloomfield Avenue is located in the center of town, and is home to many of the locally owned stores of the town. West Caldwell has several stores and strip malls, and two public town pools, Cedar Street Pool and Westville Pool. The township has few violent crimes and only two murders in its history.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the township had a total area of 5.070 square miles (13.129 km2), including 5.055 square miles (13.091 km2) of land and 0.015 square miles (0.038 km2) of water (0.29%).
|Population sources: 1910-1920
1930-1990 2000 2010
As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 10,759 people, 3,913 households, and 2,962 families residing in the township. The population density was 2,128.5 per square mile (821.8/km2). There were 4,009 housing units at an average density of 793.1 per square mile (306.2/km2). The racial makeup of the township was 92.91% (9,996) White, 1.26% (136) Black or African American, 0.05% (5) Native American, 3.91% (421) Asian, 0.02% (2) Pacific Islander, 0.73% (79) from other races, and 1.12% (120) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.86% (523) of the population.
There were 3,913 households out of which 34.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 65.4% were married couples living together, 7.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 24.3% were non-families. 21.4% of all households were made up of individuals, and 13.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.69 and the average family size was 3.16.
In the township, the population was spread out with 23.4% under the age of 18, 5.8% from 18 to 24, 21.0% from 25 to 44, 30.3% from 45 to 64, and 19.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44.9 years. For every 100 females there were 91.2 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 88.0 males.
The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) median household income was $102,584 (with a margin of error of +/- $7,317) and the median family income was $118,018 (+/- $6,949). Males had a median income of $81,449 (+/- $7,519) versus $51,936 (+/- $5,473) for females. The per capita income for the borough was $44,244 (+/- $3,116). About 3.5% of families and 3.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.5% of those under age 18 and 2.8% of those age 65 or over.
As of the 2000 United States Census there were 11,233 people, 3,990 households, and 3,112 families residing in the township. The population density was 2,224.4 people per square mile (858.8/km2). There were 4,044 housing units at an average density of 800.8 per square mile (309.2/km2). The racial makeup of the township was 93.84% White, 0.89% African American, 0.04% Native American, 3.85% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.61% from other races, and 0.75% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.80% of the population.
There were 3,990 households out of which 35.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 68.1% were married couples living together, 7.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 22.0% were non-families. 19.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.75 and the average family size was 3.17.
In the township the population was spread out with 24.7% under the age of 18, 4.6% from 18 to 24, 27.6% from 25 to 44, 24.0% from 45 to 64, and 19.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 90.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.2 males.
The median income for a household in the township was $83,396, and the median income for a family was $94,379. Males had a median income of $67,108 versus $45,365 for females. The per capita income for the township was $38,345. About 1.2% of families and 2.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.5% of those under age 18 and 2.4% of those age 65 or over.
West Caldwell is governed under the Borough form of New Jersey municipal government. The governing body consists of a Mayor and a Borough Council comprising six council members, with all positions elected at-large on a partisan basis as part of the November general election. A Mayor is elected directly by the voters to a four-year term of office. The Borough Council consists of six members elected to serve three-year terms on a staggered basis, with two seats coming up for election each year in a three-year cycle. The Borough form of government used by West Caldwell, the most common system used in the state, is a "weak mayor / strong council" government in which council members act as the legislative body with the mayor presiding at meetings and voting only in the event of a tie. The mayor can veto ordinances subject to an override by a two-thirds majority vote of the council. The mayor makes committee and liaison assignments for council members, and most appointments are made by the mayor with the advice and consent of the council.
As of 2016[update], the Mayor of West Caldwell is Republican Joseph Tempesta Jr., whose term of office ends December 31, 2018. Members of the West Caldwell Township Council are Kathy L. Canale (R, 2017), Joseph P. Cecere (R, 2016), Michael Crudele (R, 2018), Michael Docteroff (R, 2017), Stanley W. Hladik (R, 2018) and Stephen P. Wolsky (R, 2016).
Michael Docteroff was sworn into office in December 2013 after being chosen by the Township Council from a list of three candidates nominated by the West Caldwell Republican Committee to fill the vacant seat following the resignation of Dominick Aiello.
Federal, state and county representation
West Caldwell is located in the 11th Congressional District and is part of New Jersey's 26th state legislative district. Prior to the 2011 reapportionment following the 2010 Census, West Caldwell had been in the 27th state legislative district.
New Jersey's Eleventh Congressional District is represented by Rodney Frelinghuysen (R, Harding Township). New Jersey is represented in the United States Senate by Democrats Cory Booker (Newark, term ends 2021) and Bob Menendez (Paramus, 2019).
For the 2018–2019 session (Senate, General Assembly), the 26th Legislative District of the New Jersey Legislature is represented in the State Senate by Joseph Pennacchio (R, Montville) and in the General Assembly by BettyLou DeCroce (R, Parsippany-Troy Hills) and Jay Webber (R, Morris Plains). The Governor of New Jersey is Phil Murphy (D, Middletown Township). The Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey is Sheila Oliver (D, East Orange).
Essex County is governed by a directly-elected County Executive, with legislative functions performed by the Board of Chosen Freeholders. As of 2016[update], the County Executive is Joseph N. DiVincenzo, Jr. The county's Board of Chosen Freeholders consists of nine members, four elected on an at-large basis and one from each of five wards, who serve three-year terms of office on a concurrent basis, all of which end December 31, 2018. Essex County's Freeholders are Freeholder President Britnee N. Timberlake (District 3 – East Orange, Newark's West and Central Wards, Orange and South Orange; East Orange) Freeholder Vice President Brendan W. Gill (at large; Montclair), Rufus I. Johnson (at large; Newark), Lebby C. Jones (at large; Irvington), Patricia Sebold (at large; Livingston), Rolando Bobadilla (District 1 – Newark's North and East Wards, parts of Central and West Wards; Newark), Wayne L. Richardson (District 2 – Irvington, Maplewood and Newark's South Ward and parts of West Ward; Newark), Leonard M. Luciano (District 4 – Caldwell, Cedar Grove, Essex Fells, Fairfield, Livingston, Millburn, North Caldwell, Roseland, Verona, West Caldwell and West Orange; West Caldwell), and Cynthia D. Toro (District 5 – Belleville, Bloomfield, Glen Ridge, Montclair and Nutley; Bloomfield). Constitutional elected countywide are County Clerk Christopher J. Durkin (West Caldwell, 2020), Sheriff Armando B. Fontoura (Fairfield, 2018) and Surrogate Theodore N. Stephens II (2016).
As of March 23, 2011, there were a total of 7,852 registered voters in West Caldwell, of which 2,185 (27.8%) were registered as Democrats, 2,282 (29.1%) were registered as Republicans and 3,378 (43.0%) were registered as Unaffiliated. There were no voters registered to other parties.
In the 2012 presidential election, Republican Mitt Romney received 54.7% of the vote (3,109 cast), ahead of Democrat Barack Obama with 44.4% (2,524 votes), and other candidates with 0.9% (50 votes), among the 5,732 ballots cast by the township's 8,055 registered voters (49 ballots were spoiled), for a turnout of 71.2%. In the 2008 presidential election, Republican John McCain received 55.2% of the vote (3,440 cast), ahead of Democrat Barack Obama with 42.5% (2,646 votes) and other candidates with 1.0% (60 votes), among the 6,232 ballots cast by the township's 7,747 registered voters, for a turnout of 80.4%. In the 2004 presidential election, Republican George W. Bush received 59.1% of the vote (3,573 ballots cast), outpolling Democrat John Kerry with 39.7% (2,398 votes) and other candidates with 0.8% (62 votes), among the 6,046 ballots cast by the township's 7,478 registered voters, for a turnout percentage of 80.9.
In the 2013 gubernatorial election, Republican Chris Christie received 65.6% of the vote (2,388 cast), ahead of Democrat Barbara Buono with 33.3% (1,213 votes), and other candidates with 1.0% (37 votes), among the 3,696 ballots cast by the township's 8,102 registered voters (58 ballots were spoiled), for a turnout of 45.6%. In the 2009 gubernatorial election, Republican Chris Christie received 55.7% of the vote (2,392 ballots cast), ahead of Democrat Jon Corzine with 34.7% (1,489 votes), Independent Chris Daggett with 8.4% (360 votes) and other candidates with 0.6% (24 votes), among the 4,292 ballots cast by the township's 7,795 registered voters, yielding a 55.1% turnout.
The communities of Caldwell and West Caldwell share a public school district, the Caldwell-West Caldwell Public Schools, a relationship that dates back to 1872, though formal consolidation of the districts was established in 1904. As of the 2011-12 school year, the district's six schools had an enrollment of 2,558 students and 203.3 classroom teachers (on an FTE basis), for a student–teacher ratio of 12.58:1. Schools in the district (with 2011-12 enrollment data from the National Center for Education Statistics) are Jefferson Elementary School (West Caldwell; 308 students; grades K-5), Lincoln Elementary School (Caldwell; 232; K-5), Washington Elementary School (West Caldwell; 360; K-5), Wilson Elementary School (West Caldwell; 256; K-5), Grover Cleveland Middle School (Caldwell; 617; 6-8) and James Caldwell High School (West Caldwell; 785; 9-12). Students are enrolled in an elementary school based on their home location, and students move on to attend the district's one middle school and one high school.
Roads and highways
As of May 2010[update], the borough had a total of 45.77 miles (73.66 km) of roadways, of which 37.11 miles (59.72 km) were maintained by the municipality and 8.66 miles (13.94 km) by Essex County.
People who were born in, residents of, or otherwise closely associated with West Caldwell include:
- Samuel Alito (born 1950), Supreme Court Associate Justice.
- Wheeler Antabanez (born 1977 as Matt Kent), author of best selling special issue of Weird NJ, Nightshade on the Passaic.
- Tim Berra (born 1951), former football player who played for the Baltimore Colts in 1974.
- Yogi Berra (1925-2015), professional baseball catcher, manager, and coach who played 19 seasons in Major League Baseball (MLB) (1946–63, 1965), all but the last for the New York Yankees.
- Eric Bross (born 1964), film director.
- Thomas P. Giblin (born 1947), politician who has served in the New Jersey General Assembly since 2006, where he represents the 34th Legislative District.
- The Amazing Kreskin (born 1935), mentalist.
- G. Gordon Liddy (born 1930), chief of the White House Plumbers.
- Camryn Manheim (born 1961), actress.
- Tommy Page (born 1970), singer best known for his 1990 song "I'll Be Your Everything".
- Alex Wujciak (born 1988), football linebacker who was signed by the Cleveland Browns as an undrafted free agent in 2011.
- 2010 Census Gazetteer Files: New Jersey County Subdivisions, United States Census Bureau. Accessed May 21, 2015.
- US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990, United States Census Bureau. Accessed September 4, 2014.
- Mayor & Council, Township of West Caldwell. Accessed July 4, 2016.
- 2017 New Jersey Mayors Directory, New Jersey Department of Community Affairs. Accessed May 30, 2017.
- Appointed Township Officials (2016), Township of West Caldwell. Accessed July 4, 2016.
- 2012 New Jersey Legislative District Data Book, Rutgers University Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, March 2013, p. 125.
- U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Township of West Caldwell, Geographic Names Information System. Accessed March 14, 2013.
- DP-1 - Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 for West Caldwell township, Essex County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed June 20, 2012.
- Municipalities Grouped by 2011-2020 Legislative Districts, New Jersey Department of State, p. 12. Accessed January 6, 2013.
- Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2010 for West Caldwell township, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development. Accessed June 20, 2012.
- 2010 Census Populations: Essex county, Asbury Park Press. Accessed June 20, 2012.
- PEPANNRES - Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016 - 2016 Population Estimates for New Jersey municipalities, United States Census Bureau. Accessed June 16, 2017.
- GCT-PH1 Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - State -- County Subdivision from the 2010 Census Summary File 1 for New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed November 6, 2012.
- Look Up a ZIP Code for West Caldwell, NJ, United States Postal Service. Accessed June 20, 2012.
- Zip Codes, State of New Jersey. Accessed September 1, 2013.
- Area Code Lookup - NPA NXX for West Caldwell, NJ, Area-Codes.com. Accessed September 1, 2013.
- American FactFinder, United States Census Bureau. Accessed September 4, 2014.
- A Cure for the Common Codes: New Jersey, Missouri Census Data Center. Accessed June 20, 2012.
- US Board on Geographic Names, United States Geological Survey. Accessed September 4, 2014.
- Table 7. Population for the Counties and Municipalities in New Jersey: 1990, 2000 and 2010, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development, February 2011. Accessed June 20, 2012.
- Snyder, John P. The Story of New Jersey's Civil Boundaries: 1606-1968, Bureau of Geology and Topography; Trenton, New Jersey; 1969. p. 130. Accessed June 20, 2012.
- "Chapter VI: Municipal Names and Municipal Classification", p. 73. New Jersey State Commission on County and Municipal Government, 1992. Accessed September 24, 2015.
- "Removing Tiering From The Revenue Sharing Formula Would Eliminate Payment Inequities To Local Governments", Government Accountability Office, April 15, 1982. Accessed September 24, 2015. "In 1978, South Orange Village was the first municipality to change its name to the 'township' of South Orange Village effective beginning in entitlement period 10 (October 1978 to September 1979). The Borough of Fairfield in 1978 changed its designation by a majority vote of the electorate and became the 'Township of Fairfield' effective beginning entitlement period 11 (October 1979 to September 1980).... However, the Revenue Sharing Act was not changed and the actions taken by South Orange and Fairfield prompted the Town of Montclair and West Orange to change their designation by referendum in the November 4, 1980, election. The municipalities of Belleville, Verona, Bloomfield, Nutley, Essex Fells, Caldwell, and West Caldwell have since changed their classification from municipality to a township."
- Narvaez, Alfonso A. "New Jersey Journal", The New York Times, December 27, 1981. Accessed September 24, 2015. "Under the Federal system, New Jersey's portion of the revenue sharing funds is disbursed among the 21 counties to create three 'money pools.' One is for county governments, one for 'places' and a third for townships. By making the change, a community can use the 'township advantage' to get away from the category containing areas with low per capita incomes."
- Karcher, Alan J. New Jersey's Multiple Municipal Madness, pp. 119-120. Rutgers University Press, 1998. ISBN 9780813525662. Accessed September 24, 2015.
- Hutchinson, Viola L. The Origin of New Jersey Place Names, New Jersey Public Library Commission, May 1945. Accessed October 25, 2015.
- Gannett, Henry. The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States, p. 63. United States Government Printing Office, 1905. Accessed October 25, 2015.
- Staff. "Best Places To Live 2010", New Jersey Monthly, February 9, 2010. Accessed October 27, 2010.
- Locality Search, State of New Jersey. Accessed May 21, 2015.
- Census Estimates for New Jersey April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016, United States Census Bureau. Accessed June 16, 2017.
- Compendium of censuses 1726-1905: together with the tabulated returns of 1905, New Jersey Department of State, 1906. Accessed September 1, 2013.
- Thirteenth Census of the United States, 1910: Population by Counties and Minor Civil Divisions, 1910, 1900, 1890, United States Census Bureau, p. 336. Accessed June 20, 2012.
- Fifteenth Census of the United States: 1930 - Population Volume I, United States Census Bureau, p. 716. Accessed June 20, 2012.
- Table 6. New Jersey Resident Population by Municipality: 1930 - 1990, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development. Accessed June 28, 2015.
- Census 2000 Profiles of Demographic / Social / Economic / Housing Characteristics for West Caldwell township, Essex County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed June 20, 2012.
- DP-1: Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2000 - Census 2000 Summary File 1 (SF 1) 100-Percent Data for West Caldwell township, Essex County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed November 6, 2012.
- DP03: Selected Economic Characteristics from the 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates for West Caldwell township, Essex County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed June 20, 2012.
- Cerra, Michael F. "Forms of Government: Everything You've Always Wanted to Know, But Were Afraid to Ask", New Jersey State League of Municipalities. Accessed November 30, 2014.
- "Forms of Municipal Government in New Jersey", p. 6. Rutgers University Center for Government Studies. Accessed June 3, 2015.
- Government, Township of West Caldwell. Accessed June 20, 2012.
- 2016 Municipal User Friendly Budget, Township of West Caldwell. Accessed July 4, 2016.
- Essex County Directory, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed July 1, 2016. Accessed July 1, 2016.
- 2015 General Election Results November 3, 2015, Essex County, New Jersey Clerk, updated April 19, 2016. Accessed July 1, 2016.
- 2014 General Election Results November 4, 2014, Essex County, New Jersey Clerk, updated April 18, 2016. Accessed July 1, 2016.
- 2013 General Election Results November 5, 2013, Essex County, New Jersey Clerk, updated April 15, 2016. Accessed July 1, 2016.
- Curley, Carolyne Volpe. "Michael Docteroff Sworn in by West Caldwell Mayor Joe Tempesta Jr., at Tuesday's Meeting", TheAlternativePress.com, December 19, 2013. Accessed January 22, 2014. "At Tuesday's meeting of the West Caldwell governing body, Mayor Joe Tempesta Jr., swore in Michael Docteroff as the newest member of the township's council.... After the resignation of Councilman Dominick Aiello, it became necessary for the council to appoint an individual to fill Aiello's unexpired term which ends Dec. 31, 2014."
- Plan Components Report, New Jersey Redistricting Commission, December 23, 2011. Accessed January 6, 2013.
- 2017 New Jersey Citizen's Guide to Government, p. 66, New Jersey League of Women Voters. Accessed May 30, 2017.
- Districts by Number for 2011-2020, New Jersey Legislature. Accessed January 6, 2013.
- 2011 New Jersey Citizen's Guide to Government, p. 66, New Jersey League of Women Voters. Accessed May 22, 2015.
- Directory of Representatives: New Jersey, United States House of Representatives. Accessed January 5, 2012.
- About Cory Booker, United States Senate. Accessed January 26, 2015. "He now owns a home and lives in Newark's Central Ward community."
- Biography of Bob Menendez, United States Senate, January 26, 2015. "He currently lives in Paramus and has two children, Alicia and Robert."
- Senators of the 114th Congress from New Jersey. United States Senate. Accessed January 26, 2015. "Booker, Cory A. - (D - NJ) Class II; Menendez, Robert - (D - NJ) Class I"
- Legislative Roster 2018-2019 Session, New Jersey Legislature. Accessed January 22, 2018.
- District 26 Legislators, New Jersey Legislature. Accessed January 22, 2018.
- Governor Phil Murphy, State of New Jersey. Accessed January 16, 2018.
- Lieutenant Governor Oliver, State of New Jersey. Accessed January 16, 2018. "Assemblywoman Oliver has resided in the City of East Orange for over 40 years."
- General Information, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed December 13, 2016. "The County Executive, elected from the County at-large, for a four-year term, is the chief political and administrative officer of the County.... The Board of Chosen Freeholders consists of nine members, five of whom are elected from districts and four of whom are elected at-large. They are elected for three-year concurrent terms and may be re-elected to successive terms at the annual election in November."
- Essex County Executive, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed December 13, 2016.
- County Directory, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed December 13, 2016.
- Definition of a Freeholder, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed December 13, 2016.
- Britnee N. Timberlake, Freeholder President / District 3, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed December 13, 2016.
- Brendan W. Gill, Freeholder Vice President / At-Large, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed December 13, 2016.
- Rufus I. Johnson, Freeholder At-Large, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed December 13, 2016.
- Lebby C. Jones, Freeholder At-Large, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed December 13, 2016.
- Patricia Sebold, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed December 13, 2016.
- Rolando Bobadilla, Freeholder District 1, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed December 13, 2016.
- Wayne L. Richardson, Freeholder District 2, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed July 9, 2014.
- Leonard M. Luciano, Freeholder District 4, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed December 13, 2016.
- Cynthia D. Toro, Freeholder District 5, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed December 13, 2016.
- Members of the Board, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed December 13, 2016.
- Breakdown of Freeholder Districts, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed December 13, 2016.
- About, Essex County Clerk. Accessed December 13, 2016.
- Armando B. Fontoura – Essex County Sheriff, Essex County Sheriff's Office. Accessed December 13, 2016.
- Essex County Surrogate Theodore N. Stephens, II, Essex County Surrogate's Court. Accessed December 13, 2016.
- Voter Registration Summary - Essex, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, March 23, 2011. Accessed November 6, 2012.
- "Presidential General Election Results - November 6, 2012 - Essex County" (PDF). New Jersey Department of Elections. March 15, 2013. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
- "Number of Registered Voters and Ballots Cast - November 6, 2012 - General Election Results - Essex County" (PDF). New Jersey Department of Elections. March 15, 2013. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
- 2008 Presidential General Election Results: Essex County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, December 23, 2008. Accessed November 6, 2012.
- 2004 Presidential Election: Essex County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, December 13, 2004. Accessed November 6, 2012.
- "Governor - Essex County" (PDF). New Jersey Department of Elections. January 29, 2014. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
- "Number of Registered Voters and Ballots Cast - November 5, 2013 - General Election Results - Essex County" (PDF). New Jersey Department of Elections. January 29, 2014. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
- 2009 Governor: Essex County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, December 31, 2009. Accessed November 6, 2012.
- A Brief History, Caldwell-West Caldwell Public Schools. Accessed November 6, 2012. "The Borough of Caldwell and the Township of West Caldwell have played a prominent role in the development of the Caldwell-West Caldwell school system and the quality of education it provides. Cooperation of the two communities began in 1872 when state laws governing school districts permitted the villages of Caldwell, Franklin and Westville to consolidate into a 'School Borough.' ... West Caldwell became a borough February 24, 1904. On March 30, 1904, a special school meeting was held to vote on the consolidation of Caldwell and West Caldwell into one school district. The vote was in favor of consolidation."
- District information for Caldwell-West Caldwell School District, National Center for Education Statistics. Accessed August 20, 2014.
- School Data for the Caldwell-West Caldwell Public Schools, National Center for Education Statistics. Accessed August 20, 2014.
- Jefferson Elementary School, Caldwell-West Caldwell Public Schools. Accessed October 17, 2013.
- Lincoln Elementary School, Caldwell-West Caldwell Public Schools. Accessed October 17, 2013.
- Washington Elementary School, Caldwell-West Caldwell Public Schools. Accessed October 17, 2013.
- Wilson Elementary School, Caldwell-West Caldwell Public Schools. Accessed October 17, 2013.
- Grover Cleveland Middle School, Caldwell-West Caldwell Public Schools. Accessed October 17, 2013.
- James Caldwell High School, Caldwell-West Caldwell Public Schools. Accessed October 17, 2013.
- New Jersey School Directory for the Caldwell-West Caldwell Public Schools, New Jersey Department of Education. Accessed December 29, 2016.
- About Us, West Caldwell Tech. Accessed June 20, 2012.
- West Essex Campus, Essex County College. Accessed June 20, 2012.
- Essex County Mileage by Municipality and Jurisdiction, New Jersey Department of Transportation, May 2010. Accessed July 18, 2014.
- Essex County Bus / Rail Connections, NJ Transit, backed up by the Internet Archive as of May 22, 2009. Accessed August 20, 2014.
- Sopranos filming location: Napoleon's, The Sopranos location guide. Accessed September 1, 2013.
- Alito's Supreme Court Nomination Confirmed, National Public Radio. Accessed September 20, 2007. "Alito and his wife, Martha-Ann Bomgardner, live in West Caldwell, N.J."
- Gold, Jeffrey, via Associated Press. "Magazine and Internet sites lure visitors to old sanatorium", Newsday, October 20, 2001. Accessed October 25, 2015. "For Matt Kent, it means part of his childhood will disappear. 'I've been going to the sanitarium since I was young, real young, probably 10,' said Kent, 24, who grew up in West Caldwell. 'It's always been a meeting place.'"
- "Former Colts: Where are they now? 242 former players/coaches listed to date", Scout.com. Accessed October 25, 2015. "Tim Berra (WR, '74) -- Tim is living in West Caldwell, New Jersey as of May, 2001."
- Weber, Bruce. "Yogi Berra, Yankee Who Built His Stardom 90 Percent on Skill and Half on Wit, Dies at 90", The New York Times, September 23, 2015. Accessed September 23, 2015. "Before moving to an assisted living facility in nearby West Caldwell, in 2012, Berra had lived for many years in neighboring Montclair."
- Galant, Debra. "'The Avenue,' From Two Who Lived It", The New York Times, December 13, 1998. Accessed December 22, 2014. "Mr. Bross, 34, was reared in West Caldwell -- closer to Essex Fells than Newark."
- Sullivan, Joseph F. "DEMOCRATS IN ESSEX TO CONVENE SATURDAY; Anti-Lerner Forces Are Expected to Dominate Meeting to Select County Executive Candidate Backing Pledged to Winner Primary Winner to Be Favored", The New York Times, March 28, 1978. Accessed October 25, 2015. "Other potential candidates who may appear before the convention include two Essex Freeholders, Donald Payne of Newark and Thomas Giblin of West Caldwell, and Michael Critchely, a Newark lawyer."
- Connolly, Richard J. "When a Hub Con Man Meets the Amazing Kresgin [sic]", The Boston Globe, August 28, 1980. Accessed January 31, 2011. "Kreskin, who is from West Caldwell, NJ, changed his name from George Kresge to T . (for The) A. (for Amazing) Kreskin."
- Genader, Ann. "Famed mentalist 'Amazing Kreskin' appearing Oct. 5 in West Milford", AIM West Milford, September 26, 2013. Accessed October 25, 2015. "According to Chris Mac Neill, publicist from Mac's Productions that Kreskin - a New Jersey native who was born in Montclair and now lives in West Caldwell - became aware of his remarkable ability when he was a child."
- Wechsler, Philip. "Liddy Is Recalled As Youth in Jersey; Tenacity Recalled Average Teen-Ager Respect for Law and Order Dated Liddy's Sister Never a Ladies Man First Lieutenant in Army", The New York Times, August 27, 1973. Accessed January 31, 2011. "He then entered Fordham and moved from West Caldwell to the Bronx."
- Staff. "EMMY AWARD WINNING ACTRESS/HUMAN RIGHTS ACTIVIST CAMRYN MANHEIM TO SPEAK AT FARMINGDALE STATE", Farmingdale State College, April 3, 2009. Accessed January 31, 2011.
- Hunt, Dennis. "Who Wants to Be Tied to New Kids? Not Singer/Songwriter Tommy Page", Los Angeles Times, May 20, 1990. Accessed October 25, 2015. "A native of tiny West Caldwell, N.J., Page was working as a coat-check boy in a New York dance club when he convinced the deejay to play his demo tape, which the dancers liked."
- Barker, Jeff. "Closing in on end of college career, Terps' Wujciak looks to seize moment; Senior has been big part of defense's takeaway-driven success this season", The Baltimore Sun, November 16, 2010. Accessed October 25, 2015. "The younger Wujciak, from West Caldwell, N.J., said he was recruited 'a little bit' by Notre Dame but wanted to go to a school 'that really wanted me.'"