/yː/ is infrequent. It and the other long close rounded vowel /uː/ are absent from the dialect of Ljouwert.
/ʏ/ is more often transcribed with the symbol ⟨ø⟩, yet this article uses the symbol ⟨ʏ⟩ to show that it is identical to standard Dutch /ʏ/.
Although they pattern with monophthongs, the long close-mid vowels transcribed /eː, øː, oː/ are often realized as narrow closing diphthongs [eɪ, øʏ, oʊ]. One of the exceptions is /øː/ in the Hindeloopers dialect, which is realized as a long monophthong [øː].
Many scholars transcribe /ɑ/ as /a/, but de Haan (2010) transcribes it as /ɑ/, and that is the transcription that we use in this article. Its phonetic quality has been variously described as slightly retracted central [ɑ̈]; and less central than /aː/.
Booij (1989) argues that the rising diphthongs /jɪ, jɛ, wa, wo/ (he also lists the rare /jʏ/) are in fact glide-vowel sequences, not real diphthongs. This view is supported by Hoekstra & Tiersma (2013) who transcribe them as /jɪ, jɛ, wa, wo/, which is the convention used in this article.
In Southwestern dialects, /wa, wo/ are monophthongized to short central [ɞ, ɵ].
Phonetically, the first element of /ɛi/ can be either [ɛ] or [æ].
Many scholars transcribe /øy/ as /øy/, but Booij (1989) transcribes it as /ʌy/. According to Tiersma (1999), the first element of /øy/ is lower than the vowel /ʏ/ (i.e. more like [œ], similar to the traditional Standard Dutch pronunciation of /œy/).
Some scholars transcribe /ɔu/ as /ɔu/, yet others transcribe it as /au/. Phonetically, the first element of this diphthong may be either of these, i.e. [ɔ] or, less often, [a].
Word-final /b, d/ are realized as voiceless [p, t] in all dialects except Amelansk. Note, however, that final /b/ is rare, and that in loanwords from Standard Dutch, final /ɣ/ can also appear, and is also devoiced to [x].