According to the 2011 census West Khasi Hills district has a population of 385,601,<ref name=districtcensus>"District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-30.</ref> roughly equal to the nation of Maldives.<ref name="cia">US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 2011-10-01. "Maldives 394,999 July 2011 est."</ref> This gives it a ranking of 560th in India (out of a total of 640).<ref name=districtcensus/> The district has a population density of 73 inhabitants per square kilometre (190 /sq mi) .<ref name=districtcensus/> Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 30.25%.<ref name=districtcensus/> West Khasi Hills has a sex ratio of 981 females for every 1000 males,<ref name=districtcensus/> and a literacy rate of 79.3%.<ref name=districtcensus/>
The district is predominantly inhabited by Khasi tribe.
Khasi society has greatly been transformed by many factors which have arisen in recent times. Adoption of the Western style of life, especially among the literate and educated, have been quite rapid although the matrilineal laws of inheritance and succession and the other cultural traits are still retained.