West Orange, New Jersey
|West Orange, New Jersey|
|Township of West Orange|
Thomas Edison National Historical Park in West Orange
|Nickname(s): "Where Invention Lives"|
Map of West Orange Township in Essex County. Inset: Location of West Orange highlighted in the State of New Jersey.
Census Bureau map of West Orange, New Jersey
|Coordinates: Coordinates: |
|Incorporated||April 10, 1863 (as township)|
|Reincorporated||February 28, 1900 (as town)|
|• Type||Faulkner Act (Mayor-Council)|
|• Body||Township Council|
|• Mayor||Robert D. Parisi (term ends December 31, 2018)|
|• Administrator||John K. Sayers|
|• Clerk||Karen J. Carnevale|
|• Total||12.171 sq mi (31.522 km2)|
|• Land||12.046 sq mi (31.198 km2)|
|• Water||0.125 sq mi (0.324 km2) 1.03%|
|Area rank||190th of 566 in state
3rd of 22 in county
|Elevation||512 ft (156 m)|
|Population (2010 Census)|
|• Estimate (2015)||47,390|
|• Rank||40th of 566 in state
5th of 22 in county
|• Density||3,836.0/sq mi (1,481.1/km2)|
|• Density rank||160th of 566 in state
14th of 22 in county
|Time zone||Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||Eastern (EDT) (UTC-4)|
|GNIS feature ID||1729718|
West Orange is a suburban township in central Essex County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the township's population was 46,207, reflecting an increase of 1,264 (+2.8%) from the 44,943 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 5,840 (+14.9%) from the 39,103 counted in the 1990 Census.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Economy
- 5 Sports
- 6 Parks and recreation
- 7 Government
- 8 Education
- 9 Transportation
- 10 Mass media and telecommunications
- 11 Notable people
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 External links
West Orange was initially a part of Newark township, and remained so until November 27, 1806, when the territory now encompassing all of The Oranges was detached to form Orange Township. On April 13, 1807, the first government was elected. On January 31, 1860, Orange was incorporated as a town, and on April 3, 1872, it was reincorporated as a city. Almost immediately, Orange began fragmenting into smaller communities, primarily because of local disputes about the costs of establishing paid police, fire and street departments. South Orange was organized on April 1, 1861, Fairmount (an independent municipality for less than one year that was later to become part of West Orange) on March 11, 1862, and East Orange on March 4, 1863. West Orange (including what had been the briefly independent municipality of Fairmount) was incorporated as a township on April 10, 1863, and was reformed as a town on February 28, 1900. In 1980, West Orange again became a township to take advantage of federal revenue sharing policies that allocated a greater share of government aid to municipalities classified as townships.
Llewellyn Park, the first planned community in America, is located within West Orange, and was designed by entrepreneur Llewellyn Haskell and architect Alexander Jackson Davis in 1857. Llewellyn Park is considered among the best examples of the "Romantic Landscape" movement of that period. Thomas Edison was one of the many residents.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the township had a total area of 12.171 square miles (31.522 km2), including 12.046 square miles (31.198 km2) of land and 0.125 square miles (0.324 km2) of water (1.03%). It is located approximately 5 miles (8.0 km) west of downtown Newark and 13 miles (21 km) west of New York City.
The township is marked by an eclectic mix of neighborhoods and housing types, which roughly correspond to the township's geographic features. Generally, the township has four distinct neighborhoods:
- Downtown West Orange and The Valley
The oldest and most densely populated part of the township is Downtown West Orange, which lies in the low basin along the township's eastern border with the city of Orange and Montclair. Main Street, in this section, is home to the Thomas Edison National Historical Park, as well as the municipal building, police headquarters, and a branch post office. The West Orange Public Library is located on Mount Pleasant Avenue in this section, just west of Main Street. Downtown West Orange is laid out in the pattern of a traditional town, and is formed around the western termini of two major east-west arteries of the Newark street grid: Central Avenue and Park Avenue. Downtown West Orange has the most urban character of the township's neighborhoods, while the Valley is home to a growing arts district and a significant African American community.
- The First Mountain
West of Downtown, the neighborhoods of West Orange become increasingly suburban as one ascends the steep hill of the First Watchung Mountain along Northfield, Mount Pleasant, or Eagle Rock Avenue. The housing stock in the neighborhoods of Hutton Park and Gregory is a mixture of Victorian, Jazz Age, and Tudor-style houses; large estates; garden apartments; and post-World War II modern houses. The Victorian enclave of Llewellyn Park, one of America's first planned residential communities, is also located on the First Mountain, having been created in 1853 as a site for country homes for the wealthy from New York City. Many blocks on the First Mountain have sweeping views of the Newark and New York City skylines.
- Pleasant Valley and Pleasantdale
Beyond the high ridge traced by Prospect Avenue, West Orange becomes a patchwork of post-World War II suburban neighborhoods, interspersed with pockets of older Victorian homes, as well as golf courses, professional campuses, and shopping centers. Pleasantdale, a walkable business district in this part of the township, includes a number of restaurants, office buildings, and houses of worship. Pleasantdale is also home to a significant Orthodox Jewish community.
- The Second Mountain
Finally, the westernmost section of West Orange lies along the eastern face of the Second Watchung Mountain, and includes large portions of the South Mountain Reservation. The housing stock in this neighborhood resembles that of Pleasantdale, as well as those of the adjacent suburban townships of Millburn and Livingston.
1870-1920 1870 1880-1890
1900-1990 2000 2010
At the 2010 United States Census, there were 46,207 people, 16,790 households, and 11,753 families residing in the township. The population density was 3,836.0 per square mile (1,481.1/km2). There were 17,612 housing units at an average density of 1,462.1 per square mile (564.5/km2). The racial makeup of the township was 57.15% (26,406) White, 26.58% (12,284) Black or African American, 0.38% (174) Native American, 7.96% (3,680) Asian, 0.02% (10) Pacific Islander, 4.82% (2,227) from other races, and 3.09% (1,426) from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 16.20% (7,487) of the population.
There were 16,790 households, of which 33.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.1% were married couples living together, 12.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.0% were non-families. 25.5% of all households were made up of individuals, and 12.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.70 and the average family size was 3.28.
In the township, 23.7% of the population were under the age of 18, 7.1% from 18 to 24, 25.7% from 25 to 44, 27.6% from 45 to 64, and 15.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40.6 years. For every 100 females there were 88.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.2 males.
The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) median household income was $88,917 (with a margin of error of +/- $4,480) and the median family income was $106,742 (+/- $5,256). Males had a median income of $65,854 (+/- $4,548) versus $43,223 (+/- $2,769) for females. The per capita income for the township was $43,368 (+/- $2,021). About 4.9% of families and 7.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.5% of those under age 18 and 7.5% of those age 65 or over.
As of the 2000 United States Census there were 44,943 people, 16,480 households, and 11,684 families residing in the township. The population density was 3,708.7 people per square mile (1,431.7/km2). There were 16,901 housing units at an average density of 1,394.7 per square mile (538.4/km2). The racial makeup of the township was 67.6% White, 17.5% African American, 0.14% Native American, 8.09% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 3.52% from other races, and 3.20% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10.04% of the population.
There were 16,480 households out of which 32.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.0% were married couples living together, 11.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 29.1% were non-families. 24.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.19. In the township the population was spread out with 23.3% under the age of 18, 6.2% from 18 to 24, 29.7% from 25 to 44, 23.4% from 45 to 64, and 17.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 88.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.0 males.
The median income for a household in the town was $69,254, and the median income for a family was $83,375. Males had a median income of $52,029 versus $39,484 for females. The per capita income for the township was $34,412. About 4.6% of families and 5.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.0% of those under age 18 and 7.8% of those age 65 or over.
Essex Green Shopping Center is an outdoor mall with stores, restaurants and an AMC Theaters Fork and Screen dine-in movie theater.
The Jersey Rockhoppers hockey team of the Eastern Professional Hockey League, formed for the 2008-09 season, played home games at the Richard J. Codey Arena. The arena also used to be the practice facility for the New Jersey Devils from 1986-2007. The New Jersey Daredevils, a special needs hockey team formed in 2002 that plays in the SHI (Special Hockey International League), uses the arena for home games and practices. Annually in October, the Daredevils host a Halloween themed tournament for Special Hockey International teams (including the Daredevils themselves) called Frankenfest. Frankenfest has been going on every October since 2009. The New Jersey Devils Youth Hockey team also plays here as well.
Parks and recreation
The township is set off by two large parks: the South Mountain Reservation along its southwestern borders with Maplewood, Millburn and South Orange, and the Eagle Rock Reservation along its northeastern borders with Montclair and Verona. The township straddles the transition between the low-lying Newark Bay basin and the high terrain of the Watchung Mountains.
West Orange is governed by Plan B of the Mayor-Council system of municipal government pursuant to the Faulkner Act, as implemented on July 1, 1962, by direct petition. Each member of the Council is elected to a four-year term of on a staggered basis, with either three council seats or two seats and the mayoral seat up for election every even-numbered year. Township elections are nonpartisan and at-large. In December 2013, the Township Council approved an ordinance that shifted municipal elections from May to the November general election, citing savings from the combined elections estimated as much as $100,000 per cycle.
As of 2016[update], the Mayor of West Orange is Robert Parisi, whose term of office ends December 31, 2018. Members of the Township Council are Michelle Casalino (2016; appointed to serve an unexpired term), Victor Cirilo (2018), Jerry Guarino (2016), Joe Krakoviak (2016) and Susan McCartney (2018).
In September 2015, the Township Council selected Michelle Casalino to fill the seat expiring in December 2016 that had been held by Patty Spango until her resignation from office.
Officers of the municipal court are:
- Margaret Padovano - Chief Judge
- Dennis O. Dowd - Municipal Judge
- Bryn Whittle - Municipal Prosecutor
- The Municipal Building and Township Council offices are located at 66 Main Street
- The Police Department and Municipal Court are located at 60 Main Street
- The West Orange First Aid Squad is located at 25 Mount Pleasant Place
- The West Orange Fire Department HQ is located at 415 Valley Road
- The West Orange Public Library is located at 46 Mount Pleasant Avenue
As of March 23, 2011, there were a total of 30,561 registered voters in West Orange, of which 14,166 (46.4%) were registered as Democrats, 3,273 (10.7%) were registered as Republicans and 13,108 (42.9%) were registered as Unaffiliated. There were no voters registered to other parties.
In the 2012 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 71.3% of the vote (15,214 cast), ahead of Republican Mitt Romney with 27.9% (5,950 votes), and other candidates with 0.8% (177 votes), among the 21,491 ballots cast by the township's 32,061 registered voters (150 ballots were spoiled), for a turnout of 67.0%. In the 2008 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 67.8% of the vote (15,423 cast), ahead of Republican John McCain with 29.3% (6,667 votes) and other candidates with 0.7% (154 votes), among the 22,740 ballots cast by the township's 30,260 registered voters, for a turnout of 75.1%. In the 2004 presidential election, Democrat John Kerry received 64.7% of the vote (13,535 ballots cast), outpolling Republican George W. Bush with 34.0% (7,118 votes) and other candidates with 0.7% (186 votes), among the 20,933 ballots cast by the township's 28,418 registered voters, for a turnout percentage of 73.7.
In the 2013 gubernatorial election, Democrat Barbara Buono received 56.0% of the vote (6,350 cast), ahead of Republican Chris Christie with 42.9% (4,863 votes), and other candidates with 1.1% (125 votes), among the 11,580 ballots cast by the township's 32,390 registered voters (242 ballots were spoiled), for a turnout of 35.8%. In the 2009 gubernatorial election, Democrat Jon Corzine received 59.3% of the vote (8,168 ballots cast), ahead of Republican Chris Christie with 32.9% (4,530 votes), Independent Chris Daggett with 6.2% (858 votes) and other candidates with 0.7% (100 votes), among the 13,773 ballots cast by the township's 29,898 registered voters, yielding a 46.1% turnout.
Federal, state and county representation
West Orange is split between the 10th and 11th Congressional Districts and is part of New Jersey's 27th state legislative district. Prior to the 2010 Census, West Orange had been split between the 8th Congressional District and the 10th Congressional District, a change made by the New Jersey Redistricting Commission that took effect in January 2013, based on the results of the November 2012 general elections. In the redistricting that took effect in 2013, 18,122 residents in the eastern third of the township were placed in the 10th district, while 28,085 residents in the western portion of the township were placed in the 11th District.
New Jersey's Tenth Congressional District is represented by Donald Payne Jr. (D, Newark). New Jersey's Eleventh Congressional District is represented by Rodney Frelinghuysen (R, Harding Township). New Jersey is represented in the United States Senate by Cory Booker (D, Newark, term ends 2021) and Bob Menendez (D, Paramus, 2019).
For the 2016–2017 session (Senate, General Assembly), the 27th Legislative District of the New Jersey Legislature is represented in the State Senate by Richard Codey (D, Roseland) and in the General Assembly by Mila Jasey (D, South Orange) and John F. McKeon (D, West Orange). The Governor of New Jersey is Chris Christie (R, Mendham Township). The Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey is Kim Guadagno (R, Monmouth Beach).
Essex County is governed by a directly-elected County Executive, with legislative functions performed by the Board of Chosen Freeholders. As of 2014[update], the County Executive is Joseph N. DiVincenzo, Jr. The county's Board of Chosen Freeholders consists of nine members, four elected on an at-large basis and one from each of five wards, who serve three-year terms of office on a concurrent basis, all of which end December 31, 2014. Essex County's Freeholders are Freeholder President Blonnie R. Watson (at large; Newark), Freeholder Vice President Patricia Sebold (at large; Livingston), Rufus I. Johnson (at large; Newark), Gerald W. Owens (At large; South Orange, filling the vacant seat after the resignation of Donald Payne, Jr.) Rolando Bobadilla (District 1 - Newark's North and East Wards, parts of Central and West Wards; Newark), D. Bilal Beasley (District 2 - Irvington, Maplewood and Newark's South Ward and parts of West Ward; Irvington), Carol Y. Clark (District 3 - East Orange, Newark's West and Central Wards, Orange and South Orange; East Orange) and Leonard M. Luciano (District 4 - Caldwell, Cedar Grove, Essex Fells, Fairfield, Livingston, Millburn, North Caldwell, Roseland, Verona, West Caldwell and West Orange; West Caldwell), and Brendan W. Gill (District 5 - Belleville, Bloomfield, Glen Ridge, Montclair and Nutley; Montclair). Constitutional elected countywide are County Clerk Christopher J. Durkin (West Caldwell, 2015), Sheriff Armando B. Fontoura (2015) and Surrogate Theodore N. Stephens, II (2016).
Main article: West Orange Public Schools
The West Orange Public Schools serves students in pre-Kindergarten through twelfth grade. As of the 2011-12 school year, the district's 11 schools had an enrollment of 6,792 students and 573.6 classroom teachers (on an FTE basis), for a student–teacher ratio of 11.84:1. Schools in the district (with 2011-12 enrollment data from the National Center for Education Statistics) seven elementary schools — Gregory Elementary School (590 students; in grades K-5), Hazel Avenue Elementary School (368; K-5), Kelly Elementary School (424; PreK-5), Mount Pleasant Elementary School (416; K-5), Redwood Elementary School (576; K-5), St. Cloud Elementary School (386; K-5) and Washington Elementary School (403; K-5) — three middle schools — Thomas A. Edison Central Six School (6; 475), Liberty Middle School (7&8; 551) and Roosevelt Middle School (7&8; 464) — and West Orange High School (2,141) for grades 9-12.
Roads and highways
As of May 2010[update], the township had a total of 114.54 miles (184.33 km) of roadways, of which 89.63 miles (144.25 km) were maintained by the municipality, 19.45 miles (31.30 km) by Essex County and 5.46 miles (8.79 km) by the New Jersey Department of Transportation.
New Jersey Transit offers bus service in the township to Newark on the 21, 29, 71, 73 and 79 routes, with local service on the 97 route. In September 2012, as part of budget cuts, NJ Transit suspended service to Newark on the 75 line.
DeCamp Bus Lines offers scheduled service between the township and the Port Authority Bus Terminal in Midtown Manhattan on the 66 route. Coach USA / Community Coach serves the Port Authority Bus Terminal on route 77.
Mass media and telecommunications
For years West Orange has been a hotbed for the mass-media and telecommunications industries. Edison's Black Maria, the first movie studio ever, was located here. Several broadcast antennas are located in the town. From the mid-1970s until the early 1990s Channel 68 TV maintained their offices, studios and transmitter at 416 Eagle Rock Avenue. After Channel 68 moved to West Market Street in Newark, this site was occupied by WNBC-TV and WPXN-TV as a backup transmitter facility. The main building which housed Channel 68 was since been demolished and the transmitter tower now stands alone. WFME-FM has studios and transmitter and executive offices on Mount Pleasant Avenue. The space is shared with its sister station WNYJ-TV. The office is located next to a Verizon Communications Fiber optics and satellite transmission facility; there is also a Fiber Optic and satellite transmission facility on Eagle Rock Avenue next to the old Channel 68 building. Former Upsala College radio station WFMU's transmitter is on Marcella Avenue just down the street from WFME-FM. Sprint Nextel and Verizon Wireless all have cell towers located throughout the township to provide clear coverage and Verizon maintains a huge Central Office on Prospect Avenue.
People who were born in, residents of, or otherwise closely associated with West Orange include:
- Nat Adderley, Jr. (born 1955), music arranger who spent much of his career with Luther Vandross.
- Mike Austin (born 1943), swimmer who represented the United States at the 1964 Summer Olympics in Tokyo and won a gold medal in the 4 × 100 m freestyle relay.
- Ronald Bell (born 1951), musician with Kool & the Gang.
- Enea Bossi, Sr. (1888-1963), aviation pioneer who created the first stainless steel aircraft and one of the first human-powered planes.
- Martin Brodeur (born 1972), ice hockey goaltender in the NHL with the New Jersey Devils.
- Anna Easter Brown (1879-1957), part of the original nine group of founders in the Alpha Kappa Alpha sorority.
- Brendan Byrne (born 1924), Governor of New Jersey from 1974 to 1982.
- Jean Byrne (1926-2015), educator who served as the First Lady of New Jersey from 1974 to 1982 during the tenure of her former husband, term-term Governor Brendan Byrne.
- David Cassidy (born 1950), teen idol, singer and actor who appeared on the 1970s TV series The Partridge Family.
- Joan Caulfield (1922-1991), movie, theatre, television actress of the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s who was born in East Orange, moved to West Orange during childhood and lived here until her high school graduation from a private school in Orange.
- James Ormsbee Chapin (1887-1975), artist.
- Bill Charlap (born 1966), jazz pianist
- Richard Codey (born 1946), State Senator who served as Acting Governor of New Jersey in 2002 and as Governor from 2004 until 2006. (Now resides in neighboring Roseland)
- Jemima Condict (1754-1779), American Revolutionary War era diarist.
- Brandon Costner (born 1987), forward for the NC State Wolfpack basketball team.
- Anthony Criss (born 1970), member of the rap group Naughty by Nature.
- Charles Cullen (born 1960), former nurse and serial killer who confessed to killing 40 people.
- Alexander Jackson Davis (1803-1892), architect who helped create Llewellyn Park.
- John J. Degnan (born 1944), Attorney General of New Jersey from 1978 until 1981 who was chosen as Chairman of the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey.
- DJ Whoo Kid (born 1972), official DJ of G-Unit.
- Frank J. Dodd (1938-2010), politician who served as President of the New Jersey Senate from 1974 to 1975.
- Ginny Duenkel (born 1947), winner of a Gold and Bronze medal in two swimming events at the 1964 Summer Olympics in Tokyo, Japan. Ginny Duenkel Municipal Pool is named in her honor.
- Charles Edison (1890-1969), United States Secretary of the Navy 1940, Governor of New Jersey 1941 to 1944 and son of Thomas Edison.
- Theodore Miller Edison (1898-1992), only child of his inventor father who graduated from college; went on to become an inventor with over 80 patents.
- Thomas Alva Edison (1847-1931), inventor of the phonograph, the incandescent electric lightbulb, and the first practical motion picture camera whose home was Glenmont Mansion. Edison's Black Maria, the first movie studio, was located in West Orange.
- Eugenio Fernandi (1922–1991), tenor with the Metropolitan Opera who rose to prominence in the late 1950s and 1960s, receiving 22 curtain calls for his performance in Lucia di Lammermoor.
- Leo Fitzpatrick (born 1978), actor.
- Alisa Flatow (1975-1995), victim of the Egged bus 36 bombing.
- Alan Flusser (born 1945), men's clothing designer.
- Rich Galen (born 1946), columnist, political strategist and former press-secretary to Vice President Dan Quayle and Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich.
- GDP, hip hop recording artist.
- Chris Gethard (born 1980), author of Weird New York and an associate editor of the Weird NJ publications. He is also a performer at the Upright Citizens Brigade Theater in NYC.
- John J. Giblin (1909-1975), labor leader and Democratic Party politician who served one term in the New Jersey Senate.
- Whoopi Goldberg (born 1955), comedian, actress, talk show host.
- Raymond E. Goldstein, (born 1961), Professor of Complex Physical Systems at the University of Cambridge.
- Allan Gorman (born 1947), visual art professional best known for his photorealistic paintings of industrial objects.
- Llewellyn F. Haskell (1842-1929), United States Army officer and a Union general during the American Civil War.
- Eldridge Hawkins, Jr. (born 1979), former Mayor of Orange, New Jersey.
- Maya Hayes (born 1992), soccer player who has played for Sky Blue FC of the National Women's Soccer League.
- Will Hill (born 1990), safety for the Baltimore Ravens.
- Kyrie Irving (born 1992), professional basketball player for the Cleveland Cavaliers of the National Basketball Association.
- Mark Kelly (born 1964), NASA astronaut and husband of Congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords.
- Scott Kelly (born 1964), NASA astronaut.
- Paul J. Kern (born 1945), commanding general of the United States Army Materiel Command from 2001-2004.
- Carole King (born 1942) and Gerry Goffin (born 1939), husband & wife songwriting team who resided off Pleasant Valley Way in the mid-1960s along with other songwriters, a location that gave rise to the song Pleasant Valley Sunday, recorded by the Monkees in 1966.
- Garth Kravits, actor, singer, musician and composer.
- Bettye LaVette (born 1946), soul singer who released her first record at age 16 and found success with I've Got My Own Hell to Raise at age 59 in 2005.
- Georgia Mason (1910-2007), botanist and author.
- Nick Massi (1927-2000), bass singer and bass guitarist for the Four Seasons.
- George B. McClellan (1826-1885), Major General and briefly general-in-chief of the Union Army during the Civil War who ran as a Democrat against Lincoln in the presidential election of 1864 and went on to become Governor of New Jersey (1878–1881).
- John F. McKeon (born 1958), member of the New Jersey General Assembly representing the 27th Legislative District who served as Mayor of West Orange from 1998 to 2010.
- Joseph Minish (1916-2007), represented New Jersey's 11th congressional district in the United States House of Representatives.
- Gordon Allen Newkirk, Jr. (1928-1985), astrophysicist who studied the solar corona.
- Charles W. Nichols, businessman who constructed the Pleasantdale Chateau.
- Okieriete Onaodowan (born 1987), actor who originated the roles of Hercules Mulligan and James Madison in the 2015 Broadway musical Hamilton.
- Michael Oren (born 1955), Israeli ambassador to the United States.
- Fred Ott (1860-1936), an employee of Thomas Edison's in the 1890s who "starred" in two of the earliest surviving motion pictures – Edison Kinetoscopic Record of a Sneeze (a.k.a. Fred Ott's Sneeze) and Fred Ott Holding a Bird – both filmed in 1894.
- Robert Pearlman (born 1976), founder and editor of collectSPACE.
- Michael Pitt (born 1981), actor who was in Murder by Numbers, Hedwig and the Angry Inch, and Last Days, as well as HBO's Boardwalk Empire.
- Vinnie Politan (born 1965), co-anchor of In Session on the cable network truTV.
- Paul C. Reilly (1890-1984), architect who designed many buildings for Catholic clients and for several Manhattan theatres.
- Phil Rizzuto (1917-2007), nicknamed "The Scooter," played shortstop for the New York Yankees from 1941-1956.
- Vin Rock (born 1970), rapper for group Naughty by Nature.
- Peter W. Rodino (1909-2005), United States Congressman from 1949 to 1989.
- Hilary Rosen (born 1958), former Chairman and CEO of the Recording Industry Association of America and CNN political analyst.
- Sherry Ross, sportscaster and journalist.
- Walter H. Seward (1896-2008), super-centenarian, lived to 111 years.
- Edward S. Shapiro (born 1938), historian of American history and American Jewish history who is a retired professor from Seton Hall University.
- Marc B. Shapiro (born 1966), professor and author of various books and articles on Jewish history, philosophy, and theology.
- Alfredo Silipigni (1932-2006), conductor.
- Amos Alonzo Stagg (1862-1965), known as "The Grand Old Man" of college football. During the founding year of the College Football Hall of Fame, he was inducted as both a player and a coach. He was among the first group of inductees into the Basketball Hall of Fame in 1959. He is also credited with the invention of the batting cage in baseball and the tackling dummy in football. West Orange's Stagg Field playground is named in his honor. Ranked #4 on the Sports Illustrated list of The 50 Greatest New Jersey Sports Figures.
- Andy Stern (born 1950), former president of the Service Employees International Union.
- Edwin Stern (born 1941), lawyer and judge who served as acting justice on the New Jersey Supreme Court.
- Mike Trainor (born 1981), comedian.
- Alberto Vilar (born 1940), former investment manager.
- Evelyn Ward (born 1923), actress, mother of David Cassidy.
- Scott Wolf (born 1968), actor who is best known as Bailey Salinger on the TV series Party of Five.
- Ian Ziering (born 1964), actor who is best known for the role of Steve Sanders on the TV series Beverly Hills, 90210.
- Abner Zwillman (1899-1959), mobster found hanging dead at his home at 50 Beverly Road.
- Kuperinsky, Amy. "'The Jewel of the Meadowlands'?: N.J.'s best, worst and weirdest town slogans", NJ Advance Media for NJ.com, January 22, 2015. Accessed July 12, 2016. "Edison's town seal is marked with 'Let There Be Light,' and its welcome signs say 'Birthplace of Recorded Sound', thanks to Thomas A. Edison's tinkering in Menlo Park, the same reason why a newer slogan for Essex County's West Orange — Edison later lived there — is 'Where Invention Lives'."
- 2010 Census Gazetteer Files: New Jersey County Subdivisions, United States Census Bureau. Accessed May 21, 2015.
- US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990, United States Census Bureau. Accessed September 4, 2014.
- Mayor's Office, Township of West Orange. Accessed July 3, 2015.
- 2016 New Jersey Mayors Directory, New Jersey Department of Community Affairs. Accessed June 14, 2016. As of date accessed, Parisi was listed as mayor with an incorrect term-end date of June 30, 2018, which does not reflect the shift of elections from May to November.
- Administration Administration, Township of West Orange. Accessed July 4, 2016.
- Township Clerk, Township of West Orange. Accessed July 4, 2016.
- 2012 New Jersey Legislative District Data Book, Rutgers University Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, March 2013, p. 125.
- U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Township of West Orange, Geographic Names Information System. Accessed March 14, 2013.
- DP-1 - Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data for West Orange township, Essex County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed May 23, 2012.
- Municipalities Grouped by 2011-2020 Legislative Districts, New Jersey Department of State, p. 13. Accessed January 6, 2013.
- Table DP-1. Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2010 for West Orange township, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development. Accessed May 23, 2012.
- Census 2010: Essex County, Asbury Park Press. Accessed June 15, 2011.
- PEPANNRES - Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015 - 2015 Population Estimates for New Jersey municipalities, United States Census Bureau. Accessed May 22, 2016.
- GCT-PH1 Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - State -- County Subdivision from the 2010 Census Summary File 1 for New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed November 6, 2012.
- Look Up a ZIP Code for West Orange, NJ, United States Postal Service. Accessed May 23, 2012.
- Zip Codes, State of New Jersey. Accessed October 3, 2013.
- Area Code Lookup - NPA NXX for West Orange, NJ, Area-Codes.com. Accessed October 3, 2013.
- American FactFinder, United States Census Bureau. Accessed September 4, 2014.
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- Elliott, Walter. "Essex County Olympians: Then and Now", LocalTalkNews.com, August 23, 2012. Accessed October 25, 2015. "WEST ORANGE: Mike Austin (b. 1943) Swimming, 1 GLD, 1964 SO"
- McFaul, Lauren. "Kool's gang freshens rock with funk", The Spokesman-Review, June 3, 1985. Accessed October 25, 2015. "Ronald Bell has a studio in his West Orange, N.J., home and from there has worked on production for Kool & the Gang's last six albums."
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- Founders: The Original Group, Alpha Kappa Alpha. Accessed October 30, 2014. "Anna Easter Brown• Born: Easter Sunday, April 13, 1879, West Orange, NJ"
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- Shea, Kevin. "Former N.J. First Lady Jean Byrne dies at 88", NJ.com, August 11, 2015. Accessed October 25, 2015. "Born in Newark, Byrne spent her childhood in West Orange."
- Boyd, Joseph G. "David Cassidy values happiness more than success", The Milwaukee Sentinel, August 19, 1981. Accessed January 17, 2011.
- Allis, Tim. "The Boys Are Back", People (magazine), November 1, 1993. Accessed May 4, 2011. "David, by contrast, spent his earliest years as an only child in a row house in West Orange, N.J., with his mother, stage actress Evelyn Ward, who was divorced from Jack when David was 3."
- Fowler, Glenn. "Joan Caulfield, A Film Actress, Is Dead at 69", The New York Times, June 20, 1991. Accessed May 23, 2012. "Miss Caulfield, who was a native of West Orange, N.J., attended Columbia University and was a fashion model and a cover girl before she landed ingenue roles on Broadway in the early 1940's."
- James Ormsbee Chapin (1887 - 1975), AskArt. Accessed October 30, 2014. "James Chapin was born in West Orange, New York."
- Beckerman, Jim. "Jazzman Bill Charlap takes over as Director of Jazz Studies at William Paterson", The Record (Bergen County), August 26, 2015. Accessed October 19, 2015. "'When you're playing solo piano, you're something like an orchestra,' says Charlap (pronounced 'Shar-lap'), a West Orange resident."
- Fairleigh Dickinson University Commencement Honoree: Richard J. Codey, Fairleigh Dickinson University. Accessed December 31, 2006.
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- Ross, Barbara. "'NAUGHTY' GUYS ARE ARRESTED ON GUN CHARGES", Daily News (New York), June 14, 1997. Accessed January 29, 2011. "Two members of the Grammy-winning rap group Naughty by Nature were charged yesterday with carrying loaded and unlicensed 9-mm. pistols. Anthony (Treach) Criss, 26, and Vincent (Vinnie) Brown, 26, both of West Orange, N.J., were arraigned on felony charges of criminal possession of a weapon."
- Hepp, Mark. "A killer's final insult", The Star-Ledger, March 3, 2006. Accessed October 30, 2014. "'Yes, I can,' said Cullen, a slightly built, 46-year-old West Orange native who did not look at the judge or the 21 people who addressed him as he sat at the defense table in Somerset County's Historic Courthouse."
- Jailer, Mildred. "Preserving the Victorian Look", The New York Times, March 19, 1978. Accessed October 25, 2015. "Together with the Bloomfield Historical Society, the North Jersey group has purchased a tombstone for the previously unmarked grave of Alexander Jackson Davis, the noted Victorian who lived in Llewellyn Park in West Orange."
- John J. Degnan, New Jersey Attorney General. Accessed October 30, 2014. "John J. Degnan was born on October 6, 1944 in West Orange, New Jersey."
- Jordan, Chris. "Hip-hop phenomenon 'mixtapes' go mainstream", The Tennessean, March 8, 2005. Accessed November 5, 2007. "Whoo Kid, who hails from West Orange, N.J., has certainly diversified. The Queens-raised kid of Haitian parents starting spinning at 16; now, he performs around the world with 50 Cent and on his own."
- Staff. "THE REGION; Frank Dodd in Race", The New York Times, February 4, 1981. Accessed October 30, 2014. "Senator Frank J. Dodd, Democrat of West Orange, became the fourth person to announce formally that he is seeking the Democratic nomination for governor."
- "Webster and Miss Duenkel Gain Diving and Swimming Gold Medals for U.S.; JERSEY GIRL SETS 400-METER MARK She Captures Free-Style in 4:43.3 -- Webster Rallies From 6th in High Diving", The New York Times, October 18, 1964. Accessed November 5, 2007. "Bob Webster, a 25-year-old diving perfectionist from Santa Ana, Calif., and Ginny Duenkel, a free-style swimmer from West Orange, N.J., won gold medals today for the United States."
- New Jersey Governor Charles Edison, National Governors Association. Accessed November 5, 2007. "Charles Edison, the fifty-eighth governor of New Jersey, was born in West Orange, New Jersey on August 3, 1890."
- Pace, Eric. "Theodore M. Edison; An Illustrious Father Guided Inventor, 94", The New York Times, November 26, 1992. Accessed May 23, 2012. "Theodore M. Edison, an inventor, environmentalist and philanthropist who was the last surviving child of the inventor Thomas Alva Edison, died on Tuesday at his home in West Orange. He was 94 years old."
- Thomas Edison National Historical Park, govnotes.com. Accessed November 5, 2007. "Half of Edison's astonishing 1,093 patents were earned during the 44 years he lived in West Orange."
- "Eugenio Fernandi, 66, famed opera tenor", Echoes-Sentinel, August 15, 1991. Accessed October 25, 2015. "Born in Pisa, Italy, Mr. Fernandi lived in West Orange before moving to Millington four years ago."
- Knowles, Patrick. "Leo Fitzpatrick's Composed Cool", SOMA magazine, July 2006. Accessed October 25, 2015. "In fact, it would be safe to say that if he had not started cutting school to hang out in the skate spots of New York the 28-year-old might still be living in his small working-class hometown of West Orange, New Jersey."
- Henry, Marilyn. "Rabin makes condolence call on Flatow family", The Jerusalem Post, May 10, 1995. Accessed January 17, 2011.
- Johnson, Bonnie. "Boom or Bust, Wall Street Finds Designer Alan Flusser's Stock Is Secure", People (magazine), January 18, 1988. Accessed October 30, 2014. "As a teenager in West Orange, N.J., Flusser demonstrated his gift of garb early on."
- Galen, Rich. "Where Were You When...", Townhall.com. Accessed October 30, 2014. "Here's my story. I was a senior at West Orange Mountain High School in West Orange, New Jersey."
- Shabe, John. "GDP's new video is all over Essex County", NJ Advance Media, October 28, 2009. Accessed October 25, 2015. "The NJUnderground tipped me to this new video from West Orange's GDP. He's in Gainesville, Fla. tonight about two weeks into his tour, but this video, 'Orange Water', really hit home."
- Rose, Lisa. "New Jersey native Chris Gethard to star in 'Big Lake' on Comedy Central", The Star-Ledger, August 16, 2010. Accessed January 17, 2011.
- via Associated Press. "John J. Giblin", The New York Times, December 21, 1975. Accessed February 18, 2016.
- Bondy, Halley. "Whoopi Goldberg moving to West Orange", The Star-Ledger, October 5, 2009. Accessed January 17, 2011.
- Raymond E. Goldstein, Curriculum Vitae, University of Cambridge. Accessed May 28, 2016.
- Biography, Allan Gorman. Accessed October 21, 2015. "Allan Gorman currently maintains a studio practice in Kearny, NJ, and resides in West Orange, NJ."
- Acts of the General Assembly of the State of New-Jersey, p. 910. I. Collins, 1873. Accessed May 27, 2016. "An Act_to change the name of Thomas Frost Haskell: BE IT ENACTED by the Senate and General Assembly the State of New Jersey, That the name of Thomas Frost Haskell, of the township of West Orange, in the county of Essex, be and the same is hereby changed to Llewellyn Frost Haskell... Approved January 29, 1873."
- Lee, Eunice. "Hopping towns: former Orange mayor may run for W. Orange mayor in '14, says he's lifelong resident", The Star-Ledger, December 3, 2013. Accessed October 30, 2014. "Hawkins, 34, says he's a lifelong West Orange resident who lived in Orange for roughly seven years, including his four years as mayor."
- Giase, Frank. "Sky Blue FC selects Maya Hayes with their first round pick in NWSL Draft", The Star-Ledger, January 17, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2014. "Hayes, from West Orange, finished her Penn State career with 71 goals and 21 assists in 89 games (80 starts) and had 17 game-winning goals."
- McManus, Jane. "Will Hill suspended 6 games", ESPN New York, May 30, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2014. "The Giants signed Hill, a native of West Orange, New Jersey, in 2012 as a free agent."
- Berman, Zach. "NBA Draft 2011: Kyrie Irving taken as No. 1 pick by Cleveland Cavaliers", The Star-Ledger, June 23, 2011. Accessed August 6, 2011. "Kyrie Irving, a St. Patrick alum and West Orange native, became the No. 1 pick in this year's NBA Draft when the Cleveland Cavaliers made him their franchise player. "
- via Associated Press. "Space flight by Giffords's husband in doubt", CBC News, January 10, 2011. Accessed January 17, 2011.
- "Major Army Command Says Farewell to Four-Star Commander", United States Army Materiel Command press release. Accessed November 19, 2007. "Kern was raised in West Orange, NJ and graduated from West Orange High School."
- La Gorce, Tammy. "New Jersey's Magic Moments", The New York Times, October 30, 2005. Accessed April 16, 2015. "Take Goffin and King's Pleasant Valley Sunday. Nudged by Mr. Kirshner, who lived in South Orange in the early 1960's, Mr. Emerson began: 'Jerry Goffin and Carole King, at that time a married couple, moved from Brooklyn to West Orange. They lived kind of uncomfortably in this suburban setting, with swimming pools in the backyard and barbecues. They were rock 'n' roll songwriters, after all. They also lived very near Pleasant Valley Way.'"
- Hyman, Vicki. "Jersey actor Garth Kravits sings the praises of appearing on Broadway and closer to home", NJ Advance Media for NJ.com, January 15, 2010. Accessed July 28, 2015. "Kravits, who now lives in West Orange with his wife, Sarah, and three children, came to the wedding band with his musical thea-tah voice, but quickly adapted to rock and R&B stylings — that, too, he says helped make him a more versatile performer."
- La Gorce, Tammy. "MUSIC; No Longer the Best Soul Singer Nobody Knows", The New York Times, February 19, 2006. Accessed April 16, 2008. "After trying to find joy everywhere from Memphis to New York City, Ms. LaVette, a ragged-voiced veteran soul singer, fades out with the pronouncement: So I went to West Orange."
- Love, Rhoda M. "Georgia Mason: Eleven Summers Alone in the Wallowas", Native Plant Society of Oregon. Accessed October 30, 2014. "Mason, whose birth name was Georgia Mavropoulos, was born in West Orange, New Jersey, on March 16, 1910, the middle of three daughters of Greek immigrants Peter and Bessie Mavropoulos."
- Staff. "Nick Massi, Original Member of Four Seasons Pop Group", Los Angeles Times, December 30, 2000. Accessed October 30, 2014. "Nick Massi, 73, an original member of the vocal group the Four Seasons who handled bass vocals and vocal arrangements throughout the band's glory days. The longtime resident of West Orange, N.J., performed with several bands before joining Frankie Valli in a group called the Four Lovers."
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- via Associated Press. "Joseph G. Minish, Ex-New Jersey Congressman, Dies at 91", The New York Times, November 26, 2007. Accessed November 26, 2007. "Mr. Minish, a longtime West Orange resident, died at St. Barnabas Medical Center in Livingston, N.J., said Michael Brown of the Quinn-Hopping Funeral Home in Livingston."
- DeVorkin, David. "Oral Histories: Gordon Newkirk", American Institute of Physics, June 1, 1983. Accessed November 4, 2015. "DeVorkin: Dr. Newkirk, I know you were born in Orange, New Jersey on the 12th of June, 1928. But I know nothing else about your family, your early home life. Could you give me a review? Newkirk: Until I went to college, I lived in West Orange."
- Charles W. Nichols and Adelaide B. Nichols v. Commissioner., Leagle. Accessed October 30, 2014. "During the years 1955 and 1956, petitioner's home was in West Orange, New Jersey. It had about 16 rooms, a recreation room, and a swimming pool."
- Herzog, Laura. "Broadway baby: 'Hamilton' star returns to N.J. alma mater", NJ Advance Media for NJ.com, May 2, 2016. Accessed June 13, 2016. "Onaodowan grew up in West Orange with his parents and five sisters, and attended Gregory Elementary School, Roosevelt Middle School, and West Orange High School, graduating in 2005, school officials said."
- Bumiller, Elisabeth. "Israeli Diplomat Is Man in Middle", The New York Times, September 17, 2012. Accessed November 19, 2012. "Raised in a conservative Jewish family in West Orange, N.J., Mr. Oren worked on a kibbutz at 15, was educated at Princeton and Columbia, immigrated to Israel and spent multiple tours in the Israeli Army, including a job as spokesman during an infamous low point for the military, its poor performance in the 2006 war in Lebanon."
- Staff. "FREDERICK P. OTT, EDISON AIDE, DIES; Became Associated With the Inventor in 1874, Working in Small Newark Plant, ASSISTED IN FILM WORK Collaborated in Development of Motion Pictures, Electric Light and Phonograph", The New York Times, October 25, 1936. Accessed January 29, 2011.
- Staff. "Q&A Spotlight: Robert Zane Pearlman", Explorer: Newsletter of the American Astronautical Society History Committee, Issue 10, March 2010, p. 16. Accessed February 24, 2011. "Hometown: West Orange, New Jersey"
- via Associated Press. "HBO's 'Boardwalk Empire:' A Dramatic Getaway - New Series Brings Prohibition-Era Atlantic City, N.J., to Life with Historical Accuracy, Lavish Detail", CBS News, September 19, 2010. Accessed October 25, 2015. "Inevitably noted for his baby face, arresting blue eyes and pouty, pillowy lips, the 29-year-old West Orange, N.J., native seized on acting because, 'I liked the attention. And it kind of evolved into a craft, a skill, which was a positive thing in my life. Then I came to New York. I never really left.'"
- Staff. "Paul C. Reilly, 94, Architect and a Catholic Lay Leader", The New York Times, September 13, 1984. Accessed October 30, 2014. "Mr. Reilly, a native of New York City who later moved to West Orange, N. J., graduated from Columbia University and, early in his career, was chief designer for the former New York City architectural firm of Thomas W. Lamb."
- Bodley, Hal. "N.Y. Yankees Hall of Famer Phil Rizzuto dies at 89", USA Today, August 15, 2007. Accessed July 3, 2008. "Rizzuto, who would have been 90 in September, died Tuesday from pneumonia after living his last several years in declining health at a West Orange, N.J., nursing home."
- Kaufman, Michael T. "Peter W. Rodino Dies at 96; Led House Inquiry on Nixon", The New York Times, May 8, 2005. Accessed November 25, 2007. "Peter W. Rodino Jr., an obscure congressman from the streets of Newark who impressed the nation by the dignity, fairness and firmness he showed as chairman of the impeachment hearings that induced Richard M. Nixon to resign as president, died yesterday at his home in West Orange, N.J.. He was 95."
- Holson, Laura M. "THE MEDIA BUSINESS; Recording Industry Lobbyist Plans to Leave Her Position", The New York Times, January 23, 2003. Accessed November 6, 2012. "Even as a young woman growing up in West Orange, N.J., Ms. Rosen, 44, the daughter of the town's first city councilwoman, showed a taste for power-brokering."
- Staff. "N.J. Statehouse to honor Sherry Ross", New Jersey Devils, March 22, 2010. Accessed April 11, 2011. "The resident of West Orange, NJ has covered the Stanley Cup Finals on 15 occasions, while attending the Kentucky Derby six times."
- Mueller, Mark. "Rutgers' oldest alumnus Walter Seward dies at 111", The Star-Ledger, September 15, 2008. Accessed January 29, 2011. "Long celebrated as the oldest Rutgers alumnus, the West Orange resident also was believed to be the most long-lived New Jerseyan and the third-oldest man in the United States, according to the Gerontology Research Group, a California organization that tracks the world's most venerable people."
- Wilson, Judy. "Crown Heights riot — fact, fiction, and plenty of blame", New Jersey Jewish News, June 8, 2006. Accessed February 18, 2016. "Edward S. Shapiro is too skilled a historian to believe that there is one truth, but he is committed to exploring the varying narratives, examining the language of each, and skewering the biases in Crown Heights: Blacks, Jews, and the 1991 Brooklyn Riot (University Press of New England), the first and only book on the first and only anti-Jewish riot in American history.... Although he has lived in West Orange since 1969, where he and his wife, Daryl, belong to Congregation Ohr Torah and Congregation Ahawas Achim B'nai Jacob and David, cities fascinate him."
- Ginsberg, Johanna. "Local scholar organizes conference on history of Modern Orthodoxy", New Jersey Jewish News, June 1, 2006. Accessed February 18, 2016. "A West Orange scholar is the co-organizer of the first-ever conference in America on the history of Modern Orthodoxy, to be held June 13–15 in Scranton, Pa. Marc B. Shapiro, who holds the Harry and Jeanette Weinberg Chair in Jewish Studies at the University of Scranton, said the conference will take a historical view of the movement in order to explore its meaning for today."
- Wakin, Daniel J. "Alfredo Silipigni, 74, Who Founded an Opera Company, Dies", The New York Times, March 29, 2006. Accessed June 2, 2008. "Alfredo Silipigni, a conductor and specialist in lesser-known Italian operas who founded the New Jersey State Opera and ran it for four decades, died on Saturday in Livingston, N.J. He was 74 and lived in West Orange, N.J."
- The 50 Greatest New Jersey Sports Figures, Sports Illustrated, December 27, 1999.
- via Associated Press. "Andy Stern of the SEIU, longtime powerful labor boss, to retire", The Star-Ledger, April 13, 2010. Accessed January 29, 2011. "Andrew Stern, president of the Service Employees International Union and a West Orange native, answers questions during an interview at his office in Washington on Thursday, Feb. 9, 2006."
- Ackermann, Peggy. "A political fight provides N.J. Supreme Court with apolitical legal mind", The Star-Ledger, October 24, 2010. Accessed July 9, 2016. "Residence: Raised in South Orange; lived in West Orange; currently lives in Monroe, Middlesex County"
- About Mark, MarkTrainor.com. Accessed January 17, 2011.
- Lappin, Joan. 'Jury Finds Madoff Really Didn't Do It Alone", Forbes, March 27, 2014. Accessed October 25, 2015. "He was really Albert Vilar, not Alberto, from West Orange, New Jersey although he was born to Cuban parents."
- Barnes, Mike. "Actress Evelyn Ward Dies at 89", The Hollywood Reporter, January 11, 2013. Accessed May 28, 2016. "The glamorous, dark-haired Ward, a native of West Orange, N.J., began her career as a Roxyette at New York's famed Roxy Theatre in the early 1940s, then headed for Broadway."
- Midler, Caryn. "Scott Wolf Reveals His Secret Nickname", People (magazine), October 25, 2006. Accessed January 17, 2011.
- Edel, Raymond A. "Mini-Bio for Kids: Ian Ziering", The Record (Bergen County), December 20, 1992. Accessed September 29, 2007. "Ian, a native of West Orange, is a graduate of William Paterson College in Wayne."
- Staff. "JURY TO GET TAX CASE; Judge Holds Jersey Panel Must Pass on Zwillman Charges", The New York Times, February 28, 1956. Accessed May 23, 2012. "Federal Judge Reynier J. Wortendyke Jr. ruled today that income tax charges against Abner (Longie) Zwillman of 50 Beverly Road, West Orange, must be submitted to the jury."
- Sullivan, Joseph F. "Jersey Man in Abscam Case Is Experienced With Inquiries; Conspiracy Charges Dismissed Two Other Directors From Jersey Started as Tire Salesman Need for Advice Questioned Bid-Rigging Indictment Message Termed Death Threat", The New York Times, March 9, 1980. Accessed May 28, 2016. "Mr. Zwillman, who later was found hanged in his West Orange home, also testified about his relationship with Mr. Bozzo."