West Slavic languages
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Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language
Classification according to the traditional model:
- development of proto-Slavic tj, dj into palatalized ts, (d)z, as in modern Polish/Czech noc ("night"; compare Russian ночь);
- retention of the groups kv, gv as in Polish gwiazda ("star"; compare Russian звезда; but note also Russian цвет vs. Ukrainian квіт, "flower");
- retention of tl, dl, as in Polish/Czech radlo/rádlo ("ard"; compare Russian рало);
- palatized h (ich-Laut) developed into š, as in Polish musze (locative case of mucha, "fly");
- the groups pj, bj, mj, vj developed into (soft) consonant forms without the epenthesis of l, as in Polish kupię ("I shall buy"; compare Russian куплю);
- a tendency towards fixed stress (on the first or penultimate syllable);
- use of the endings -ego for the genitive and dative singular of the adjectival declension;
- use of the pronoun form tъnъ rather than tъ, leading to Polish/Czech ten ("this" (masc.); compare Russian тот);
- extension of the genitive form čьso to nominative and accusative in place of čь(to), leading to Polish/Czech co ("what", compare Russian что).
The West Slavic languages are all written using Latin script, in contrast to the Cyrillic-using East Slavic branch, and the South Slavic which uses both.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to West Slavic languages.|
- Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "West Slavic". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
- chapter 12
- Zenon Klemensiewicz, Historia języka polskiego, 7th edition, Wydawnictwo naukowe PWN, Warsaw 1999. ISBN 83-01-12760-0