Western Apache language
|Ndee biyáti' / Nnee biyáti'|
|Native to||United States|
|Region||Primarily south-east Arizona|
|14,000 (65% of pop.) (2007)|
The Western Apache language is a Southern Athabaskan language spoken among the 14,000 Western Apaches living primarily in east central Arizona. Goodwin (1938) claims that Western Apache can be divided into five dialect groupings:
- Northern Tonto
- Southern Tonto
- San Carlos
- White Mountain
Other researchers do not find any linguistic evidence for five groups but rather three main varieties with several subgroupings:
In 2011, the San Carlos Apache Tribe’s Language Preservation Program in Peridot, Arizona, began its outreach to the "14,000 tribal members residing within the districts of Bylas, Gilson Wash, Peridot and Seven Mile Wash," only 20% of whom still speak the language fluently.
- as reported by Willem de Reuse in Golla, Victor. 2007. North America. In Encyclopedia of the world's endangered languages, ed. Christopher Moseley (pp. 1–95). Routledge: London.
- Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Western Apache". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
- Sandra Rambler (2011-11-09). "Arizona Silver Belt Tribe focuses on preservation of Apache language". Arizona Silver Belt. Retrieved 2012-12-02.
- 'Testimony of Mary Kim Titla:Reclaiming our Image and Identity for the next Seven Generations,' Senate Committee on Indian Affairs,' November 29, 2012.
References and recommended reading
- American Indian Language Development Institute (has children's video of Cactus Boy story in Western Apache)
- Apache Tribe Language
- Western Apache-English Dictionary (White Mountain)
- Simplied Apache Pronunciation at the Wayback Machine (archived October 28, 2009)
- Apache Texts
- Issues in Language Textbook Development: The Case of Western Apache
- White Mountain Apache Language: Issues in Language Shift, Textbook Development, and Native Speaker-University Collaboration
- Western Apache vocabulary word list