|Western Canadian Inuktitut|
|Region||Northwest Territories, Nunavut|
|630 (2011 census; NWT only?)|
Official language in
|Regulated by||Inuvialuit Cultural Resource Centre and Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami|
Inuvialuktun, also known as Western Canadian Inuit, Western Canadian Inuktitut, and Western Canadian Inuktun, comprises several Inuit varieties spoken in the northern Northwest Territories and Nunavut by those Canadian Inuit who call themselves Inuvialuk (plural Inuvialuit).
Inuvialuktun is spoken by the Inuit of the Mackenzie River delta in the Northwest Territories, Banks Island, part of Victoria Island and the Arctic Ocean coast of the Northwest Territories – the lands of the Inuvialuit Settlement Region. It was traditionally subsumed under a broader Inuktitut, and there is no consensus which dialects belong to which language. Rather than a coherent language, Inuvialuktun is a politically motivated grouping of three quite distinct and separate varieties.
The Inuvialuk dialects Siglitun (Inuvialuktun proper) and Inuinnaqtun constitute two of the eleven official languages of the Northwest Territories. They are written in a Latin alphabet and have no tradition of Inuktitut syllabics. Inuinnaqtun is also official alongside Inuktitut in Nunavut.
Before the 20th century, the Inuvialuit Settlement Region was primarily inhabited by Siglit Inuit, who spoke the Siglitun, but in the second half of the 19th century, their numbers were dramatically reduced by the introduction of new diseases. Inuit from Alaska moved into traditionally Siglit areas in the 1910s and 20s, enticed in part by renewed demand for furs from the Hudson's Bay Company. These Inuit are called Uummarmiut – which means people of the green trees – in reference to their settlements near the tree line. Originally, there was an intense dislike between the Siglit and the Uummarmiut, but these differences have faded over the years, and the two communities are thoroughly intermixed these days.
The Inuvialuktun dialects are seriously endangered, as English has in recent years become the common language of the community. Surveys of Inuktitut usage in the NWT vary, but all agree that usage is not vigorous. According to the Inuvialuit Cultural Resource Centre, only some 10% of the roughly 4,000 Inuvialuit speak any form of Inuktitut, and only some 4% use it at home. Statistics Canada's 2001 Census report is only slightly better, reporting 765 self-identified Inuktitut speakers out of a self-reported Inuvialuit population of 3,905. Considering the large number of non-Inuit living in Inuvialuit areas and the lack of a single common dialect among the already reduced number of speakers, the future of the Inuit language in the NWT appears bleak.
From east to west, the dialects are:
- North Baffin, spoken on western Baffin Island. (Contrast South Baffin dialect.)
- Aivilik on the northern Hudson Bay shore of Kivalliq
- Kivalliq or Caribou on the southern Hudson Bay shore of Kivalliq
- Netsilik consists of 3 subdialects: Natsilik proper, Arviligjuaq, Utkuhiksalik.
- Inuinnaq consists of 4 subdialects: Kangiryuarmiutun, Coppermine, Bathurst, Cambridge. The Kangiryuarmiutun subdialect is spoken in the small community of Ulukhaktok. Essentially the same as Natsilingmiutut.
- Siglit: Until the 1980s, it was believed that the Siglitun dialect was extinct, but it is still spoken by people in Paulatuk, Sachs Harbour and Tuktoyaktuk.
The Inuvialuk dialects spoken in Nunavut (that is, Qikiqtaaluk uannangani, Aivilingmiutut, Kivallirmiutut, and eastern Natsilingmiutut) are often counted as Inuktitut, and the government of the NWT only recognizes the three dialects of (eastern) Natsilingmiutut, Inuinnaqtun, and Siglitun. In addition, Uummarmiutun, the dialect of the Uummarmiut which is essentially identical to the Inupiatun dialect spoken in Alaska and so considered an Iñupiaq language, has conventionally been grouped with Inuvialuktun because it's spoken in NWT. Uummarmiutun is found in the communities of Inuvik and Aklavik.
|Good Bye||Ilaannilu/Qakugulu||/ilaːnilu/ / /qakuɡulu/|
|You are welcome||Amiunniin||/amiunniːn/|
|How are you?||Qanuq itpin?||/qanuq itpin/|
|I am fine||Nakuyumi/Nakuyumi assi||/nakujumi assi/|
(an expression used when alarmed or fearful)
|See you later||Anaqanaallu||/anaqanaːllu/|
|See you, too||Ilaanniptauq||/ilaːnniptauq/|
|It is like this||Imaaniittuaq||/imaːniːttuaq/|
|Who is this?||Kina una?||/kina una/|
|Where?||Nani?/Naung?/Sumi?||/nani/ / /nauŋ/ / /sumi/|
|Where are you from?||Nakinngaaqpin?/Sumiutauvin?||/nakiŋŋaqpin/ / /sumiutauvin/}|
|How much does it cost?||Qanuq akitutigivaa?||/qanuq akitutiɡivaː/|
|How old is he/she?||Qanuq ukiuqtutigiva?||/qanuq ukiututiɡiva/|
|What do you call it?||Qanuq taivakpiung?||/qanuq taivakpiuŋ/|
|What is the time?||Sumukpaung?||/sumukpauŋ/|
|Why? Or how come?||Suuq?||/suːq/|
|Doesn't matter/It is ok||Sunngittuq||/suŋŋittuq/|
|What are you doing?||Suvin?||/suvin/|
|It can't be helped! Too bad.||Qanurviituq!||/qanuʁviːtuq/|
|in fact, actually||Nutim||[nutim]|
|Do it again!||Pipsaarung!||[pipsaːʁuŋ]|
|Go ahead and do it||Piung||[piuŋ]|
|It is cold out!||Qiqauniqtuaq||/qiqauniqtuaq/|
|Drum dancing||Qilaun/Qilausiyaqtuaq||/qilaun/ / /qilausijaqtuaq/|
|Eskimo ice cream||Akutuq||/akutaq/|
|Siglitun Inuvialuktun snow terms||English meaning|
|Apiqaun||first snow layer in autumn that stays|
|Apusiqqaun||first fall of snow|
|Aqiuyaq||small, fresh snowdrift|
|Mauyaa||deep, soft snow|
|Minguliruqtuaq||blowing wet snow|
|Piangnaq||good snow conditions for sledge travel|
English has in recent years become the common language of the Inuvialuit. Surveys of Inuktitut usage in the NWT vary, but all agree that usage is not vigorous. According to the Inuvialuit Cultural Resource Centre, only some 10% of the roughly 4,000 Inuvialuit speak any dialect of Inuvialuktun, and only some 4% use it at home. Statistics Canada's 2001 Census reports 765 self-identified Inuvialuktun speakers out of a self-reported Inuvialuit population of 3,905.
With only a few hundred speakers and already divided into diverse dialects, Inuvialuktun's future appears bleak.
- "Mother Tongue - Detailed Aboriginal Languages (79), Single and Multiple Language Responses (3), Age Groups (13A), Sex (3) and Area of Residence (6) for the Population Excluding Institutional Residents of Canada, Provinces and Territories, 2011 Census". Statistics Canada. 2011.
- Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Western Canadian Inuktitut". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
- Official Languages of the Northwest Territories (map)
- Consolidation of (S.Nu. 2008,c.10) (NIF) Official Languages Act and Consolidation of Inuit Language Protection Act
- "Aboriginal Languages Initiative Evaluation - Site Visit - Inuvialuit Cultural Resource Centre (ICRC), Inuvik N.W.T.". Department of Canadian Heritage. 15 April 2003. Archived from the original on 26 May 2008.
- Iñuvialuktun/Inuvialuktun/Inuinnaqtun / ᐃᓄᐃᓐᓇᖅᑐᓐ
- IRC Language
- "Inuvialuit Settlement Region Traditional Knowledge Report" (PDF). August 2006. Retrieved 2009-03-16.[dead link]
- Harper, Kenn. Current Status of Writing Systems for Inuktitut, Inuinnaqtun and Inuvialuktun. [Yellowknife, N.W.T.]: Northwest Territories, Culture and Communications, 1992.