Western Governors University
Motto in English
|"A New Kind of U."|
|Affiliation||Governors of the Member States|
|President||Scott D. Pulsipher|
|Provost||Marni Baker Stein, Ph.D.|
|Type of education||Competency-based|
|Colors||Navy and Gold|
|Mascot||Sage the Night Owl|
Western Governors University (WGU) is a private, nonprofit, online university based in Salt Lake City, Utah. The university was founded by 19 U.S. governors in 1997 after the idea was formulated at a 1995 meeting of the Western Governors Association. The university uses a competency-based learning model, with students working online. Scott D. Pulsipher is the current university president, having joined WGU on April 11, 2016; WGU's former president, Robert Mendenhall, is president emeritus and remains a member of WGU's Board of Trustees. WGU offers courses that are accredited by ACBSP, CAEP, CAHIIM, CCNE, NWCCU, and the NCATE.
- 1 History
- 2 Governance
- 3 Academics
- 3.1 Colleges
- 3.2 Rankings
- 3.3 Research
- 3.4 Methodology
- 3.5 Admissions
- 3.6 Graduation rate
- 3.7 Student demographics
- 3.8 University governance
- 3.9 Faculty
- 3.10 Academic integrity
- 3.11 Career placement
- 3.12 Mascot
- 4 Accreditation
- 5 2017 U.S. Department of Education audit
- 6 Tuition
- 7 Alumni Association
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
WGU was officially founded in 1997 in the United States by the governors of 19 U.S. states. It was first proposed by then-governor of Utah Mike Leavitt at the annual meeting of the Western Governors Association in June 1995. It was formally proposed the following November, and in June 1996 each signing state governor committed $100,000 toward the launch of the new competency-based university. While the seed money was provided from government sources, the school was to be established as a self-supporting private, nonprofit institution. In January 1997, 13 governors were on hand to sign the articles of incorporation formally beginning the new university.
In 2001, the United States Department of Education awarded $10 million to found the Teachers College, and the first programs were offered in Information Technology. In 2003, the university became the first school to be accredited in four different regions by the Interregional Accrediting Committee. In 2006, the fourth college, the College of Health Professions, was founded, and the school's Teachers College became the first online teacher-preparation program to receive NCATE accreditation. In 2010, the first state-established offshoot, WGU Indiana, was founded by Mitch Daniels, governor of Indiana, and the school reached 20,000 students for the first time. In 2011, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation provided $4.5 million for WGU Indiana and the creation of WGU Texas and WGU Washington.
On January 8, 2013, Bill Haslam, governor of Tennessee, announced the creation of WGU Tennessee. On January 28, 2013, Governor Jay Nixon of Missouri, in his annual State of the State address, announced the founding of WGU Missouri, creating the fifth state-based subsidiary of WGU. And on June 16, 2015, Governor Brian Sandoval of Nevada launched WGU Nevada, the sixth state-based WGU. The subsidiaries of WGU share the same academic model, faculty, services, accreditation, tuition, and curricula as WGU and were established to give official state endorsement and increased name recognition to WGU in those states, as well as qualifying students of those affiliates for state-based aid. WGU does not maintain physical campuses for these institutions.
The average age of a WGU student is 37.
Presidents of WGU
|1||E. Jeffrey Livingston||1997–1999|
|Affiliates & Year Founded|
|WGU North Carolina
Several states have affiliated online schools. Though state funding in some instances was used for the creation, each school is self-supporting through tuition and donations and overseen by the WGU board along with a local state chancellor and advisory board. The online campuses WGU offshoots offer the same programs and curricula as the national WGU student body receives, and accreditation is through WGU.
WGU Indiana is WGU's first satellite school, created on June 11, 2010, by executive order of then-governor Mitch Daniels. At its founding, Daniels stated "Today we mark the beginning of, in a real sense, Indiana's eighth state university". With this partnership, WGU Indiana is approved for Indiana state grants and scholarships offered through the State Student Assistance Commission of Indiana (SSACI). Students graduating from Ivy Tech, the state's community college system, can take advantage of an articulation agreement which allows them to transfer all credits, waive the application fee, and receive a 5% discount on tuition. The school is based in Indianapolis. Alison Bell was named the school's chancellor in March of 2019.
|Dr. Tonya Drake|
WGU Washington was created in April 2011, with the passing of House Bill 1822. It was signed into law by Governor Christine Gregoire. Former Washington State governor Mike Lowry was one of the founding governors of the university. A bill passed in April 2013 made students eligible for state grants like in-state schools. A transfer agreement allows students who graduate from state community colleges to receive a 5% discount. The founding Washington Chancellor was former Bellevue College President Jean Floten. Floten retired in 2017. Richard Cummins, Ph.D., who was President of Columbia Basin College, served as Chancellor for a year before retiring in April 2017. On April 26, 2018 Tonya Drake, Ph.D. became the Chancellor of WGU Washington.
|Dr. Steven Johnson|
Governor Rick Perry of Texas founded WGU Texas in August 2011 with Executive Order RP 75. Perry's predecessor George W. Bush was one of the founding governors of the university. The creation was supported by Rep. Dan Branch, Republican leader of the House Education Committee and Sen. Judith Zaffirini, Democratic Chair of the Senate Education Committee. It called for the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, Texas Education Agency and Texas Workforce Commission to help with its founding. The state school will have an Advisory Board appointed by the governor and be based in Austin. Dr. Steven Johnson is the current Texas Chancellor.
|Dr. Angie Besendorfer|
Governor Jay Nixon first announced the creation of WGU Missouri in his annual State of the State address in January 2013. He signed Executive Order 13-04 officially starting the new school. He stated "(Missouri) has great opportunities for higher education, and I'm proud to say we've just added one more. WGU Missouri." It was created using funds from Federal Community Development Block Grants and a grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. The school has an advisory board and its own local chancellor, Dr. Angela (Angie) Besendorfer. Students are eligible for state grants. It is based in Jefferson City.
|Kim Estep, Ph.D.|
Governor Bill Haslam announced the creation of WGU Tennessee in January 2013. The initiative was part of his "Drive for 55" plan to bring the college graduation rate of the state up to 55%. The school was started with a grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and $5 million in one-time state funds. Students are eligible for state financial aid. The school, based in Franklin, has a local chancellor, Kimberly K. Estep, Ph.D., and advisory board.
|Dr. Spencer Stewart|
Governor Brian Sandoval created WGU Nevada by proclamation and a memorandum of understanding with WGU, launching the sixth WGU online campus on June 16, 2015. It was created with a $2 million grant from United Student Aid Funds and required no startup funding from the state. At the time of the launch, WGU had more than 900 students and more than 850 alumni in Nevada. Dr. Spencer Stewart was named chancellor of WGU Nevada.
WGU North Carolina
North Carolina Lieutenant Governor Dan Forest announced WGU North Carolina along with WGU President Scott Pulsipher, launching the seventh WGU online campus on October 5, 2017. The establishment of WGU North Carolina was authorized by the North Carolina General Assembly and the Governor in October 2015. The state appropriated $2 million and the University raised $5 million from committed contributions by Strada Education Network, Golden LEAF Foundation, and Dell Loy Hansen, a private donor. Catherine Truitt will lead WGU North Carolina.
|Dr. Rebecca Watts|
The Ohio General Assembly authorized the state of Ohio to partner with WGU, and the authorization was signed by Governor John Kasich on June 30, 2017. WGU Ohio is the latest satellite school to open, created on June 21, 2018. The agreement to start the satellite school was agreed upon by Scott Pulsipher the Western Governors University President and the Chancellor of the University System of Ohio John Carey.
WGU Ohio's Chancellor is Dr. Rebecca Watts who previously served as an academic administrator with the University of Wyoming and an associate vice chancellor with the Ohio Department of Higher Education.
WGU is governed by its Board of Trustees and numerous state governors. The Board of Trustees provides corporate governance over the university. The Board of Trustees sets policy for the university, and serves as WGU's legal owner and final authority. Overall the Board of Trustees hold the institution's resources in trust and are responsible for making sure that the resources are being used efficiently and effectively.
Board of Trustees Composition
Governors of member states as of 2018
- Jim Geringer, Wyoming
- Bill Walker, Alaska
- Doug Ducey, Arizona
- Jerry Brown, California
- John Hickenlooper, Colorado
- Eddie Baza Calvo, Guam
- David Ige, Hawaii
- Butch Otter, Idaho
- Eric Holcomb,
- Steve Bullock, Montana
- Pete Ricketts, Nebraska
- Brian Sandoval
- Susana Martinez
- Doug Burgum
- Mary Fallin
- Kate Brown
- Dennis Daugaard
- Greg Abbott
- Gary Herbert
- Jay Inslee
- Matt Mead
|Bachelor's degrees||Master's degrees|
|College of Business||6 options||6 options|
|Teachers College||9 options||19 options|
|College of Information Technology||8 options||3 options|
|College of Health Professions||4 options||7 options|
All students at WGU are assigned a working mentor who are members of the faculty, and together they create a personalized Academic Action Plan (AAP) for the student's degree plan. The mentor advises and assists the student from enrollment through degree completion. The student's personalized AAP is based on the courses that are agreed upon between the student and their assigned mentor. The AAP keeps track of the student's progress of courses completed through six month terms. Students at WGU have some control over how much coursework they complete per term, but are required to complete a minimum amount of courses each term to maintain full-time status. Terms consist of six-month "rolling" semesters, which start for individual students on the first of every month. Classes are assigned individual terms lasting six weeks but students may proceed at their own pace. Many classes have "cohorts", or students working in the same general time frame, to facilitate online meetings and discussions, though students in any given cohort progress to the next course as soon as they are able to prove their knowledge. Course mentors provide both group and individual instruction as well as moderating online discussions.
WGU is composed of four colleges, each offering bachelor's and master's degree programs. As of October 2014, 55 bachelor's, master's, and post-baccalaureate degree programs, as well as teacher endorsement preparation programs, were offered among the four colleges.
WGU offers online bachelor's and master's degree programs through the following colleges:
|College||Year Founded||Current Dean||Total Students|
|College of Business||1999||Rashmi Prasad||33,572|
|College of Information Technology||1999||Elke Leeds, Ph.D.||13,272|
|Teachers College||2003||Dr. Deborah Eldridge||20,016|
|College of Health Professions||2006||Jan Jones-Schenk, DHSc, RN||24,576|
U.S. News & World Report
|Most Innovative Schools||10|
WGU is listed as "Unranked" in the category "Regional University - West" in US News and World Report's 2019 rankings of colleges and universities. In the category, "Most Innovative Schools", WGU was tied for 10th among western regional universities.
In 2015, the National Council on Teacher Quality (NCTQ) rated WGU's secondary teaching program scored highest in best value in teacher education and the National League for Nursing named WGU's College of Health Professions a Center of Excellence. In 2014, US News and World Report, in its academic rankings of teacher education programs in conjunction with NCTQ, ranked WGU #1 in the nation for secondary teacher education among both online and traditional universities. In 2013, WGU was named one of the 50 most innovative companies in Fast Company's Most Innovative Companies Issue, ranking #28. In recent years, WGU has been the nation's top producer, in terms of numbers of licensure graduates, of science and math teachers. WGU has also received the 21st Century Award for Best Practices in Distance Learning from the United States Distance Learning Association on multiple occasions.
|Formation||July 19, 2018|
In October 2018, Carnegie Mellon University and WGU's CALS teamed up to work on an artificial intelligence professional development project. The partnership was funded by a grant from the National Science Foundation.
WGU has competency-based programs for completing degree and certificate requirements. Competency-based programs allow students to demonstrate through assessments that they have acquired the set of competencies (levels of knowledge, skill, or ability) required for a particular degree or certificate. WGU is the first accredited school to use the competency-based approach. Former United States Department of Education Secretary Arne Duncan has stated, "While such programs [like WGU] are now the exception, I want them to be the norm."
All aspects of learning (with the exception of demonstration teaching for teacher licensure programs and clinical experiences in the pre-licensure program for nurses) are completed entirely online. The university states that "learning resources come in a variety of forms, including textbooks, web-based tutorials, simulations, [and] online classes." The university doesn't develop its own courses, but instead licenses course modules from commercial providers such as Pearson and McGraw-Hill.
The university assesses students using performance-based and objective assessments.
Performance-based assessments are normally completed by submitting written assignments. Submissions are checked for academic integrity using the online plagiarism checker Unicheck by comparing them to a database of other documents submitted to WGU and other universities and other resources available online. Students are graded on their level of competency by comparing the submitted work to a rubric which describes the standards that the submitted work must meet. A student can only pass a performance-based assessment by achieving a "competent" score on each rubric point.
Objective assessments usually consist of exams created by the university which contain multiple-choice, multiple-answer, true-false and/or matching questions. Exams are taken online and are monitored by an online proctoring service such as ProctorU or Examity using a university-provided webcam and screen sharing software. Some objective assessments require students to obtain a professional certification, many of which require students to attend a commercial testing center such as Pearson Vue to complete the relevant exam(s). University-created exams can only be passed by achieving a minimum overall grade that demonstrates competency in the course, while professional certification exams have their own grading methodology and passing score set by their governing body.
WGU has a multi-step admissions process. Admissions requirements differ depending on which academic program the student chooses to attend.
To qualify for the general graduate admission requirement the applicant must have earned a bachelors degree from an accredited institution and complete an interview with the enrollment office. Each of the four colleges also have their own specific admission requirements as well.
Many programs require either an Associate degree from an accredited college or a specific amount of related, verifiable work experience in the field in which a student wishes to study. The school does not require SAT or ACT scores for undergraduate admission. Undergraduate programs require the student to possess a high school diploma or GED and pass the school's Collegiate Readiness Assessment, and admission into all programs requires an interview with a WGU enrollment counselor to determine whether the competency-based approach is appropriate for the student.
|Enrollment by Year||Total Students|
The U.S. Department of Education lists the graduation rate at WGU as 26%. This rate tracks the graduation of first-time, full-time college students, which is less than 1% of all WGU students. The internally-tracked graduation rate for all students as reported by the university is 50%.
|Student Body||U.S. Census|
(of any race)
|Two or more races||2.6%||2.6%|
Western Governors University adult students include the military, civilian federal and state employees, working adults pursuing first or second degrees, and students taking additional coursework in preparation for graduate school. WGU students are 63% female, 37% male and an average age of 37.
As a private, nonprofit university, WGU is governed by a board of trustees that consists of state governors, educators, and business and industry leaders. In addition, the university's National Advisory Board consists of leaders from private corporations and foundations which support the university. Current members include Google, Microsoft, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and AT&T among many others. Each state-affiliate school also has a local Chancellor and Advisory board from within the state. Course competencies are defined with input from third-party councils made up of business, academic, and industry leaders, who guide the university in determining what a successful graduate in any given degree program must know to be a valuable employee.
The university has no physical campus and does not participate in intercollegiate sports.
WGU's disaggregated faculty consists of program mentors (faculty members who advise and guide a student throughout his or her entire degree program), course instructors (subject-matter experts who advise, tutor, and guide students through specific courses), program faculty (who oversee course content), and evaluation faculty (who evaluate/grade assignments). The university has more than 2,000 faculty members, most of whom work full-time (the exception being part-time assessment evaluators).
According to the U.S. Department of Education's College Navigator, WGU's student-to-faculty ratio is 41:1.
Some Western Governors University courses require students to take exams with an online proctor viewing the student as they complete the examination. Online proctoring is the monitoring or invigilation of assessments taken remotely. Online proctors verify test-taker identity and monitor to prevent cheating using a variety of methods, including live, record-and-review, and automated proctoring. Online proctoring services for WGU offers identity verification services and assessment monitoring.
The WGU Career and Professional Development Center offers student resources, individual support, and a job board. Its mission is to assist students and alumni who are seeking career development, career experiences, and employment opportunities. These services involve assisting students and alumni to get job interviews, career planning, assistance in applying to graduate and professional schools, and internship placements. The Career and Professional Development Center offers workshops, information sessions, virtual career fairs, and advisement on future career options. Staff also counsel students and alumni regarding resumes and portfolios, interviewing tactics, cover letters, job strategies, and other potential leads for finding employment in the corporate, academic and government sectors.
WGU is regionally accredited by the Northwest Commission on Colleges and Universities. WGU says it was the first and only university to date to be reviewed and awarded accreditation by four differing regional accreditors.
In May 2009, WGU's nursing education programs were accredited by the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education (CCNE). The initial accreditation, which had a five-year term, was awarded following a process that included a site visit as well as a review of WGU's nursing curriculum. In May 2014, CCNE extended WGU's accreditation through June 2024. "Western Governors University Earns CCNE Accreditation for Another 10 Years".
In 2011, WGU's B.S. in Health Informatics degree received accreditation from the Commission on Accreditation for Health Informatics and Information Management Education (CAHIIM).
In 2018, the WGU College of Business was accredited by the Accreditation Council for Business Schools and Programs (ACBSP).
In 2018, the WGU Teachers College become accredited by the Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation (CAEP).
2017 U.S. Department of Education audit
In January 2019, the U.S. Department of Education's Federal Student Aid (FSA) office issued their final audit determining that WGU was indeed eligible to participate in federal student aid. In making its final determination, FSA reviewed the Department’s Office of Inspector General’s (OIG) report, examined WGU’s records regarding interactions between students and academic staff during the year audited, and also reviewed the favorable findings of WGU’s accrediting agency regarding the institution’s academic model. FSA determined that, particularly in light of a lack of clear guidance from the Department at the time of the audit period, WGU’s efforts to comply with the governing law and regulations were reasonable and undertaken in good faith. OIG ultimately agreed with FSA’s issuance of the final audit determination.
An audit by the Department of Education's Office of Inspector General, released on September 21, 2017, "concluded that Western Governors University did not comply with the institutional eligibility requirement that limits the percentage of regular students who may enroll in correspondence courses" and that "at least 69 of the 102 courses were not designed to offer regular and substantive interaction with an instructor and, therefore, did not meet the regulatory definition of distance education." Consequently, the audit found that most courses at the University fell short of the required standards for Title IV of the Federal Financial Aid Act as outlined in a 1992 law that defines financial aid eligibility. The U.S. Department of Education's Office of Inspector General recommended that WGU repay the federal government more than $712 million.
Liz Hill, a spokeswoman for the Department of Education, said in a statement to the Salt Lake Tribune that they were reviewing the Inspector General's report, while also saying "the innovative student-first model used by this school and others like it has garnered bipartisan support over the last decade."
In a response from WGU that was enclosed with the final audit report, WGU President Scott D. Pulsipher said "The findings in the OIG's report are based on misinterpretation and misapplication of statutory and regulatory guidance." He said "The OIG has applied an arbitrary definition and antiquated interpretation of instruction and faculty roles" that "is not aligned with law nor consistent with today's online- and technology-enabled model".
Paul Fain, the news editor for Inside Higher Ed, said the "much anticipated high-stakes audit" had begun more than four years earlier and the findings were "not a surprise to most observers", due to their reliance on a 1992 law that defines aid eligibility for distance education programs. He noted that the Inspector General had previously criticized accreditation assessments for competency-based education programs in 2015, partly due to concerns about the amount of interaction between faculty and students. He reported that "Experts said the Trump administration is unlikely to follow through on the inspector general's recommendations, which the department can reject," and that "WGU enjoys a good track record with its accreditor and broad bipartisan support in Washington, with the Obama administration having often praised the university as an innovator."
As of 2019, tuition for WGU is $3,225 per six-month term for most undergraduate programs. Tuition is charged at a flat rate per six-month term, regardless of the number of courses taken or credits completed.
The Western Governors University Alumni Association is the official alumni association for Western Governors University. This organization runs a number of programs.[not in citation given] As of January 2018, there were over 98,000 total alumni for Western Governors University. Western Governors University alumni can be found in all 50 states and many countries all over the world. In addition, over 350 are serving in the United States Armed Forces.
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- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-07-14. Retrieved 2012-02-19.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "WGU's Business Programs Now Accredited by the Accreditation Council for Business Schools and Programs - Utah Business". utahbusiness.com. Retrieved 16 May 2018.
- University, Western Governors. "WGU's Business Programs Now Accredited by the Accreditation Council for Business Schools and Programs". Prnewswire.com. Retrieved 16 May 2018.
- WGU CAEP Accreditation
- "U.S. Dept of Education".
- "Final Audit" (PDF).
- Whitman, Gary D. (September 20, 2017). "Western Governors University Was Not Eligible To Participate in The Title IV Programs: Final Audit Report ED-OIG/A05M0009" (PDF). Office of the Inspector General, U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved April 26, 2018.
- Fain, Paul (September 22, 2017). "Education Dept.'s inspector general calls for Western Governors to repay $713 million in federal aid". Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved December 1, 2017.
- Korn, Melissa (September 21, 2017). "Online School Should Repay $712 Million in Federal Funding, Watchdog Says". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved April 26, 2018.
- Wood, Benjamin (September 22, 2017). "Feds offer compliments to Western Governors University in response to report urging school to repay $712M". The Salt Lake Tribune. Retrieved December 1, 2017.
- Fain, Paul (October 5, 2015). "Caution on Competency". Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved April 27, 2018.
- "Tuition & Financial Aid". Tuition and Financial Aid - WGU. 2019-01-13. Retrieved January 13, 2019.
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