Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative

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The Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative (WHTI) is a United States legal framework from 2007 that requires all travelers to show a valid passport, passport card, or other approved secure document when traveling to the U.S. from areas within the Western Hemisphere.[1][2] The purpose, according to the U.S. Department of State and U.S. Department of Homeland Security, is to strengthen border security and facilitate entry into the United States for both legitimate U.S. citizens and foreign visitors. The initiative is an outcome of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act, which was approved after the September 11th, 2001 al Qaeda mass-terror attacks on the US. The Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative was also implemented to deter or prevent the use of forged documents, both for terror and criminal purposes.


The following documents are acceptable for border crossings for most travelers:[3]

US or Canadian citizen children under age 16 (or, when traveling as part of certain groups, under age 19) can also use other documents as identification, including a birth certificate, for land and sea border crossings.[9]

Native Americans in the United States, Mexico, and Canada may be able to use certain additional forms of identification (in addition to the documents valid for citizens of those countries):

  • Members of the Kickapoo Band of Texas and Tribe of Oklahoma will continue to be able to use the I-872 American Indian Card (provided that it identifies them as Kickapoo), regardless of U.S. or Mexican citizenship.
  • Members of other U.S. tribes may use an "Enhanced Tribal Card", when available and approved by DHS.
  • Members of Canadian tribes may be allowed to use the proposed Secure Certificate of Indian Status already designed and approved by Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, waiting for DHS approval.[10]

In addition to the other documents designated under WHTI, U.S. citizens on round-trip cruise-ship voyages that begin and end at the same port of entry in the United States may also carry a government-issued photo ID and birth certificate, Consular Report of Birth Abroad, or Certificate of Naturalization. Foreign nationals need a WHTI-designated document to travel to the United States on a cruise ship.


Beginning on January 23, 2007, all persons (including U.S. citizens) traveling by air to the United States from all foreign countries (including Canada, Mexico, Central and South America, the Caribbean, and Bermuda) are required to present a valid passport, NEXUS card, or U.S. Coast Guard/Merchant Mariner Document.

On January 31, 2008, U.S. Customs and Border Protection officers stopped taking verbal declarations of citizenship from U.S., Canadian, or Bermudian travelers as proof of citizenship arriving from sea and land ports of entry.[11]

On March 27, 2008, the Departments of Homeland Security and State announced that "full implementation" of the land and sea provisions of WHTI would begin June 1, 2009; on that date, the above listed types of documents would become the only acceptable documents for border crossings for most travelers.[3]

Nations and territories covered[edit]

The U.S. Department of State names the following jurisdictions:[12][13][14]

 Antigua and Barbuda
 British Virgin Islands
 Caribbean Netherlands
 Cayman Islands
 Costa Rica
 Dominican Republic
 Saint Kitts and Nevis
 Saint Lucia
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
 Sint Maarten
 Turks and Caicos Islands

The following jurisdictions in the Western Hemisphere (and all of South America) are not specifically named by the Department of State:[13][14]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative". U.S. Customs and Border Protection.
  2. ^ "Canada Border Services Agency – Documents for entry into the United States - Tourism Toolkit/Fact Sheet: U.S. Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative". Archived from the original on 2010-02-20. Retrieved 2010-01-19.
  3. ^ a b Homeland Security and State Departments Announce WHTI Land and Sea Final Rule, retrieved April 2, 2008.
  4. ^ "WHTI: Enhanced Drivers License". Archived from the original on 2012-02-15. Retrieved 2011-03-17.
  5. ^ "B.C's enhanced driver's licence for U.S. border use goes public". Archived from the original on 2009-04-10. Retrieved 2009-04-06.
  6. ^ "Manitobans wait for one-piece driver's license continues". 20 January 2009.
  7. ^ "Enhanced Driver's Licence Applicant's Guide" (PDF).
  8. ^ Chung, Andrew (17 March 2009). "New Quebec licence good for U.S. travel" – via Toronto Star.
  9. ^ "WHTI: Special Audiences".
  10. ^ "Secure Certificate of Indian Status - Information Kit - Indian and Northern Affairs Canada".
  11. ^ DHS | Crossing U.S. Borders, retrieved April 2, 2008.
  12. ^ "404 - Page Not Found". travel.state.gov.
  13. ^ a b https://travel.state.gov/travel/cis_pa_tw/cis_pa_tw_3256.html Travel by land
  14. ^ a b https://travel.state.gov/travel/cis_pa_tw/cis_pa_tw_3256.html Travel by sea

External links[edit]