Western hognose snake

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Western hognose snake
Heterodon nasicus.jpg
Western hognose snake
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Squamata
Suborder: Serpentes
Family: Dipsadidae
Genus: Heterodon
Species: H. nasicus
Binomial name
Heterodon nasicus
Baird & Girard, 1852

The western hognose snake (Heterodon nasicus) is a species of non-venomous colubrid endemic to North America.

Etymology[edit]

The subspecific name, gloydi, is in honor of American herpetologist Howard K. Gloyd (1902-1978).[2] The subspecific (or specific) name, kennerlyi, is in honor of American naturalist Caleb Burwell Rowan Kennerly (1829-1861).[2]

Common names for this species include western, texas or prairie hognose snake, blow snake, bluffer, faux viper, spoonbill snake, spreadhead snake, and Texas rooter.

Taxonomy[edit]

Some authors elevate H. n. kennerlyi, also known as the Mexican hognose snake, to species level. Those same authors have subsumed H. n. gloydi into H. nasicus so that there are only 2 species (H. nasicus and H. kennerlyi) and no subspecies.[citation needed]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

The western hognose snake occurs from southern Canada throughout the United States to northern Mexico. It frequents areas with sandy or gravelly soils, including prairies, river floodplains, scrub and grasslands, semi-deserts and some semiagricultural areas.[1] It has been found at elevations of up to 2500 m.[3]

Description[edit]

Western hognose snakes are relatively small, stout-bodied snakes. Their color and pattern is highly variable between subspecies, although most specimens appear much like rattlesnakes to the untrained eye, which appears to be Batesian Mimicry. Males are considerably smaller than females, with adult lengths rarely exceeding 15–20 inches (38–51 cm). These snakes get their common name from the modified rostral (nose) scale that is formed in an upturned manner, providing a very "hog-like" look. Additionally, this adaptation makes these snakes adept burrowers.[4]

The species is non-venomous, but possesses a potentially irritating saliva that may cause symptoms like negligible to localized slight swelling and itching. The extremely rare bite from this rear-fanged snake is not regarded as of medical importance to humans.[3]

Ecology[edit]

Behavior[edit]

The western hognose snake is primarily diurnal. It is typically a docile snake (though known to be highly aggressive in some individuals). If threatened (or perceiving a threat), it may flatten its neck (much like a cobra), hiss, and make mock strikes if harassed. Occasionally, if stressed enough, it even plays dead. Although it is more common that they will flatten their heads out, some individuals may puff up, filling their throats with air. This is more common with adolescent males.[citation needed]

Diet[edit]

In the wild, they feed predominately on amphibians, such as large and medium-sized tree frogs, as well as small or medium-sized toads and small lizards. There have been accounts of H. nasicus eating the occasional rodent in the wild as well. Not being a true constrictor, Heterodon bites and chews, driving the rear fangs into the prey as a way of introducing the saliva to help break down the toxins from toads. There have been many cases of hognose snakes in captivity that will not eat for about two to three-and-a-half months, from the months January to mid March. This is because hognose snakes' instinct is to brumate underground during the winter months.[citation needed]

Heterodon nasicus2.jpg

Reproduction[edit]

Western hognose snakes have been observed in copulation as early as February and March. They are oviparous, with females laying 4-23 elongate, thin-shelled eggs in June–August. The eggs take approximately 60 days to hatch. Hatchlings are 13–23 cm (5–9 inches) in total length and reach sexual maturity after approximately two years (this is predominantly based on size, not so much age).[5]

Subspecies[edit]

Subspecies[6] Authority[6] Common name[6] Geographic range[4]
H. n. gloydi Edgren, 1952 Gloyd's hog-nosed snake United States: southeastern Kansas and southeastern Missouri, eastern Oklahoma and all of Texas excluding the panhandle, trans-pecos Texas and the extreme southern Rio Grande Valley.
H. n. kennerlyi Kennicott, 1860 Kennerly's hog-nosed snake Mexico from Tamaulipas and central San Luis Potosí, north and west along the Sierra Madre Occidental, entering the United States in the extreme south of the Rio Grande Valley, trans-pecos Texas, southwestern New Mexico and southeastern Arizona.
H. n. nasicus Baird & Girard, 1852 Western hog-nosed snake Texas panhandle and adjacent New Mexico, north through western Oklahoma and Kansas to southwestern Manitoba and southeastern Saskatchewan in Canada. Also occurs in prairie regions of Minnesota and prairie relicts of Illinois.

Conservation[edit]

Although some local declines have been reported, the species is widespread, has a large overall population size (>100,000), and is effectively protected by a variety of conservation programs. It is therefore currently classified as Least Concern by the IUCN. The eastern hognose snake (Heterodon platirhinos) is classified as a threatened species in some regions of its range and is therefore protected under those state's laws.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Hammerson, G.A. (2007). "Heterodon nasicus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2007: e.T63819A12718545. Retrieved 4 April 2016. 
  2. ^ a b Beolens B, Watkins M, Grayson M. 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore. xiii + 296 pp. ISBN 978-1-4214-0135-5. (Heterodon nasicus gloydi, p. 102; Heterodon nasicus kennerlyi, p. 140.)
  3. ^ a b "Heterodon nasicus". Clinical Toxicology Resources. 
  4. ^ a b Wright AH, Wright AA. 1957. Handbook of Snakes of the United States and Canada. Ithaca and London: Comstock Publishing Associates. (7th printing, 1985). 1,105 pp. (in 2 volumes) ISBN 0-8014-0463-0. (Heterodon nasicus nasicus, pp. 297-301, Figure 91, Map 28.) (Heterodon nasicus kennerlyi, pp. 301-304, Figure 92 + Map 28 on p. 298.) (Heterodon nasicus gloydi, p. 304 + Map 28 on p. 298.)
  5. ^ Behler, JL; King, FW (1979). The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Reptiles and Amphibians. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-394-50824-6. 
  6. ^ a b c "Heterodon nasicus". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 28 November 2006. 

External links[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Baird, S.F., and C. Girard. 1852. Characteristics of some New Reptiles in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 6: 68-70. (Heterodon nasicum [sic], p. 70.)
  • Baird, S.F., and C. Girard. 1852. In Stansbury, H. 1852. Exploration and Survey of the Valley of the Great Salt Lake of Utah, Including Reconnoissance [sic] of a New Route through the Rocky Mountains. Senate of The United States. Lippincott, Grambo & Co., Printers. Philadelphia. 487 pp. (Hetorodon [sic] nasicus, pp. 352–353.)
  • Conant, R., and W. Bridges. 1939. What Snake Is That? A Field Guide to the Snakes of the United States East of the Rocky Mountains. (with 108 drawings by Edmond Malnate.) D. Appleton Century. New York and London. Frontispiece map + viii + 163 pp. + Plates A-C, 1-32. (Heterodon nasicus, pp. 40–41 + Plate 4, Figure 12.)
  • Edgren, R.A. 1952. A Synopsis of the Snakes of the Genus Heterodon, with the Diagnosis of a New Race of Heterodon nasicus Baird and Girard. Nat. Hist. Misc., Chicago Acad. Sci. 112: 1-4. (Heterodon nasicus gloydi)
  • Kennicott, R. 1860. Descriptions of New Species of North American Serpents in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington.
    Proc. Acad Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 12: 328-338. (Heterodon kennerlyi, pp. 336–337.)
  • Stebbins, R.C. 2003. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, Third Edition. The Peterson Field Guide Series. Houghton Mifflin. Boston and New York. xiii + 533 pp. ISBN 0-395-98272-3 (paperback). (Heterodon nasicus, pp. 347–348 + Plate 47 + Map 129.)